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WOMAN STRUGGLE IN CAHAYA CINTA PESANTREN NOVEL BY IRA MADAN. Lubis 1. NIM. portal7.info - Published Version. The title of this thesis is Woman Struggle in Cahaya Cinta Pesantren Novel by Ira. Madan. This study aims to analyzing how is the woman struggle for her. Keywords: character education, novel, Cahaya Cinta Pesantren, First Semester in Malory Towers Abstrak Request Full-text Paper PDF.
This study aims to analyzing how is the woman struggle for her ambition of Marshila Silalahi in term of hierarchy of needs that she had faced. The source of the data of the analysis is Cahaya Cinta Pesantren novel and the data are the linguistic features that are formed as sentences by the first woman main character. The writer applies the theories from Maslow about the hierarchy of needs. Based on its form, Maslow was devided the struggle into 5 stage model, they are 1 Physiological needs, 2 Safety needs, 3 Love and Belonging needs, 4 Esteem needs, 5 Self-actualization. The writer devided the data based on each types of self-actualization by Maslow in Hierarchy of needs. Struggle is related to subconscious mind phychologically, the female character is potrayed to reach her ambition with personal reasons to get something in her struggle. The sources of data of this research are any statements, dialogues and actions that prove or describe the self-actualization of a woman struggle in the novel Cahaya Cinta Pesantren by Ira Madan.
Spillet, sejarah itu tak akan terkuak ke khalayak, batinnya. Orang-orang Aborigin dengan olesan warna-warni pewarna di tubuh akan menyambutnya sepenuh hati dengan tari-tarian bertenaga kepada orang-orang seberang lautan yang sering mengunjungi peradaban tua mereka.
Musik yidoki4 dan ketukan dua bilah kayu, bilmark, menjadi media keakraban itu. Mereka mencari air tawar di Takarena5, teluk yang tenang dengan sumber air tawar di dekat Giliwinku.
Dengan bantuan para lelaki Aborigin mereka memunguti teripang yang bisa sebesar paha orang dewasa di pantai Marege itu. Teripang itu lalu direbus dalam periuk tanah, dibelah dan diasap agar jadi produk yang siap dijual ke negeri Tiongkok. Di kampung seperti Marungga dan Lamuru point, orang-orang Yolngu itu masih menceritakan secara turun-temurun kisah perjumpaan mereka dengan para Daeng yang menganggap mereka saudara.
Beberapa diantara mereka berkulit cokelat, hasil blasteran Makassar-Aborigin, yang mengikat sejarah dan budaya yang terpisah jarak ribuan kilometer oleh samudera. Upacara adat bagi inisisasi anak Yolngu yang beranjak dewasa melantunkan berulang-ulang kata barokallah yang dikenalkan para pelaut muslim dari Makassar itu. Hubungan yang begitu erat terjalin itu juga dikuatkan dengan beberapa laki-laki Aborigin yang ikut berlayar pula ke Makassar. Mereka yang kembali lagi ke Marege menceritakan pengalamannya melalui lukisan-lukisan goa rock painting , tentang perahu-perahu Padewakang, wanita-wanita Makassar bersarung yang berkulit kuning langsat serta pertemuan mereka dengan monyet-monyet yang tak ada di tanah kelahiran mereka.
Kenangan manis itu juga tergambarkan di dalam tembang-tembang, dongeng serta torehan di kulit-kulit kayu suku Yolngu. Pada musim angin selatan, Para Daeng itu kembali berlayar ke tanah Sulawesi. Di sekeliling api unggun orang-orang Aborigin akan menari sambil menembangkan syair-syair dalam pesta perpisahan. Lambaian bendera kapal yang menunjukkan arah angin menjadi penanda, seperti requiem, nyanyian kematian atas sebuah perpisahan. Kematian yang berarti perjalanan yang sangat jauh untuk pulang dalam alam pikiran Aborigin Marege.
Layar di puncak tiang mengembang turun Kala perahu siap angkat sauh dari selatan Layar terkembang, terkepak ditiup angin 5 Takarena bahasa Makassar yang berarti tempat tetirah.
Mirip perjalanan para Daeng menuju Marege beberapa abad lalu demi teripang. Penerbangan malam hari selama 8 jam itu membuat penumpang lebih banyak tidur. Meskipun banyak fasilitas di dalam pesawat yang dibagikan oleh para pramugari, namun lebih banyak yang menjemput mimpi-mimpi yang dibagikan oleh para malaikat. Di ketinggian Sauna towel untuk membasuh muka diberikan satu-persatu pada para penumpang di pagi buta.
Sholat subuh mereka tunaikan saat pesawat berada diantara Mount Isa dan Alice Spring pada koordinat bujur selatan dan bujur timur berdasar perkiraan waktu, karena di ketinggian pesawat Garuda semburat cahaya merah Matahari nampak lebih awal menyapa menjelang 15 menit menjelang pesawat landing. Suhu di darat 12 derajat celsius, waktu setempat adalah am.
Sydney International Airport nampak sibuk pagi itu. Lorong kedatangan memberi impresi kuat akan kemodernannya dan dilengkapi dengan aneka petunjuk informatif serta berbagai brosur dan peta wisata bagi para wisatawan. Para backpacker berbagai kebangsaan dengan tas-tas ransel melebihi tinggi kepala mereka terlihat duduk-duduk di kursi atau selonjoran kaki di lantai luas yang memang disediakan oleh Bandara buat mereka.
Para penumpang lainnya terlihat mengular antre di bagian Customs untuk melanjutkan ke tujuan domestik berikutnya, atau menuju exit arrival. Beberapa petugas Customs termasuk yang bertampang Aborigin dan Asia terlihat mengatur antrian serta 6 Majalah Tempo, 20 September Para pemuda Nusantara itu harus transit di Terminal 1 Sydney International Airport, sebelum mereka berpisah di terminal 3 domestik. Lima orang mahasiswa menuju Brisbane, tiga turun di Sydney, sedangkan sembilan menuju ke Canberra.
Perpisahan itu sangat berkesan, sebagai ujung sesungguhnya dari kursus bahasa inggris, tiga, enam atau sembilan bulan yang telah mereka alami bersama. Setelah menunggu dua jam untuk mengambil barang bawaan dan berjalan menuju boarding in, Lawe, dan kedelapan kawannya-pun masuk ke pesawat Qantas yang akan membawa mereka ke Canberra pukul Penerbangan pendek ke Canberra memerlukan waktu selama 50 menit dengan pesawat berbaling-baling yang terbang tak terlalu tinggi dari permukaan tanah.
The advertisement for Sunan Kalijaga, meanwhile, depicts the Great Mosque of Demak, one of Java's oldest mosques, the construction of which is widely attributed to Sunan Kalijaga Intan, Silhouettes of mosques, featuring the onion-shaped domes and minarets that characterize Arabic-style mosques, are also found in advertisements for Al-Kautsar and Cinta Segitiga.
Figure 4. Depictions of the Istiqlal Mosque Al-Kautsar, , Great Mosque of Demak Sunan Kalijaga, , and a silhouette of a mosque Cinta Segitiga, Two key oppositions in these advertisements are of particular pertinence to the discussion here: unity and diversity, and non-exclusivity and special positioning. Pursuant to the understanding of the Muslim religious community as a single ummah, united in faith despite different social, cultural, and political backgrounds Saeed, , the film advertisements surveyed rarely depict persons marked with an explicitly Islamic identity as committing violence against other persons marked with an explicitly Islamic identity.
Except for one interaction,6 interactions between Muslims are depicted as positive, involving prayer Panggilan Ka'bah , mosque construction Sunan Kalijaga , sermons Sunan Kalijaga dan Syech Siti Jenar , etc.
This is implied to be a righteous execution, as the person in question is kneeling, his hands seemingly bound, as a criminal. Individual backgrounds are lost in a sea of Muslim unity and equality Figure 5. Page 65 Figure 5. Panggilan Ka'bah Nonetheless, individual practices of Islam are shown as being diverse.
As noted above, men and women are shown wearing various forms of head coverings Figure 6 , reflecting a range of socio- cultural traditions—sometimes in the same advertisement. None of these fashion markers is given priority over others, suggesting an equal positioning.
Similar diversity is evident in other depicted religious artifacts and practices, including mosques and worship.
As implied above, markers of Islam in these advertisements show affiliation towards both Arabicized and traditional Indonesian cultural practices of Islam, what has become known as Islam Nusantara.
Neither affiliation is given priority, and indeed the two may be complementary; in one flyer for Al-Kautsar, for example, Arabicized mosque architecture exists side by side with headscarves in the kerudung style and skullcaps. Figure 6. Second, there is an interesting contrast between non-exclusivity and special positioning of Islam.
In the film advertisements surveyed, the Islamic identity presented was not exclusive. Characters are shown as having multi-faceted identities, of which Islam was but a part. In the latter, this warrior is also carrying a guitar, implying musical activities.
In these advertisements, being Muslim does not mean looking only towards the heavens, but also facing life on Earth. Likewise, Islam is not given an exclusive position in Indonesian religious discourse.
Advertisements for films explicitly intended as dakwah, for example, seek also to draw non-Muslim audiences. One advertisement for Sunan Kalijaga dan Syech Siti Jenar, for example, offered ten national savings accounts equivalent to the cost of going on the hajj pilgrimage as grand prizes, rather than the hajj pilgrimage itself, which could not be enjoyed by non-Muslims. Meanwhile, advertisements for Al-Kautsar and Sunan Kalijaga contain quotations that are explicitly identified as Jurnal Komunikator Vol.
In an advertisement for Al-Kautsar, the film director Teguh Karya is quoted as saying, 'I'm a Christian, but I'm very proud to see this film. It's very good and not exclusively for Muslims, but for all religious persons. I'm a Christian, but I was touched to see this film. Of the Suharto-era advertisements surveyed, only one religion other than Islam was depicted explicitly: Christianity. Some advertisements featured churches, such as Karmila ; Catholic nuns, such as Permainan Bulan Desember A December's Game, ; or crosses, such as Jakarta, Jakarta , shows a cross and a woman in a Western-style wedding dress.
Unlike advertisements depicting markers of Islam, advertisements depicting Christianity did not include text affirming Christianity or contain commentary regarding universal lessons. Rather, these advertisements used approaches similar to advertisements for films without explicit markers of religion. Only in dakwah films is the role of religion advertised, indicating Islam's special position in contemporary Indonesian discourse. Indonesian film advertisements during the Reform era — Following the fall of Suharto in , and as a consequence of decades of Islamic revival, film advertisements in Indonesia began to include markers of Islamic religious identity more regularly.
However, such film advertisements existed together with advertisements that featured not explicit symbols of religious practice. As in the Suharto Era albeit with less revealing styles , many advertisements depict Indonesians wearing Western clothing, running the gamut from V-necked shirts i. Many depict Indonesians in explicitly foreign contexts, such as the tulip fields of the Netherlands Negeri van Oranje, or the canals of Venice LDR, Films based on legends or history, meanwhile, have continued to depict traditionally garbed persons outside of a specific religious contexts, as in Kartini As with the Suharto era, films advertisements in the Reform era that include markers of Islam have utilized a broad variety.
As previously, fashion markers have been common. Men in these advertisements continue to wear turbans or skullcaps, and may be presented with facial hair such as moustaches or beards. However, turbans are uncommon in advertisements for films set in contemporary Indonesia; examples identified in this study Figure 7 are taken from posters for Sang Pencerah The Lightbringer, and Sang Kiai The Scholar, , both films with historical settings.
Rather, where head coverings are worn by men, be they children as in the poster for Negeri di Bawah Kabut [Land under the Fog, ] or adults as in the poster for Dalam Mihrab Cinta [In the Prayer Niche of Love, Men may also be depicted as wearing baju koko, a Chinese- influenced garment identified as Islamic in contemporary discourse.
Figure 7. These men, however, are rarely depicted as being in the midst of certain activities. Where these men are younger and thus appealing to young adults, who make up the majority of movie-goers in Indonesia  , they are generally positioned at the forefront of the group; where these men are older, they are more commonly positioned at the back of the group, as in the poster for Ketika Cinta Bertasbih When Love Prays, This forefronting of individuals, and simultaneous lack of emphasis on action, suggests that these advertisements' understandings of Muslim masculinity are not derived from activities, but rather presentation.
In these film advertisements, Muslim men are well-groomed and well-dressed, and while they may be smooth- Page 67 faced in their youths, as they mature they will grow and maintain beards.
Theirs is not the active and macho masculinity of the Suharto era, but an urbane one. Figure 8. Generally, however, the headscarves worn by women in film advertisements are those that expose the face but conceal the hair, as common in contemporary Indonesian society. Figure 9. Veiled women in educational pursuits in Iqro , Hijabers in Love , and MARS Interestingly, however, film advertisements in the Reform era have shifted away from the frequent depiction of women wearing headscarves as invoking the act of worship.
Indeed, in several film advertisements women wearing headscarves are depicted as pursuing higher education or otherwise aspiring to pursuits that have long been male dominated Figure 9. In the poster for Iqro , for example, a young girl wearing a headscarf is depicted as looking up at the stars, an observatory behind her implying that she seeks to become an astronomer.
Meanwhile, posters for the films Hijabers in Love and MARS respectively depict women wearing headscarves as seeking an education in a state-run senior high school implied by the uniform and at Oxford University.
This shift implies a rejection of women being positioned solely as keepers of tradition, positioning them instead as being able to pursue higher education and implicitly contribute actively in the public sphere. As noted by Imanda , pp. These include a series of films adapted from works by Habiburrahman El Shirazy, which include in their titles the words ayat verse , tasbih prayer beads , and mihrab prayer niche , as well as references to the asma'ul husna 99 names of God in 99 Cahaya di Langit Eropa 99 Lights in the European Sky, , the Islamic oath of faith in Syahadat Page 68 Cinta Oath of Love, , and the common greeting in Assalamualaikum Beijing Peace on You, Beijing, However, unlike in the Suharto era, these Arabic-language loan words are not presented in an Arabic script, instead following the standard Indonesian-language transliteration.
Indeed, for the most part this script is not present in film advertisements. For the most part, physical symbols of Islam—aside from the fashion markers discussed above— are rare in Reform-era film advertisements. Depictions of the Qur'an, of prayer beads, or even of the act of worship itself are limited—even in advertisements for films that present these symbols linguistically through their titles.
Only two examples have been identified in the film advertisements reviewed. In the poster for Sajadah Ka'bah Prayer Rug and Kaaba, , a prayer rug is depicted as a barrier between two rows of people. This is only the prayer rug as a physical object; it is not being used for worship. Meanwhile, in the poster for Mencari Hilal The Crescent Moon, , an older man is depicted as wearing a skullcap, a Qur'an in his left hand and prayer beads in his right hand Figure Unlike in the majority of contemporary film advertisements, he is depicted as having been in the act of uttering remembrances zikir , albeit interrupted by the activities of the young man by his side.
Figure A man with prayer beads and a Qur'an in Mencari Hilal Only mosques have remained common in representations of Islam in Reform-era film advertisements. Indeed, these are found in a wide range of advertisements—particularly for films with explicitly Islamic themes—with examples from 99 Cahaya di Langit Eropa , Sang Kiai , and Surau dan Silek presented in Figure 11 below.
Unlike fashion markers, representations of these mosques and other places of worship have remained diverse, with architectural styles reflecting their individual societies.
These are discussed herein. In the positioning of Islam relative to Indonesia's other five recognized religions Protestantism, Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism , as well as relative to other ideologies, there has been a considerable shift.
As mentioned above, film advertisements produced under the New Order government were careful to embrace audiences of all religious backgrounds. Some advertisements sought testimonials from non-Muslim viewers who were respected in their fields, as in the quotations offered above.
Others positioned these films using more universal appeals; one advertisement for Al-Kautsar, for example, cited a religious scholar named Kyai Haji Misbach as saying that persons of all religions should see the film for its depiction of the struggle between morality and immorality. This, and other similar practices, was certainly influenced by the socio-cultural context of the time.
Such a tendency, however, is less evident in advertisements released in the Reform era. Advertisements for films marketed as Islamic no longer bear testimonials from non-Muslims, or from individuals who present them as conveying universal values. Characters likewise tend not present attributes of non-Islamic religions; for example, the poster for 3 Hati Dua Dunia Satu Cinta 3 Hearts Two Worlds One Heart, , a film on interfaith relationships, does not show her wearing a cross necklace despite it being present in the film Figure This reflects a general tendency in Indonesian film advertisements, where symbols of non- Islamic religions have become uncommon.
Where present, such symbols have often been in advertisements for films explicitly promoting interfaith harmony, such as? Even before this film code was passed, it is apparent that inclusivity was expected in material intended for public, popular consumption, as seen in advertisements for Al- Kautsar Opposition of Islamic and non-Islamic attributes in Kiamat Sudah Dekat and The Power of Love Representations of the relationships between specific understandings of Islam and other understandings or even other ideologies have been somewhat more diverse.
Both advertisements position characters with Islamic fashion markers as diametrically opposed to persons who seemingly embrace other systems of belief. In the former, a calm veiled woman, implicitly linked to the metaphor of womanhood as a flower through her rose, is placed opposite a rocker wearing chains and sunglasses; below them, a man in a skullcap is diametrically opposed a youth in a baseball cap whose hands form the 'sign of the horns' common in heavy metal culture.
Meanwhile, in the latter, a set of four well-kempt Muslims in white attire, headscarves, and skullcaps are set opposite individuals whose fashion markers suggest them to be, respectively, a person of poor personal grooming, a business executive, a Chinese woman, and a thug preman.
The distance between them is underscored by the central pillar of the National Monument in Jakarta, a visual barrier between them. In other advertisements, tension is still present, yet not presented as starkly. The poster for Surga yang Tak Dirindukan An Unwanted Paradise, , for example, depicts a veiled woman in a pink jacket, standing next to a young man and smiling.
Behind them, in the distance, is an unveiled woman in a tight shirt and jeans, seemingly upset at their happiness. This contrast indicates a degree of tension between them, which is expanded upon in the film. This transformation, from veiled to unveiled, suggests a tendency towards viewing homogenization as a means of preventing conflict. Such 9 In the Surga yang Tak Dirindukan, the character Mei Rose is presented as becoming pregnant out of wedlock and as 'stealing' a woman's husband, ultimately becoming his second wife.
There is a tendency in Indonesian films for the women who commit extramarital affairs and become pregnant outside of wedlock to be presented as not wearing headscarves; a similar case is found in Assalamualaikum Beijing , although the advertisements for that film do not depict the character in question. Page 71 Figure The veiling of Mei Rose between Surga yang Tak Dirindukan and Surga yang Tak Dirindukan 2 Other film advertisements have been more inclusive in positioning films' understandings of Islam relative to other understandings and ideologies.
Some advertisements, such as those for Catatan Akhir Kuliah Notes from the End of University, and Hijab , for example, depict women and, in the former, men wearing a wide range of fashion markers interacting as equals Figure The former depicts young women in headscarves, interacting in a university setting with women who are not veiled, including one with exposed shoulders and another in business attire.
In the latter, meanwhile, four women are depicted standing on a stage together, smiling. The clothing of each woman is indicative of a different understanding of the requirement to cover one's private areas, or aurat and, by extension, a different understanding of Islam.
Although tension is suggested by their presentation as mannequins, this tension is not between the women themselves, but rather between them and the persons holding the strings.
Building on a previous study that focused solely on the Suharto era Woodrich, , it has shown that, during the Suharto era, film advertisements used diverse markers such as turbans, skullcaps, headscarves, language, the Qur'an, prayers, prayer beads, mosques, and the Kaaba to project an Indonesian Islamic identity. This identity was shown, through commentary from explicitly identified non-Muslims and emphasis of universal values, to be non-exclusive, even as religious themes only being emphasized in films that prominently featured Islam suggests the religion received positioning in contemporary Indonesian popular discourse.
Meanwhile, Islam was positioned as having diverse practices, but ultimately uniting all Muslims in a shared faith. Meanwhile, during the Reform era, film advertisements have used somewhat less diverse markers.
Fashion markers such as turbans, skullcaps, and headscarves, as well as markers such as Jurnal Komunikator Vol. In the Reform era, understandings of Muslim masculinities and the position of women have shifted, with men becoming more urbane and women being more commonly depicted in the public sphere. However, at the same time, there has been a tendency—especially in advertisements for films classified as film Islami—towards increased homogenization in the representation of specific Muslim. In some cases, specific Islamic identities Page 72 have even been placed in direct opposition to other identities.
This discussion indicates that, as Islam has enjoyed continued—or even strengthened— special positioning in Indonesian discourse, there has been a trend in Indonesian film advertising towards representing it as more exclusive. Even when diverse ideologies and understandings of Islam are implied in advertisements, this does not extend to religious minorities as it did to some extent under the Suharto government. This indicates that film advertisements, as with the films they advertise, are sites of discourse on issues of Indonesian religious identity and the role of religion in everyday life.
Galih dan Ratna. Hijabers in love. Darihati Films. Catatan akhir kuliah. Demi Gisela Citra Sinema. Kiamat sudah dekat. Dipa Jaya Film. Si Pitung beraksi kembali.
Sajadah Ka'bah. Falcon Pictures. Haji backpacker.
Negeri van Oranje. Firman Abadi Film. Menggapai matahari II. Fullframe Pictures. Cahaya cinta pesantren. Usia Gemini Satria Film. Anak-anak buangan. Haka Film. Kutukan Nyai Roro Kidul. Hanna Internasional Film. Kamasutra Film. Jakarta, Jakarta. Kaninga Pictures.
Bid'ah cinta. Legacy Pictures and Screenplay Films. Surau dan silek. Iqro: Petualangan meraih bintang. Matari Artis Jaya Film. Permainan bulan Desember. Maxima Pictures. Assalamualaikum Beijing. MD Pictures. Ayat-ayat cinta. Di Bawah lindungan Ka'bah. Surga yang tak dirindukan.
Ayat-ayat cinta 2. Surga yang tak dirindukan 2. Panggilan Ka'bah. Mizan Productions. Multi Buana Kreasindo et al.
Multivision Plus Pictures.
Sang pencerah. MVP Pictures et al. Mencari hilal. Naviri Film. Cinta segi tiga. Piramid Citra Perkasa. Syahadat cinta.