The capacity and dimensions of component parts in a plumbing installation Good design of plumbing systems is an important step in ensuring that the. portal7.info%portal7.info . This student friendly course design allows you the most flexibility in choosing. specific system design information for flexible water supply plumbing is sparse. portal7.info
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PG – PLUMBING DESIGN MANUAL. November (http://www. portal7.info). Office of Construction &. Facilities Management. Plumbing design. NOVEMBER Rev May 1, Page 2. PG – PLUMBING DESIGN MANUAL. portal7.info - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. All about Plumbing Cold Water design and calculation of.
At the fixtures bridges between the two systems , the air admitted by the vent stack and vent pipes keeps the traps sealed and prevents sewer gases from backing up through the drains. See more plumbing pictures. Plumbing follows the basic laws of nature -- gravity , pressure, water seeking its own level. Knowing this, you can understand its "mysteries" and make dozens of fixes to your home's plumbing system. You can save yourself time , trouble, and money! The plumbing system in your home is composed of two separate subsystems. One subsystem brings freshwater in, and the other takes wastewater out.
The plumbing system in your home is composed of two separate subsystems. One subsystem brings freshwater in, and the other takes wastewater out. The water that comes into your home is under pressure. It enters your home under enough pressure to allow it to travel upstairs, around corners, or wherever else it's needed. As water comes into your home, it passes through a meter that registers the amount you use. The main water shutoff, or stop, valve is typically located close to the meter.
In a plumbing emergency, it's vital that you quickly close the main shutoff valve. Otherwise, when a pipe bursts, it can flood your house in no time. If the emergency is confined to a sink, tub, or toilet, however, you may not want to turn off your entire water supply. Therefore, most fixtures should have individual stop valves. Water from the main supply is immediately ready for your cold water needs. The water supply must be able to provide a discharge of not less than 33 gpm through the nozzle and also designed to allow not less than three hose reels to be used simultaneously at the total flow of gpm for one hour duration.
Suppose we have a m2 green area to be irrigated. The green area x 0. Pipe material should be known in order to use the corresponding pipe flow chart.
Flush tank Water closet. In these. It also occurs in buildings. There is complex formula to get the probable water demand. Ref  For the whole bldg. From table W-1 we get: U From Graph-1 or table-2 we select the probable water demand for each identical flat: For example suppose it is require to determine the inlet flow rate gpm of an apartment having the following fixtures: If two risers pipe are used to supply water for the whole building The probable flow rate is determined as Assuming 24 floors each floor has 4 identical apartments As calculated before the probable water demand for each apartment is 26 F.
Since we have four risers the total gpm is divided by 4. Each riser will be sized based on this value i. Without question the plumbing fixture in this blg. This may be achieved only if adequate sizing of pipes are provided.
The sizes established must be large enough to prevent occurrence of negative pressure in any part of the system during periods of peak demand in order to avoid the hazard of water supply.
Main objectives in designing a water supply system are: Sizing a Water supply system 1 63 The most important design objective in sizing the water supply system is the satisfactory supply of potable water to all fixtures. Pipe flow charts are available for different pipes material such as copper water tube.
Low velocity pipe less than 0. Sizing based on Velocity limitation 1 65 In accordance with good engineering practice. This limitation is deemed necessary in order to avoid development of excessive and damaging shock pressures in piping equipment when flow is suddenly shut off.
Ref . Friction losses in such piping affect the cost of pumping and should be reduced to a reasonable minimum. Show all piping connection in proper sequence and all fixture supplies. Specially identify all piping conveying water at a temperature above F 66 C.
Identify all fixture and risers by means of appropriate letters numbers or combinations. Provide on the schematic elevation all the necessary information obtained as per step1. Minimum supply pipe size is given in table 1. Add the continuous demand to the demand for intermittently used fixtures and show the total demand at those sections where both types of demand occur 6-size all individual fixture supply pipes to water outlets in accordance with the minimum sizes permitted by regulations.
If the 1 in pipe is used. The flow velocity is about 1. What is the recommended pipe size that can be used? This s is unacceptable. From the intersection. The use of the pipe flow chart is best presented by an example: Now it is clear that the intersection lies between 1.
If the 1. Size of Principal Branches and Risers 1 The required size of branches and risers may be obtained in the same manner as the building supply by obtaining the demand load on each branch or riser and using the permissible friction loss described before.
Fixture branches to the building supply. This may be controlled by: Courtesy of The Uniform Plumbing Code. The size of branches and mains serving flush tanks shall be consistent with sizing procedures for flush tank water closets.
Sizing the riser diagram D6? Hot water 1 73 1. Electrical water heater Cold water 1" 1" D3? The fixture supply pipe should terminate not more than 30 inch 0. Antirust paint is recommended for all expose steel pipes. Each plumbing Fixture should have and angle valve for maintenance reason. Pipe under tiles or in walls are PPR if however used. Every bathroom should have valves one for cold and the second for hot water pipe. Exposing pipes are installed approximately 3 cm from wall with hangers and supports.
Every apartment should have a valve on the main cold pipe feeding this apartment. Pressure required during flow for different fixtures. Pressure required at the inlet of the flat. The hydrostatic pressure available at each shutoff valve. Pressure reducer valve PRV.
Pressure Drop. It is always recommended to use the K value for the calculation of the pressure drop. You may need breakbreak-pressure tank or pressure reducing valve.
The maximum pressure at the inlet of the flat is Limited to to 30 m which is about 2.
The available pressure at the inlet of the flat. P 3"C. P-B 4" C. P 1ST.
P 22ND. V 10TH. P 2"C. P 8TH.
P 5TH. P 21ST. P 14TH. P 16TH. P 18TH. P 13TH. P 15TH. P 7TH. V 2"P. P 1"C. P 12TH. P 9TH. V 17TH. P 19TH. P 24TH. P 20TH. P 4TH. P Riser diagram pressure reducers 3"C. P 6TH. P 23RD. P 3" 3" 18TH. P 17TH. FLO O R. P 23R D. P 22N D. Ref  Chap. Sizing the riser diagram. Direct or indirect water supply. Do we need a booster pump for top roof?
Recognize the drawing of water distribution system inside the flat. Sizing the pipes inside the bathrooms etc. Selecting the type of the riser diagram i.. The pipe sizing is estimated easily using the pipe flow charts followed by a simple calculation to determine the pumps power. Design of pumping supply system to a building In engineering practice. It is not always easy to know the number of occupants in the early stage. The probable water demand for each flat is determined based on the number of occupants or based on the total fixture units.
The velocity in occupied areas should not exceed 2. Us becomes more reliable. This should be done according to the following guides: Determine by inspection which branch will be the longest. We could also prepare tables which present the pipe diameters. The tables are regarded as more accurate but the pipe flowcharts are more convenient.
Calculate the pressure drop in the longest circuit. The head loss per unit of length is about 5 ft w. L eff. L which is: The operating discharge is taken from the intersection of the pump characteristic curve with the pipe system curve.
The head delivered by the pump or the total head of the pump: Safety Margin To avoid any miscalculation during pump selection. For example: The shaft power of the pump can be determined by dividing water power by the pump efficiency. The most popular types of centrifugal pump used for cold water supply systems in buildings are: For further details Refer to Ref  1 Vertical — Line shaft submerged-pumps The usual pumping depth is about m.
Each impeller has the same characteristic curve and the final curve is obtained by adding them up. The total head at a given discharge is the sum of individual heads case of series pumps.
These pumps are commonly used in tube wells. The characteristic curves for such pumps depend upon the number of stages or impellers. This kind of pumps may deliver the liquid up from to m depth. The pressure vessel is sized to hold the calculated quantity of water.
As water is drawn off through the high level fittings. There are a number of specialist pump manufacturers who offer water water pressurization plant similar to that shown in the pressurization unit drawing.
The cold water down service will require require pressure reduction at intervals of five storeys to avoid excessive pressures at the draw off points. This method of providing high rise buildings with water supplies is more common. At a predetermined low level a pressure switch activates activates the booster pump. The capacity of the pneumatic pressure tank: Villa etc.
Booster Pump. Sphere booster Units Is used for boosting the water to top floors. In the attic or on the roof. As a rule of thumb the vessel capacity is about 2 minutes the actual pump discharge. Domino booster Is used for boosting the water to top floors.
The operating condition where a pump design has its highest efficiency is referred to as the best efficiency point B. Efficiency curve The efficiency of a centrifugal pump is the ratio of water power to brake power. This is becau of the increase in the discharge for the same pipe diameter leading to additional losses which need more power to drive the pump. Power curve The shaft power is determined in order to select a motor for the pump. Operating the pump near the runrun-out point should be avoided.
NPSH required curve The Net Positive Suction Head Required is the minimum energy required at the suction flange for the pump to operate satisfactorily away from cavitation problem. Decision has to be made by the consultant engineer to determine the pumping time ,for example one or two hours. The pumping rate is not the operating point or duty point of the pump. It is an estimated value used to estimate the flow rate in the pipe.
Also At this point the pump would deliver the maximum discharge Qmax. The pump is selected to operate near or at the B.
The Transmition efficiency is taken as follows: The hydraulic power or water power is given by: For Example. Each manufacturer suggest a safety margent for their motor selection. KSB pump catalogue presents the follows estimation values: Motor Power selection There is no simple rule of thumb in motor selection.. Pump 1