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In general terms, then, Egyptian Arabic can be regarded as consisting of two main lexical categories,each of which can be subdivided: 1. Arabic: a items which coinc1de nearly or completely with counterparts existingin literary Arabic, and b items which have recognizable counterparts in literary Arabic, while yet differing fromthem in some significant and specifically Egyptian fashion.
Non-Arabic: a items apparently specific to Egypt andwithout Arabic counterparts, and not identifiable as relatively modern foreign borrowings, and b items identifiableas relatively modern borrowings.
The levels which contain the smallest proportions of non-Arabic items are fl4IJa al-turath and ammiyyatal-ummiyyin, the former because of its static and frozen character and the latter because illiteracy has the effect ofinsulating its speakers from the direct influence of modern culture and the outside world.
A greater number of non-Arabic items is to be found both injiqIJa al-fL1r andin ammiyyat al-mutanawwirin, although of differing types. The items infl4IJa al-fL1r. Non-Arabic items inammiyyat al-mutanawwirin, on the other hand, relate for the most part to areas such as fashion, imported cosmetics,modern household appliances etc. Finally, it can be noted that it is ammiyyatal-muthaqqafin that contains the greatest number of non-Arabic items: this is because it makes use of items to befound in all the other levels, because its speakers are most directly in contact with influences from outside, andbecause they are not as restrained in speech as they are in writing.
Indeed, nearly all newly borrowed items maketheir entrance into Egypt by way of this level and from this point may move also intofl4lJa al-fL1r e. Lexical iteins or forms restricted to iimmiyyat al-ummiyyin are marked with an arrowpointing downwards and items or forms restricted to iimmiyyat al-muthaqqafin other than items which areself-evidently restricted to that level are marked with an arrow pointing upwards.
Although the designation"Egyptian Arabic" has been employed, the focus is on Cairo and the phonological frame is that of Cairo and theDelta, to the exclusion of Upper Egypt where the phonology is markedly different; Alexandria, too, has been deniedthe closer attention that it clearly deserves.
Rural items given here belong to the rural scene in the vicinity of Cairoand in the Delta, although the seemingly endless range of local variants there has by no means been coveredexhaustively. Other items may be assumed to be current in Cairo unless otherwise indicated. As an overall-descriptive synchronic dictionary, it is intended to describe the language as it is now, ratherthan as it was, as it may be in the future, or as some would like it to be.
Particular importance has been attached to theprovision of numerous examples, both transparent in meaning and non-transparent. One departure from normalpractice in bilingual synchronic lexicography of modern languages is, however, a modest attempt to provide someinformation of an etymological character; more is said about this below, but it may be stressed here that thecompilers are well aware of the limitations of the present item etymological contribution.
As for highlyspecialized terminology, and compound terms in particular, the question of what to include and what to leave outacross the various subject areas has been noJess problematical here than in the compilation of any overall-descriptivedictionary.
Special attention has been paid to termini technici in traditional areas of activity, which are fairly stable inthe language but for the most part less well documented than the termini technici of modern science and technology;but it is clear that much subject-related work is needed to a greater depth than has been possible here if a lalge part ofthe highly specialized vocabulary of traditional Egyptian handicrafts is not to pass into oblivion.
The maingeographical names have been included, both inside and outside Egypt; personal names have been included only inspecial cases, notably where idiomatic expressions are involved. For a succinct description of the grammar ofEgyptian Arabic, the user is referred to T. Although there can be no doubt that this work suffers from shortcomings of a kind inevitable in a pioneering work,in this case exacerbated by a dearth of relevant linguistic studies, the status of pioneer in the field must in truth beaccorded to Socrates Spiro, whose Egyptian Arabic-English dictionary first appeared in under the title AnArabic-English vocabulary of the colloquial Arabic of Egypt containing the vernacular items and expressions, slangphrases, vocables etc.
Spiros work gives about 12, fairly detailed entries, attempts to identifybon:owings from other languages, and provides some contextual illustrations, but despite its merits it is now ofvalueonly for its intrinsic historical interest and is, understandably enough, inadequate and misleading as a guide toEgyptian Arabic of the present day. Many terms given by Spiro particularly those of Turkish origin have sincebecome obsolete, others have changed in sense or form, and numerous new lexical items and expressions havegained acceptance since his time, whether by borrowing from other languages or by internal derivation for purposesof new or substantially overhauled institutional, technological and ideological terminology.
Accordingly, no reliancewas placed on Spiro during the compilation of this dictionary, although a check at the final stage did yield some itemswhich would otherwise have been missed. A fundamental feature ofthe present work is that it has been undertaken as a dictionary ofa "vacuum" type, basedon field work and raw data without reference to any previous dictionary apart from the final check of Spiro justmentioned.
This is not to say that relevant published work was ignored, but attestations were not accepted merelyon the authority of the printed word, and the overwhelming bulk of the data was oral and transcribed fromtape-recordings.
Several million words of material were edited down to a corpus of , words covering allaspects of Egyptian life, mostly in context strings, and were encoded with accompanying lexical analysis inmachine-readable form so that they could be processed by computer in a way which yielded an ordered distillation of 9.
XIIall encoded material and analysis.
The drafting was based on this distillation and resulted in the present text of over22, headword entries. This figure may be compared with the 35, headword entries of Wehr third edition in atext of about the same length and with the 14, headword entries in a text of about half the length to be found inA dictionary of Iraqi Arabic: Arabic-English compiled by Woodhead and Beene Georgetown The relativelygreater length of the average headword entry in the present work can be attributed mainly to the quantity ofillustrative examples included in many of the 30, sense divisions, among them over 6, idiomatic andnon-transparent usages.
Arrangement of Entries1. Roots The Arabic rooting system is employed, with modifications appropriate to the arrangement of Egyptian Arabic. In cases where two or more Egyptian variants of a literary Arabic root exist, these are sometimes brought togetherand sometimes kept separate - always with cross-references - according to semantic criteria.
Thus J.! Identical roots containing groups of lexical scatter semantically distinct from each other have been separated andnumbered off. However, where two or more items with identical radicals exist ali:isolated forms, these have beengiven under a single root, such a root being within parentheses. The rooting of items which cannot readily beassociated with verbs has been carried out by reference to the headword in its transcribed form, e.
Where it appears from lexical scatter that some assimilation can be regarded as having taken place in aheadword, this has been taken into account in the selection of the radicals, e. J Y oj for the headwordfambuuba In pI lanabiibl. Where, however, an item has an exact counterpart long resident in classical Arabic, theliterary root form has been accorded to it even when a verb form is lacking, e.
Basically, the user who rders to literary root forms should have no difficulty in finding the right place, albeitby means of cross-references. Two final points may be mentioned here: where the root exceeds five radicals, the firstfour are given followed by a dash; and the ordering of roots takes gemination into account, instead of placinggeminate roots at the head of a series, e.
Headwords All headwords are given in two forms, viz.
The forms given in Arabic script are intended to serve as a guide to the common written form, subjectto the limitation that Egyptian Arabic is still essentially a spoken language without firm orthographic conventions. The following points may be noted in connection with headwords:i The ordering of headwords within a root entry is according to the principle of first giving the simple verb andforms directly associated with it, followed by non-verbal forms grouped and ordered according to length, and XIII finally derived verbs and forms associated with them.
J i laring Icoll nl Seville oranges. The verbal information run-on see below of such an entry gives only unassimilated forms. Less current variants which do not lie within the frame ofthe Arabic-scriptheadword are given in parentheses in the entry of the more current form and cross-referenced from their own t. J Parentheses are also used when a headword may be used inconjunction with another word with no change of meaning.
Verbal information and run-on entriesEntries dealing with verbs normally terminate with a listing of the verbal noun s and verbal adjectives orparticiples associated with that verb in Egyptian Arabic; the forms given are sometimes incongruous from thestandpoint of literary Arabic.
These items of verbal information do not thereafter qualify for treatment as separateentries unless they occur in set phrases requiring definition away from the verb entry or have nominal or adjectivalfunctions in addition to their verbal functions. In a spirit of compromise. Material is allocated to a run-on entry whenit is in some way distinct from the main entry that it follows while yet being too closely linked with it in form to meritan independent entry. The most common examples of such material are verb-plus-preposition as a lexical unit.
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