PDF | The motivation to write this textbook stemmed from a course of engineering geology given by the author to undergraduate students in the. Foundations of Engineering Geology. FULL ACCESS SubjectsEngineering & Technology DownloadPDF MB Read online. Book. Language English. Title. Foundations of engineering geology. Author(S) Tony Waltham (Author). Publication. Data. London: Spon Press. Publication. Date .
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6MB Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF Foundations of Engineering Geology ( Second Edition). Read more Engineering Geology for Underground Rocks. Download Foundations Of Engineering Geology By Tony Waltham – Foundations of Engineering Geology written by Tony Waltham is printed by Spon Press. Foundations of engineering geology / Tony Waltham. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Engineering geology. I. Title. TAW34
Now in full colour, the third edition of this well established book provides a readable and highly illustrated overview of the aspects of geology that are most significant to civil engineers. Sections in the book include those devoted to the main rock types, weathering, ground investigation, rock mass strength, failures of old mines, subsidence on peats and clays, sinkholes on limestone and chalk, water in landslides, slope stabilization and understanding ground conditions. The roles of both natural and man-induced processes are assessed, and this understanding is developed into an appreciation of the geological environments potentially hazardous to civil engineering and construction projects. For each style of difficult ground, available techniques of site investigation and remediation are reviewed and evaluated. Each topic is presented with a careful mix of text and diagrams, with tabulated reference material on parameters such as bearing strength of soils and rocks.
The roles of both natural and man-induced processes are assessed, and this understanding is developed into an appreciation of the geological environments potentially hazardous to civil engineering and construction projects.
For each style of difficult ground, available techniques of site investigation and remediation are reviewed and evaluated. Each topic is presented as a double page spread with a careful mix of text and diagrams, with tabulated reference material on parameters such as bearing strength of soils and rocks.
This new edition has been comprehensively updated and covers the entire spectrum of topics of interest for both students and practitioners in the field of civil engineering.
Search all titles. Search all titles Search all collections. Your Account Logout. These refer to bedding or any geological structures. Rock dip is used to avoid confusion with ground slope.
Faults are fractures that have had displacement of the rocks along them. Throw is the vertical component of fault displacement. Faults are described by reference to their downthrow side; this is relative movement and may be due to the other side having moved up.
Bedding planes are usually the dominant fractures within sedimentary rocks. Many bedding planes are very thin bands or partings of shale or clay between units of stronger rocks. Others are clean breaks, or joints, developed tectonically along the slightest of contrasts within the deposition sequence. Slaty cleavage and schistosity are also types of joints. All joints are structural weaknesses, whose density, extent and orientation are major influences on rock mass strength section Massive rocks are those that have less fractures, joints or structural weaknesses of any kind.
Fault types are recognized by relationship of downthrow to dip of the fault plane. Fault gouge: finely ground rock paste within a thin zone along a fault plane. Fault drag: disturbance and folding of rock near a fault. Slickensides: scratches and polishing on fault planes, and on bedding plane faults within tight folds.
Veins: sheets of mineral infill deposited by hydrothermal water in fractures or fissures in rock. They occur in joints or faults. Most veins are of quartz or calcite — white streaks in rock faces.
Larger veins mostly on faults can contain valuable minerals — may have been mined out.
Faults commonly create zones of badly broken ground — that are weaker and less stable than the adjacent rock — with implications for foundation bearing capacity, slope stability and tunnel roof integrity. Sudden movements along faults when tectonic stresses accumulate to overcome frictional resistance cause earthquakes — vibrations transmitted through the surrounding ground section Old faults including all those in Britain cannot displace ground surface that has evolved subsequent to any fault movement.
Fault line scarps and valleys may appear in a landscape due to differential erosion across the fault zone and adjacent contrasting rocks. Succession of rocks Older rocks generally lie below younger rocks, and are only exposed by erosion. Reference to old and young rocks by age avoids any confusion with high and low outcrops that refer only to their topographical positions.
Overfolds and recumbent folds have dips past vertical. Isoclines have parallel dips on both sides. Nappes are recumbent folds sheared along the central line with the development of a thrust fault, usually with large displacement. Inlier is an outcrop of old rocks surrounded by the outcrops of younger rocks; its presence on a map indicates either an eroded anticline or a valley.
Outlier is an outcrop of young rocks surrounded by old, due to either an eroded syncline or a hill. Unconformity is the plane or break between two sequences of rocks with different dips.
It indicates a period of earth movements and tectonic deformation between the times of sediment deposition. It forms a major structural break — the older rocks must be more lithified and folded, and perhaps more metamorphosed, than the younger rocks above the unconformity.
Escarpments, or cuestas, are asymmetrical hills of dipping beds of strong rock, exposed by differential erosion of weaker rocks above and below. Unloading joints: stress-relief fractures close to and parallel to ground surface due to erosional removal of overburden cover rocks.
Landslip fissures: open fissure and normal faults developed in head zones of slopes prior to failure. Contraction joints: cooling joints in igneous rocks, including columnar basalt.
Localized structures formed in shallow rocks and soils, by erosion processes and shallow ground deformation, unrelated to regional tectonic structures. Camber folds develop in level or low-dip rocks where a clay or soft shale underlies a strong sandstone or limestone. The clay is plastically squeezed out from beneath the hill due to the differential loads upon it.
Valley bulge is the floor lift since eroded away and the structural disturbance left beneath it. Most clay is squeezed out from close to the valley side or scarp edge , so that overlying stronger rocks sag and camber towards the valley. Gulls are open or soil-filled fissures in the strong rocks of cambered valley sides, opened by camber rotation and perhaps also by sliding. Post-glacial cambered ground, or foundered strata, is common in the sedimentary rocks of England; it causes fissured rock masses and potential landslides along many valley sides and scarp faces.
Shapes of outcrops depend on the shape of the surface and the shape of the rock structure. Surface shape is known from topographic contours : therefore rock structure can be interpreted.
An important rule: where more than one interpretation is possible, the simplest is usually correct. Map interpretation is therefore logical and straightforward if approached systematically. Maps remain the best way of depicting 3-D rock structure on a piece of paper. Six basic concepts cover all outcrop patterns, and enable most geological maps to be interpreted successfully. Horizontal beds have outcrops that follow the contours because they are at constant altitude limestone on the Scar Hill map.
Vertical beds have straight outcrops that ignore the contours the dyke on the Tan Vale map. Dipping beds have curved outcrops that cut across, and respond to, the contours — because outcrops shift downdip as erosion lowers the surface sandstone on both maps. Dip direction is recognized by the V in Valley Rule: an outcrop of a dipping rock bends round a V shape where it crosses a valley, and the V of the outcrop points like an arrowhead in the direction of dip, regardless of the direction of valley slope and drainage.
This works because the outcrop is shifted furthest downdip at its lowest point, where it crosses the valley floor as on the Tan Vale map and diagram. The rule does not apply in areas of low dip, where outcrops nearly follow contours, so point upstream. On level ground, dipping beds have straight outcrops along the direction of strike.
Succession is recognized by younger rocks coming to outcrop in direction of dip. Conversely, if succession is known, the dip is in the direction of younger outcrops — the easiest way to recognize dip on most maps. Width of outcrop is greater at lower dips — and on thicker beds.
The north-south section is drawn along the strike, so does not demonstrate the dipping geological structure. Unconformity is recognized where one outcrop of a younger bed cuts across the ends of outcrops of older beds as does the limestone on the Scar Hill map.
Faults are usually marked and keyed on maps. They may cut out, offset or repeat outcrops of beds. Fault dip is recognized by V in Valley Rule. Downthrow side of a fault is the side with younger outcrop because the older rocks have been downthrown to beneath surface level.
Identify faults and unconformities structural breaks. Identify dips by the V in Valley Rule. Determine succession unless already given. Identify fold axes from dips and outcrop bends. Draw stratum contours if detail is required.
Draw cross-section to show sub-surface structure. Folds are recognized by changes in dip direction, and also by outliers and inliers not due to topography. Most important, folds are recognized by bends in outcrop: any outcrop bend must be due to either a fold or a topographic ridge or valley. Geophysical methods used in hydrogeological research Chapter 6.
Weathering of Rocks 6.
Physical weathering 6. Products of Pleistocene physical weathering 6. Chemical weathering 6. Investigation of the weathered zone Chapter 7. Slope Movements, Landslides 7. Economic significance of slope movements 7.
Factors producing earth movements 7. Division of slope movements 7. Slope movements of surface deposits 7.
Landslides in clayey rocks 7. Sliding movements of solid rocks 7.
Specific types of slope movements 7. Stabilization of slopes in slide areas Chapter 8. Excavation and Workability of Rocks 8. Resistance of rock to excavation 8.
Drillability of rocks 8. Bulking increase in volume of rocks Chapter 9. Geological Investigation of Building Material Deposits 9. Reconnaissance of a deposit 9. The aim of detailed engineering geological investigation 9. Basic principles of quarry opening 9. Deposits of sand and gravel 9.
Working of building material and protection of the environment Chapter Foundation of Buildings and Industrial Structures