aircraft manufacturing. • to provide sufficient knowledge on production technologies to ensure meaningful and productive discourse with manufacturing experts. technologies, is regulated by strict national and international standards, and Several factors connected to transfer of aircraft production were identified. The. development of modern technologies of aircraft structures assembly; technological processes of aircraft assembly production using automated assembly lines.
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To become a model institution in the fields of Engineering, Technology and . Aircraft production techniques 'keshu S.C, Ganapathy K.K Interline Publishing. The application of digital technology and intelligent technology in the process of aircraft structure part manufacture, and building the design and manufacturing. C Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All rights In complex manufacturing systems such as aircraft assembly, it is difficult to coordinate the design of.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. David Pritchard. Abstract This paper offers a critical commentary on the technology transfer through commercial aircraft outsourcing that has had a major impact on developing the build and design capabilities of the Japanese aerospace industry. This has clear implications for US trade and employment, in that Japanese subcontracting boosts foreign imports and reduces the need for domestic production workers and US suppliers. From a trade perspective, however, a potentially troubling feature of allowing the Japanese to produce large commercial aircraft subassemblies is that major Japanese public financial supports are involved which contravene existing international agreements on production subsidies. This paper reviews the types of production contracts that Japanese companies have sought on the Boeing , and programs.
Boeing has implemented the recommendations from this research and has obtained significant benefits from reducing flow times. Volume 7 , Issue 1. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.
If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Production and Operations Management Volume 7, Issue 1. First published: Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Environmental scientists have voiced concern over the main kinds of pollution associated with aircraft, mainly noise and emissions.
Aircraft engines have been historically notorious for creating noise pollution and the expansion of airways over already congested and polluted cities have drawn heavy criticism, making it necessary to have environmental policies for aircraft noise.
Environmental limitations also affect airfield compatibility. Airports around the world have been built to suit the topography of the particular region. Space limitations, pavement design, runway end safety areas and the unique location of airport are some of the airport factors that influence aircraft design. However changes in aircraft design also influence airfield design as well, for instance, the recent introduction of new large aircraft NLAs such as the superjumbo Airbus A , have led to airports worldwide redesigning their facilities to accommodate its large size and service requirements.
The aircraft manufacturer makes sure that the aircraft meets existing design standards, defines the operating limitations and maintenance schedules and provides support and maintenance throughout the operational life of the aircraft.
The aviation operators include the passenger and cargo airliners , air forces and owners of private aircraft. They agree to comply with the regulations set by the regulatory bodies, understand the limitations of the aircraft as specified by the manufacturer, report defects and assist the manufacturers in keeping up the airworthiness standards.
Even with the greatest attention to airworthiness, accidents still occur.
Crashworthiness is the qualitative evaluation of how aircraft survive an accident. The main objective is to protect the passengers or valuable cargo from the damage caused by an accident. Ultimately it lowers manufacturing costs of Japanese suppliers. These cost savings, which are subsequently passed through to Boeing can then be translated in lower prices in the market place.
In late it seemed that the Japanese government-funding scheme was being delayed because of the introduction of a repayment scheme royalty-based loans per wing-set delivered from first production delivery.
On previous schemes, for the and , Japanese government financing allowed Japanese industrial partners to Boeing to make a profit before making any loan repayments to the government typically the delivery of the th ship set on 2, production run.
This proposed change would not allow the JADC companies to have time to recover their own funding before the repayment of the Japanese government loans.
Ironically it seems that whilst Boeing complains about this system being used by its competitor, it is happy to see the same or an even more generous system used by its Japanese suppliers to reduce its own manufacturing costs for the If the US government is successful in stopping the EU system through WTO litigation, this will probably result in Boeing also suffering from similar sanctions applied to the Japanese system. If these low interest loans were not available to Japanese risk-sharing partners, it might be necessary for the Japanese companies to forgo the Japanese government-funding scheme and obtain loans from their own banks.
Secondly, the WTO case could take up to 4 years to get resolved, during which the Japanese government continues to fund the program and deal with the WTO decision after most of the money has been transferred to JADC. The longer-term ramifications would be that a delayed program could be up to two years by a EU WTO filing could cause risk-sharing partners and suppliers to lose their appetite for this type of financial exposure.
Table 2. This 7-month delay in all likelihood reflects problematic program funding along with incomplete agreement regarding design and build responsibility between Boeing and the JADC.
After contracting the Japanese first-tier airframe partners in the first half of , Boeing has an approximately month window before the first scheduled flight. Coupled with the fact that this is a very complex exercise in international systems integration, the aggressive first flight target date of mid may prove to be difficult to meet.
Implications In the future, new western produced large commercial aircraft will be made of composites, while the traditional metal wing and tube aircraft less than seats will be increasingly produced in the emerging regions triad of Russia, China, and India.
With Boeing transferring the golden key technologies of the wing and the development of large composite airframe structures to Japan, the Japanese will with have final pieces of technologies to produce their own aircraft. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries certainly has a clear vision on where the new aircraft composite technology for the can lead them in the future.
At first, the most probable model will be an all-composite regional jet threat to Bombardier and Embraer , followed by mid-size aircraft. Some industry experts believe the next generation an all-composite replacement will be totally produced in Japan.
The average US aerospace worker is 49 years old. With the tens of thousands of layoffs from Boeing in the past 4 years, there are few young workers to pass the technological and tribal knowledge for designing and manufacturing commercial aircraft. The result is a threat to the technical and economic security of the West where the integration capabilities exist. Regarding the retention of aircraft-related technological expertise inside the U.
A similar concern for long term technology and innovation tribal knowledge retention was voiced by Mark Tuttle, Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Washington in a March interview Tuttle, This leaves only the and in production until the comes on line.
One has to question whether the is too late in arriving to save the Boeing commercial product line. In the future, moreover, will Boeing and foreign partners be willing to invest enormous sums of money to keep developing aircraft models?
As mentioned at the start of this paper, the overall employment forecast over is for a At the level of specific occupations, the forecasts are even more revealing. These are the people that design and build commercial aircraft. While some of these projected losses will surely come as a result of increased process automation rising productivity or retirements, just as they have in the past, the growth of international outsourcing is surely an important factor as well.
Summary and Conclusion For Boeing, the launch of a new aircraft program based on systems integration makes good sense in terms of risk reduction, the containment of launch costs, and the acquisition of advanced composites. More recently, these subcontractors have been asked to design, develop, and build complex parts of the airframe e.
This is reinforced by the recent agreement to sell the Boeing Wichita commercial division to the Onex Corporation, a Canadian company. After the Wichita sale, the only major part of the to be made by Boeing will be the tailfin the rudder is subcontracted to China. The US commercial aircraft industry was vibrant in the s, with three commercial aircraft manufacturers Boeing, Douglas and Lockheed and thousands of US sub tier suppliers spread across the United States employing hundreds of thousands of people.
Now with Boeing in the final throws of dismantling this industry, one could foresee only a couple of thousand workers in the Everett Plant conducting a 3 day final assembly process for the , replacement and a reconfigured production line supported mainly by foreign controlled supply chains.
For the first time in US commercial aviation history, a new aircraft launch has been structured in a fashion that gives foreign partners the control over design, manufacturing, sub tier supplier selection and, ultimately, the financial muscle to destroy what little remains of the US commercial aircraft industry. Part Makers in Japan are Crucial for Boeing. The New York Times, March 12, Boeing, The Boeing Company and Japan. Boeing Company, www. HeraldNet, February 9, Farnborough Aerospace Consortium: Japan Scoping Mission Report.
Boeing, Boeing, Gone: Outsourced to Death.
American Conservative, January 24, Gates, D. Tacoma firm to hire Seattle Times, May 27, Gibbs, E. Japan 7e7 suppliers to also design, fund parts. Reuters, April 2, Outline of Japanese Aircraft Development Corporation.