The G R E® General Test measures verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, critical thinking and analytical writing skills—skills that have been developed over . Quantitative Aptitude; Manhattan GRE 2nd Edition; GRE Practice Test; BigBook ; Cracking the GRE Edition Which book is better for GRE prep, Kaplan or Barron's? Can I download the Kaplan PDF GRE practice book online?. Get complete free online information on GRE Big Book. contains the Big Book pdf. This scanned copy consists of 27 Big Book GRE tests in separate pdf files.
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GRE Big Book Test 1 Section 2 no Experienced employers recognize that business students who can ______ different points of view are ultimately more. Big Book. 1. GRE Big Book Test 1 Section 1 no Nonviolent demonstrations often create such tensions that a community that has constantly refused. (This passage is from a book published in )' That Louise Nevelson is believed by many critics to be th-. greatest twentiethcentury sculptor is all the more.
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A generation: A transparent: A dote: Eke B lag: A confident.: A cure: Each passage in this group is followed by questions based on its content. After reading a passage, choos.: Answer all questions following a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage.
It has been known for many decades that the appearance of sunspots is roughly periodic, with an averaee cycle of eleven years. Moreover, the incidence of solar Line flares and the flux of solar cosmic rays, ultraviolet radiai j tion, and x-radiation all vary directly with the sunspot cycle. But after more than a century of investigation, the relation of these and other phenomena, known collectively as the solar-activity cycle, to terres.
For example, the sunspot cycle and the allied magnetic-polarity cycle have been linked to periodicities discerned in records of such variables as rainfall, temperature, and winds. Invariably, however. Effects of solar variability over longer terms have also been sought.
The absence of recorded sunspot activity in the notes kept by European observers in the late seventeeath and early eighteenth centuries has led some scholars to postulate a brief cessation of sunspot activity at that time a period called the Maunder minimum.
The Maunder minimum has been linked to a span of unusual cold in Europe extending from the sixtanth to the early nineteenth centuries. The reality of the Maunder minimum has yet to be established, however, especially since the records that Chinese naked-eye observers of so! Scientists have also sought evidence of long-term s o k periodicities by examining indirect climatological data, such as fossil records of the thickness of ancient trec rings. These studies, however, failed to link unequivocally terrestrial climate and the solar-activity cycle, or even to confirm the cycle's past existence.
If consistent and reliable geological or archaeological eviJzncr tracing ;he solar-activity cycle in the distant past could be found, it might also resolve an important issue in solar physics: In short, the Sun's large-scale magnetic field is taken to be self-sustaining, so that the solar-activity cycle it drives would be maintained with little overall change for perhaps billions of years. The alternative explanation supposes that the Sun's large-ale magnetic field is a remnant of the field the Sun acquircd when it formed, and is not sustained against decay.
In this model, the solar mechanism dependent on the Sun's magnetic field runs down more quickly. Thus, the characteristics of the solar-activity cycle could beexpected to change over a long period of time. Modem solar ohmvations span too short a time to reveal whether prrsen: The author focuses primarily on A presenting two ccnpeting scientific theories concerning solar activity and evaluating geological evidence often cited to support them B giving a brief overview of some recent scienufic developments in solar physics and assessing their impact on future climatological research C discussing the difficulties involved in linking terrestrial phenomena with solar activity and indicating how resolving that issue could have an impact on our understanding of solar physics D pointing out the futility of a certain line of scientific inquiry into the temstrial effects of solar activity and recommending its abandonment in favor of purely physics-oriented research E outlining the specific reasons why a problem in solar physics has not yet been solved and faulting the overly theoretical approach of modem physicists , IS.
Which of the following statements about the two models of solar activity, as they are described in lines , is accurate? A In both models cyclical solar activity is regarded as a long-lived feature of the Sun, persisting with little change over billions of years.
B In both models the solar-activity cycle is hypothesized as belng depcndent on the large-scale solar magnetic field. C In one model the Sun's magnetic field is thouzht to play a role in causing solar activity, whereas in the other model it is not.
D In one model solar activity is presumed to be unrelated to terrestrial phenomena, whereas in the other model solar acrivity is thought tp have observable effects on the Earth. According to the passage, late seventeenth- and early eighteenthcentury Chinese records are important for which of the following reasons?
A They suggest h a t the data on which the Maunder minimum was predicated were incorrect. B They suggest that the Maunder minimum cannot be related to climate. C They suggest that the Maunder minimum might be valid only for Europe.
D They establish the existence of a span of unusually cold weather worldwide at the time of the Maunder minimum. E They establish that solar activity at the time of the Maunder minimum did not significantly vary from its present pattern.
A It best supports the model of solar activity described in lines B It best supports the model of solar activity described in lines C It is insufficient to confirm either model of solar activity described in the third paragraph.
D It contradicts both models of solar activity 2s they are presented in the thlrd paragraph. E It disproves the theory that terrestrial weather and solar activity are linked in some way. It can be inferred from the passage that Chinese observations of the. Sun during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries A are ambiguous because most sunspots cannot.
It can be inferred from the passage that studies attempring to use tree-ring thickness to locate possible links between solar periodicity and terrestrial climate are based on which of the following a s s u m p tions? B The biological mechanisms causing tree growth are unaffected by short-term weather patterns. C Average tree-ring thickness varies from species to species. Tree-ring thicknesses reflect changes in terrestrial climate. E Both terrestrial climate and the solar-activity cycle randomly affect rrc-ring thickness.
It can be inferred from the passage that the argument in favor of the model described in tines would be strengthened if which of the following were found to be true? A Episodes of intense volcanic eruptions in the distant past occurred in cycles having very long periodicities. B At the present time the global level of thunderstorm activity increases and decreases in cycles with periodicities of approximately I I years.
C In the distant past cyclical climatic changes had periodicities of longer than years. D In the last century the length of the sunspot cycle has been k n o w to vary by as much as 2. E Hundreds of millions of years ago. Just as economists were blind to the numerous cases in which the law of supply and demand left actual wants unsatisfied, so also many linguists are deaf to those instances in which the very nature of a language calls forth misunderstandings in everyday conversation, and in whlch, consequently, a word has to be modified or defined in order to present the idea intended by the speaker: The primary purpose of the passage is to A analyze an inreresting feature of the English language B refute a belie[ held by some linguists C show that economic theory is relevant to linguistic study illustrate the confusion that can result from the improper use of language E sug-gest a way in which languages can be made more nearly perfect The misunderstanding presented by the author in lines is similar to which of the following?
X uses the word "you" to refer to a group, but Y thinks that X is referring to one penon only. X mistakenly uses the word "anomaly" to refer to a typical example, but Y knows that "anomaly" means "exception. X uses the word "bachelor" to mean "unmarried man," but Y rmstakenly thinks that bachelor means "unmarried woman. Which of the following contributes to the misunderstanding described by the author in lines ? A It is unclear whom the speaker of the sentence is addressing.
B It is unclear to whom the word "his" refers the first time it is used. C It is unclear to whom the word "his" refen the second time it is used. D The ineaning of "took" is ambiguous.
E It is unclear to whom "He" refers. Each question below consists of a word printed in capital letters, followtd by five lettered words or phrases. Choose the lettered word or phrase that is , most nearly opposite in meaning to the word in capital letten. Since some of the questions require you to distinguish fine shades of meaning, be sure to consider all the choices before deciding which one is best.
A personal philosophy B imaginative idea C u n c o n f i e d theory D tentative opinion E valid argument A process of congealing B process of distilling C process of eroding process of evolving E process of condensinc A recuperate B resurrect C renovate gather E strengthen A tranquil B skeptical C morose D taciturn E witty A intensify B excuse C expressjoy feel sure E rush forward A keep secret B evaluate by oneself.
C refine D restore E copy A derision B blame C avoidance D ostracism E defianc A extort B undenvriu C underbid D stipulate patronize A casual B public C satisfactory D trustworthy E sophisticated A consternation B purification C normalization approximation E rejuvenation Each sentence below has one or two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted.
The senator's reputation, though by false allegations of misconduct, emerged from the ordeal 5. The significance of che Magna C a n a lies not in its -provisions. A specific B revolutionary D controvenial E finite C implicit 6. The theory of cosmic evolution seates that the uni- -- verse, having begun in a state of simplicity and , has into great variety.
This poetry is not -; it is more likely to appeal to an international audience than is poetry with strictly repional themes. A familiar B democratic C technical D complex E provincial 3. Experienced employers recognize h a t business students who can different points of view are ultimately more effective as managen than are the brildogmatically liant and original srudents who --to their own formulations.
A discredit. Poe's rcviews of contemporary fiction, which often find great merit in orhenvise literary gems, must make us respect his critical jud-anent in addition to his well-known literary talent. A B C D thorough. Not wishing to appear , the junior member of any critithe research group refrained from cism of the senior members' plan for dividing up responsibility for the entire project. A reluctant. In each of the followin,o questions, a related oair of words or phrases is followed by five lettered pairs bf words or phrases.
Select the lettered pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair: A ascend: A possible: A demand: A gift: A luminary: A salesclerk: A preamble: A preventive: Each passage in this group is foUowed by questions based on its content.
After reading a passage, choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions followng a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage.
Whlch of the following statements best s-an'zes It is frequently assumed that the mechanization of the main idea of the passage? For example, work have not borne out the frequently held it has teen suggested that the employment of women in assumption that new technology is inherently industry took them out of the household, their uadi-revolutionary. In the nineteenth century, when women began to revolutiomes a society's tradiuonal values enter factories, Jules Simon, a French politician, warned and the customary roles of its members.
Historians, particularly those investigating the history of women, now seriously question this assumption of They conclude that such dramatic as examples of dramatic technological innovations technological innovations as the spinning jenny, the EXCEPT the sewing machine, the typewriter, a'nd the vacuum cleaner have not resulted in equally dramatic social changes in A sewing machine B vacuum cleaner women's economic position or in the prevailing evalua C typewriter D telephone tion of women's work.
The employment of young E spinning jenny women in textile mills during the Industrial Revolution was largely an extension of an older pattern of employ It can be inferred from the passage that, before the ment of young, single women as domestics.
It was not Industrial Revolution, the majority of women's the change in office technolog, but rather the xparawork was done in which of the following settings? Women's work has changed considerably in the past years, moving from the household to the office or the factory, and later becoming mostly white-collar instead of blue-collar work. Recent hlstoncal investigation has led to a major revision of the not! It can be infcred from the wctild conside: A Statistics showing that the majority of women B C D E now occupy white-collar positions Interviews with married men indicating that they are now doing some household tasks Surveys of the labor market documenting the recent creation of a new class of jobs in electronics in which women workers outnumber men four to one Census results showing that working women's wages and salaries are, on the average, as high as those of working men Enrollment figures from universities demonstrating that increasing numbzrs of young women sre choosing to continue their education beyond the undergraduate level It can be infcned from the passage that the author most probably believes which of the following to be true concerning those historians who study the history of women?
A Their work provides insights important to those -,examining social phenomena affecting the lives of both sexes.
B Their work can only be used cautiously by scholars in other disciplines.
C Because they concentrate only on the role of women in the workplace, they draw more reliable conclusions than d o other historians. D While highly interesting, their work has not had an impact on most historians' current assumptions concerning the revolutionary effect of technology in the workplace. E They oppose the further mechanization of work, which, according to then findings, tends to perpetuate existing iilequalities in society.
A They did not ernploy women in factories. B They tended to employ single rather than married women. C They employed women in only those jobs that were related to women's traditional household work.
D They resisted technologicai innovations that would radically change women's roles in the family. E They hired women only when qualified men were not available to fill the open positions. Which of the following best describes the functioc of the concluding sentence of the passage?
It draws a conclusion concerning the effects of the mechamzatlon of work which goes beyond the evidence presented in the passage as a whole. It restates the point concerning technology made in the sentence immediately preceding it. It qualifies the author's agreement with scholars who argue for a m i o r revision in the assessment of the impact of mechanization o n socriety. It suggests a compromise between two seemingly contradictory views concerning fhe effects of mechaniiatlon on society.
Line Why then during sickness should temperaturr rise, apparently increasing stress on the infected organism? It has long been kriown that the level of serum iron in animals falls during infection.
Garibaldi first suggested arelationship between fever and iron. He found that microbial synthesis of siderophortssubstances that bind iron-in bacteria of the genus Salmonella declined at environmental temperatures above 37' C and stopped at Thus, fever would make it more difficult for an infecting bac!
Cold-blooded animals were used to test this hypothesis becaw their body temperature can be controlled in the laboratory. Kluger reported that of iguanas infected with the potentially lethal bacterium A. When animals at 42' C were injected with an iron solution, however, mortality rates increased sigruficantly.
Research to determine whether similar phenomena occur in warm-blooded animals is sorely needed. The passage is primarily concerned with anempts to determine A the role of siderophores in the synthesis of serum iron B new treatments for infections that are caused by A. According to the passage, Garibaldi determined which of the following? Which of the following can be inferred about warmblooded animals solely on the basis of information in the passage?
A The body temperatures of warm-blooded animals cannot be easlly controlled in the laboratory. B Warm-blooded animals require more iron in penods of stress than they do at other tlmes.
C Warm-blooded animals are more comfortable at an environmental temperature of 37' C h a n they are at a temperature of 42' C. In warm-blooded animals, bactena are responsible for the production of siderophores, which, in turn,make iron available to the animal. E In warm-blooded animals, infections that lead to fever are usually traceable to bacteria. If it were to be determined that "similar phenomena occur in warm-blooded animals" lines , which of the following, assuming each is possible, is likely to be the most effective treatment for warm-blooded animals with bacterial infections?
Each ques: C printed in capita: Choose the lettered word or phrase thai is most 5elr. Csome of the quss: A imitative B lavish C conciliatory D attractive E modest A dsliherate B decerinjned C dissidenr Dl desperate E divided A be apathetic B be illegitimare C i;r irrevocable Dj be inconyruolls E be irrelevant A merelricious B circulnte A timely B subordinate C terminal D lacking precision E exhibiting regularity Each sentence below has one or two blanks, -ach blank indicating that something has been omitted.
In the British theater young people under thirty-five have not had much getting recognition onstage, but offstage-in the ranks of playwrights, directors, designers, administrators-they have mostly been relegated to relative obscurity. A trouble B satisfaction C curiosity about D success at E fear of 2. An institution concerned about its reputation i s a t the mercy of the actions of its members, because the misdeeds of individuals are often used to the institutions of which they are a part.
A reform B coerce C honor D discredit E intimidate 3. Since many casual smokers develop lung cancer and many smokers do not, scientists believe that individuals differ in their -the cancer-causing agents known to be present in cigarette smoke. A heavy. If animal parents were judged by human standards, the cuckoo would be one of nature's more creatures, blithely laying its eggs in the nests of other birds, and leaving the incubating and nurturing to them. A mettlesome D lackluster B industrious E feckless C domestic 6.
The current penchant for a product by denigrating a rival, named in the advertisement by brand suppose the conname, seems somewhat sumer remembers only the rival's name? A criticizing. His imperturbability in the face of evidence indicating his deliberate fraud failed to reassure supporters of his essential ; instead, it suggested a talent for that they had never suspected.
A cuipability. We accepted the theory that as people become more independent of one another, they begin to feel so isolated and lonely that freedom becomes condition that most will seek to A a permanent.
In each of the following questions, a related air of words or phrases is foU6wed by five lettered pairs Select the lettered pair that best bf words or expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair. A detective: A skeleton: A lint: A intemperate: A mitigation: A prominent: A thermometer: C drawing assignmenrs from a wider range of 3 not the dramatic gains for women that might have been expected.
This is so even though the armeci forces operate assignments than before in an ethos of institlitional c h r g e oriented toward occu D benefiting from opportunities arising from new pational equality and under the federal sanction of equal noncombat functions pay for equal work. The difficulty is that women are E being assigned all of the military tasks that are assigned to men! A significant portion of the larger society remains uncomfortable as yet with extending equality in this direction.
The passage implies that which of the following is a Therefore, for women in the military, the search for factor conducive to a more equitable representation equality will still be based on functional equivalence, not of women in the United States armed forces than.
Opportunities seem has existed in the past?
The growing emphasis on deterrence is bound to offer increasing scope for women to become A The all-volunteer character of the present involved in novel types of noncombat military assignarmed forces ments.
B The past service records of women who had assignments functionally equivalent to men's assignments The primary purpose of the passage is to C The level of awareness on the part of the larger A present an overview of the different types of society of military issues assignments available to women in the new A decline in the proportion of deterrenceUnited States all-volunteer armed forces oriented noncombat assignments B present a reasoned prognosis of the status of E Restrictive past policies governing t11c military women in the new United States all-volunteer assignments open to women armed"l: Of the thousands of specimens of meteorites found on Earth and known to science; only about are igneous; that is, they have undergone melting by volcaLine nic action at some time since the planets were first 15 formed.
These igneous meteorites are known as achondrites because they lack chondrules- small stony spherules found in tho thousands of meteorites called "cnondrites" composed primarily of nnaltend minerals that condensed from dust and gas at the origin of the solar system. Achondrites are the only known samples of volcanic rocks originating outside the Earth-Moon system. Most are thought to have been dislodged by interbody impact from asteroids, with diameters of from 10 to 5 0 0 kilometers, in solar orbit between Mars and Jupiter.
Shergottites, the name given to three anomalous achondrites so far discovered on Earth, present scientists with a genuine enigma. Shergottites crystallized from molten rock less than 1. While most meteorites appear to derive from comparatively small bodies, shergottites exhibit properties that indicate that their source was a large planet, conceivably Mars. In order to account for such an unlikely source, some unusual factor must be invoked, because the impact needed to accelerate a fragment of rock to escape the gravitational field of a body even as small as the Moon is so great that no meteorites of lunar orign have been discovered.
While some scientists speculate, that shergottites derive from I d a volcanically active moon of Jupiter , recent measurements suggest that since lo's surface is rich in sulfur and sodium, the chemical composition of its volcanic products would probably be unlike that of the shergottites.
Moreover, any fragments dislodged from l o by interbody impact would be unlikely to escape the gravitational pull of Jupiter.
The only other logical source of shergottites is Mars. Space-probe photographs indicate the existence of giant volcanoes on the Manian surface. From the small number of impact craters that appear on Martian leva flows, one can estimate that the planet was volcanically active as recently as a half-billion years ago-and may be active today.
The great objection to the Martian origin of shergottites is the absence of lunar meteorites on Earth. An impact capable of ejecting a fragment of the Martian surface into an Earth-intersecting orbit is even less roba able than such an event on the Moon, in view of the Moon's smaller size and closer proximity to Earth.
A recent study suggests, however, that permafrost ices below the surface of Man may have altered the effects of impact on it. If the ices had been rapidly vaporized by an impacting object, tfi expanding gases might have helped the ejected fra-gments reach escape velocity. The passage implies which of the following about shergottites? They are products of volcanic activity. They derive from a planet larger than Earth. They wme from a planetary body with a chemical composition similar to that of According to the passage, a meteorite discovered on Earth is unlikely to have w m e from a large planet for which of the following reasons?
A Therc arc fewer large planets in the solar system than there arc asteroids. B Most large planets have been volcanically inactive for morc than a billion yean.
C The gravitational pull of a large planet would probably prohibit fragments from escaping its orbit. D There arc no chondrites occurring naturally on Earth and probably none on other large planets. E Interbody impact is much rarer on large than on small planets because of the density of the atmosphere on large planets. The passage suggests that the age of shergottites is probably A B C D E still entirely undetermined less than that of most other achondrites about 3.
According to the passage, the presence of chon- drules in a meteorite indicates that the meteorite has probably come from M a n is older than the solar system itself has not been melted since the solar system formed D is certainly less than 4 billion yean old E is a small fragment of an asteroid The passage provides information to answer which of the folkowing questions? A What is the precise age of the solar system? B How did shergottites get their name? C What are the chemical properties shared by shergottites and Martian soils?
D How volcanically active is the planet Jupiter? E Wnat is a major feature of the Martian surface? It cad be inferred from the passage that each of the following is a consideration in determining whether a particular planet is a possible source of shergottites that have been discovered on Earth EXCEPT the A B C D E planet's size planet's distance from Earth strength of the planet's field of gravity proximity of the planet to its moons chemical composition of the planet's surface It can be inferred from the passage that most meteorites found on Earth contain which of the following?
Each question below consists of a word pnnted in capital letters, followed by five lettered words o r phrases. Choose the lettered word or phrase that is most nearly opposite in meaning to the word in capital letters. Since some of the questions require you to distinguish fine shades of meaning, be sure to consider all the choices before deciding which one is best, A true B firm D stark E endless C clear A local B unusual C unpredictable D hot-headed E single-minded A disparity B inconstancy C opposition D carelessness E weariness A narrow B strengthen C bend D push E soften A pretend sympathy B reveal suffering C aggravate grief D betray E vilify A attribute guilt B avoid responsibility C establish facts D control hostilities E show anxiety A ingestion of a nutrient B loss of the security on a loan C discernment of subtle differences reduction in substance caused by erosion E sudden repulsion from an entity A conceal B influence C reserve D earn E favor A commingle C espouse Dl appease B arbitrate El pardon A unfeigned B significant C valid agreeable E restricted A extraordinary B certain C wishful secret E premature Time minutes 38 Questions Directions: Although providing wild chimparuees with food makes them less -- and easier to study, it is also their normal social patterns.
There is,something of monasteries proliferated in eighteenth-century Bavaria, while in the rest of the Western world reliand church building was gious,ardor was consequently declining. Neither the ideas of philosophers nor the practices reality; of ordinary people can, by themselves, what in fact changes reality and kindles revolution is the of the two. A constitute.
There has been a tendency among art historians not so much to revise as to eliminate the concept of the Renaissance-to -not only its uniqueness, but its very existence. A explain D regret B extol C transmute E contest 7. Employees had become so inured to the caprices of top management's personnel policies that they greeted the announcement of a company-wide dress code with A astonishment B impassivity C resentment D apprehension E confusion 3.
Because they had various meanings in nineteenthcenrury biological thought, "mechanism" and "vitalism" ought not to be considered terns; thus. I find the recent insistence that the terms had single definitions to Se rntirely Many Americans believe that individual initiative epitomized the 's and see the entrepreneur as the of rhat age.
In each of the following questions, a relatcd pair of words or phrases is followed by five lettered pairs of words or phrases.
Select the lettered pair that best expresses a relaiionship similar to that expressed in the original pair. A engineer: A shuck: A script: A drench: A refined: A fell: A wealthy: A hormone: C narcotic: A comedy: Li, 5 10 15 20 The transplantation of organs from one individual to another normally involves two major problems: However, we have found that among many strains of rats these "normal" r d a of transplantation are not obeyed by liver transplants.
Not only are liver transplants never rejected, but they even induce a state of donor-specific unresponsiveness in which subsequent transplants of other organs, such as skin, from that donor are accepted permanently. Our hypothesis is that 1 many strains of rats simply cannot mount a sufficiently vigorous destructive immune-response using lymphocytes to outstrip the liver's relatively great capacity to protect itself from immune-response damage and that 2 the systemic unresponsiveness observed is due to concentration of the recipient's donor-specific lymphocytes at the site of the liver transplant.
The primary purpose of the passage is to treat the accepted generalizations about organ transplantation in which of the following ways? A Explicate their main features B Suggest an alternative to them C Examine their virtues and limitations Criticize the major evidence used to support them E Present findings that qualify them It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes that an important dflerene among strains of rats is the A size of their livers B constitution of their skin C strength of their immune-response reactions D sensitivity of their antigens E adaptability of their lymphocytes According to the hypothesis of the author, after a successful liver transplant, the reason that rats do not reject further transplants of other organs from the same donor is that the A transplantation antigens of the donor and the recipient become matched B lymphocytes of the recipient are weakened by the activity of the transplanted liver C subsequently transplanted organ is able to repair the damage caused by the recipient's , immune-response reaction transplanted liver continues to be the primary locus for the recipient's immune-response reaction E recipient is unable to manufacture the lymphocytes neassary for the immuneresponse reaction Which,of the following new findings about strains of rats that do not normally reject liver transplants, if true, would support the authors' hypothesis?
Stomach transplants are accepted by the recipients in ail cases. Increasing the strength of the recipient's immune-response reaction can induce liver-transplant rejection. Organs from any other donor can be transplanted without rejection after liver transplantation: Preventing lymphocytes from being conentrated at the liver transplant produces accep tance of skin transplants. Practically speaking, the artistic maturing of the cinema was the single-handed achievement of David W.
Griffith Before Griffith, photography in dramatic films consisted of little more than placing the actors before a stationary camera and showing them in full length as they would have appeared on stage. From the beginning of his career as a director, however, Grifith. He conceived of the camera image as having a foreground and a rear ground, as well as the middle distance preferred by most directors.
By he was using close-ups to reveal significant details of the scene or of the acting and extreme long shots to achieve a sense of spectacle and distance. By splitting an event into fra-ments and recording each from the most suitable camera-position, he could significantly vary the rmphasis from camera shot to camera shot.
GrifTith also achieved dramatic erects by means of creative editing. By juxtaposing images and varying the speed and rhythm of their presentation, he could control the dramatic intensity of the events as the story progressed. Despite the reluctance of his producers, who feared that the public would not be able to follow a plot that was made up of such juxtaposed images, GrifFith persisted,, and experimented as well with other elements of cinematic syntax that have become standard ever since.
These included the flashback, permitting broad psychological and emotional exploration as well as narrative that was not chronological, and the crosscut between two parallel actions to heighten suspense and excitement. In thus exploiting fully the possibilities of editing, Griffith transposed devices of the Victorian novel to film and gave film mastery of time as well as.
Besides developing the cinema'r language, GrifTith immensely broadened its range and treatment of s u b jects. His early output was remarkably eclectic: As his successes mounted, his ambitions grew, and with them the whole of American cinema.
When he remade Enoch Arden in 1, he insisted that a subject of such importance could not be treated in the then conventional length of one reel. Two years later, Judith of Bethulia. From our contemporary viewpoint, the pretensions of this film may seem a trifle ludicrous, but at the time it provoked endless debate and discussion and gave a new intellectual respectability to the cinema. The primary purpose of the passage is to A discuss the importance of Gritrith to the development of the cinema B describe the impact on cinema of the flashback and other editing innovations C deplore the starr of American cinema before the advent of Grifith D analyze the changes in the cinema wrought by the introduction of the multireel film E document Grifith's impact on the choice of subject matter in American f h It can be inferred from the passage that be.
The author suggests that mth's contributions to the cinema had which of the following results? Literary works, especially Victorian novels, became popular sources for film subjects.
Audience appreciation of other film directors' experimentations with cinematic syntax was increased. Many of the artistic limitations thought to beinherent in filmmaking were shown to be really nonexistent.
It can be inferred from the passage that Griflith would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements? A The good director will attempt to explore new ideas as quickly as possible.
B The most important element contributing to a film's success is the ability of the actors. This book does have a lot of demerits. They find the questions easy and outdated. Especially the quantitative questions of the GRE Big Book are far too easy, if you score well in it do not get excited and feel you are prepared enough!
Be prepared for a much tougher Quantitative section in the real GRE. The syllabus taught in schools has become tougher over the years but the questions in the GRE Big Book have not changed.
As a result, only the simpler questions, which were once considered tough, are mentioned in this book. But the quantitative section is certainly misleading. Another disappointment you are likely to feel is that there is absolutely no explanation of the answers. You only get to verify whether your answer is correct or not, nothing beyond that. You might feel helpless if you are not satisfied with the correct answer but there is no one who you can approach for the explanation.
And if this happens repeatedly then it can get really upsetting. It thus fails to be a complete source of learning. You will have to look for some other supplementary material for the formulae, basic concepts, common grammatical errors, quick calculation tips etc. This can be cumbersome as you will have to refer to another book for making good this shortcoming.
This book also lacks the traditional GRE wordlists mentioned in other books. It is better to learn a lot of words from a wordlist before attempting any test, but there is no wordlist at all in the GRE Big Book. When you practice a test from the GRE Big Book you are likely to forget the time constraints in the real test, so you might just go on practicing at your own pace.
And doing that does not help at all. The GRE test is not merely a test of your knowledge but also a test of your speed. You will have to learn many techniques to save time for attempting the real test well. This makes it absolutely unrelated with the computer adaptive GRE tests. D What role does hydrogen sulfidr play in chemosynthesis? E What accounts for the locations of deep-sea smokers? The information in the passage suggests that the majority of deep-sea faunas that live in nonvent habitats have which of the following characteristics?
A They d o not normally feed o n particles of food in the water. B They are smaller than many vent faunas. C They are predators. D They derive nutrition from a chemosynthetic food source. E They congregate around a single main food source. The primary purpose of the passage is to A describe a previously unknown natural phenomenon B reconstruct the evolution of a natural phenomenon C establish unequivocally the accuracy of a hypothesis D survey explanations for a natural phenomenon and determine whlch is best supported by evidence E entertain criticism of the author's research and provide an effective response Which of the following does the author cite as a weakness in the argument that bacterial chemosynthesis provides the foundation for the food chains at deep-sea vents?
A Vents are colonized by some of the same animals found in other areas of the ocean floor. B Vent water does not contain sufficient quantities of hydrogen sulfide.
C Bacteria cannot produce large quantities of food quickly enough. D Large concentrations of minerals are found in vent water. E Some bacteria found in the vents are incapable of chemosynthesis. Which of the following is information supplied in the passage that would support the statement that the food supplies necessary to sustain vent communities must be many times that of ordinary fallout?
Large vent faunas move from vent to vent in search of food. Vent faunas a r e n o t able to consume food produced by photosynthesis. Vents are more densely populated than are other deep-sea areas. A I only B I11 only C. The author refers to "smokers" line 38 most probably in order to A show how thermal shock can provide food for some vent faunas by stunning small animals B prove that the habitat of most deep-sea animals is limited to warm-water vents C explain how bacteria carry out chemosynthesis D demonstrate how advection compensates for the lack of food sources on the seafloor E present evidence that bacterial chemosynthesis may be an inadequate source of food for - some vent faunas Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the particulate matter that is canied down from the surface of the ocean?
A I t is the basis of bacterial chemognthesis irt the vents. B It may provide an important source of nutrition for vent faunas. C - It may cause the internal temperature of t11rs. D It is transported as large aggregates of particles. E It contains hydrogen sulfide. Then have been attempts to explain these taboos in terms of inappropri s ate social relationships either between those who are involved and those who are not simultaneously involved in the satisfaction of a bodily need, or between those already satiated and those who appear to be shamelessly gorging.
Undoubtedly such elements 10 exist in the taboos, but there is an additional element with a much more fundamental importance. In prehistoric times. Further, during those time's, people existed in nuclear or extended family groups, and the sharing of food was quite literally supporting one's family or, by extension, preserving one's self.
If the arguinent in the passage is valid, taboos against eating in the presence of others who are not also eating would be LEAST likely in a society that had always had a plentiful supply of food emphasized the need to share worldly goods had a nomadic rather than an agricultural way of life emphasized the value of privacy E discouraged overindulgence The author's hypothesis concerning the origin of taboos against watching other people eat ernphasizes the A B C D E general palatability of food of food religious sigNiicance limited availability of food various sources of food nutritional value of food According to the passage, the author believes that, past attempts to explain some taboos concerning eating are t A unimaginative B implausible - C inelegant incomplete El Lmclear.
In developing the main idea of the passage, the author does which of the following? A Downplays earlier attempts to explain the o r i e of a social prohibition. C Simplifies a complex biological phenomenon by explaining it in terms of social needs.
E Codifies earlier, unsystematized conjectures about family life. Directions: Each question below consists of a word printed in capital letters, followed by five lettered words or phrases. Choose the lettered word or phrase that is most nearly opposite in meaning to the word in capital letters.
Since some of the questions require you to distinguish fine shades of meaning, be sure to consider all the choices before deciding which one is best. Choose the word or set of words for each blank fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole. The discovery that, friction excluded, all bodies fall at the same rate is so simple to state and to grasp that there is a tendency to its significance.
Their mutual teasing seemed , but in fact it a long-standing hostility. A aimless. Noting that few employees showed any --for complying with the corporation's new safety regulations, Petersbn-Gas forced to conclude that accep tance of the regulations would be , at best. A aptitude. It has been argued that politics as whatever its transcendental claims, has always been the systematic organization of common hatreds.
A a theory B an ideal C a practice D a contest E an enigna 5. In many science fiction films, the opposition of good and evil is portrayed as a -between technology, which is , and the errant will of a depraved intellectual.
A fusion. Although scientists claim that the seemingly language of their reports is more precise than the figurative language of fiction, the language of science, like all language, is inherently A ornamental.