Get Free Read & Download Files Engaging Questions A To Writing PDF ENGAGING QUESTIONS A GUIDE TO WRITING - In this site isn`t the same as. good writing occurs in the context of critical thinking. Engaging Questions: Guide To Writing 2nd edition Engaging Questions: A Guide to Writing PDF ebook. to writing by timothy crusius - engaging questions: a guide to writing pdf along with hundreds of other books into your device and adjust the font size, the.
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Note: the Persuasive writing marking guide for remains current. Use of persuasive structures Beginning writers can benefit from being taught how to use structured scaffolds. One such scaffold that is commonly used is the five paragraph argument essay. However, when students become more competent, the use of this structure can be limiting. As writers develop their capabilities they should be encouraged to move away from formulaic structures and to use a variety of different persuasive text types, styles and language features, as appropriate to different topics. Students are required to write their opinion and to draw on personal knowledge and experience when responding to test topics.
Student-initiated questions increase higher-order learning by requiring them to analyze information, connect seemingly disparate concepts, and articulate their thoughts. It is appropriate to ask questions to address all cognitive domains as long as the desired learning outcome is kept in mind and a good mix of questions is used during each teaching session.
Unfortunately, observations of classroom-based instructors have repeatedly shown that lower-order questions are far more frequently used.
Open in a separate window There is a paucity of empirical data regarding how to most effectively use questions to teach. For the purposes of teaching, these taxonomies can be used by educators to formulate questions intended to elicit specific cognitive processes.
The basic way to characterize questions is to classify them as either convergent or divergent. In contrast, divergent questions, also known as open questions, elicit a wide range of responses that often require substantive elaboration. Educators use divergent questions to stimulate dialog and explore a range of issues related to the topic Table 1. Another way to classify questions is to examine their cognitive level or complexity. A hierarchal approach to cognition was originally described by Bloom and subsequently modified by Anderson and Krathwohl Table 2.
Each domain is further categorized as lower or higher order in terms of cognitive difficulty. Table 2. Classification of Questions Based on Cognition Dimension and Student Actions Required for Achieving Specific Learning Outcomes 8,16 Open in a separate window Remembering, which is the act of recalling information, is considered the lowest order of cognitive processing and yet recall-type questions are the most frequently posed by educators.
Application questions require the learner to execute a procedure or process, mental or physical, to an unfamiliar situation or circumstance. Analysis requires the learner to break down the material into constituent parts and determine the inter-relationships among them. Analysis questions may ask the learner to organize elements within a structure, distinguish relevant from irrelevant information, or deconstruct underlying values and biases. Evaluation requires formulating judgments based on standards or existing criteria.
Evaluating questions require the learner to critique a work or product, determine the appropriateness of a process or product for a given problem, or examine the inconsistencies in a theory. Finally, creating is considered the most difficult task in terms of cognitive processing.
Questions that address this cognitive domain may require learners to generate alternative hypotheses based on observed phenomena, devise a new procedure to accomplish a task, or conceptualize a new product. Questions can also be classified into knowledge dimensions.
Anderson and Krathwohl describe 4 types of knowledge: factual, conceptual, procedural, and metacognitive. Use of persuasive structures Beginning writers can benefit from being taught how to use structured scaffolds. One such scaffold that is commonly used is the five paragraph argument essay.
However, when students become more competent, the use of this structure can be limiting. As writers develop their capabilities they should be encouraged to move away from formulaic structures and to use a variety of different persuasive text types, styles and language features, as appropriate to different topics. Students are required to write their opinion and to draw on personal knowledge and experience when responding to test topics.
Students are not expected to have detailed knowledge about the topic. Students should feel free to use any knowledge that they have on the topic, but should not feel the need to manufacture evidence to support their argument. Externalization Technique The externalization technique involves leading your client toward viewing their problems or behaviors as external, instead of a part of him or her.
This is a technique that is much easier to describe than to fully embrace, but it can have huge positive impacts on self-identity and confidence. The general idea of this technique is that it is much easier to change a behavior that you engage in than it is to change a characteristic that is a part of you. For example, if you are quick to anger and you consider yourself an angry person, you must fundamentally change something about yourself to address the problem; however, if you are a person who acts aggressively and becomes angry easily, you simply need to alter the behaviors to address the problem.
As a therapist, this technique is easy to describe, but it may be challenging for the client to fully download into this strange idea. Encourage your client not to place too much importance on their diagnosis or self-assigned labels.
Let them know how empowering it can be to separate him- or herself from their problems, allowing them a greater degree of control Bishop, Our problems can often feel overwhelming, confusing, or unsolvable, but they are never truly unsolvable Bishop, Deconstructing the issue makes it more specific and avoids overgeneralizing, as well as clarifying what the core issue or issues actually are.
As an example of the deconstruction technique, imagine two people in a long-term relationship who are having trouble.
One partner is feeling frustrated with a partner who never shares her feelings, though ts, or ideas with him. Based on this short description, there is no clear idea of what the problem is, let alone what the solution might be. If you, as a therapist, were to deconstruct the problem with this client, you might ask him to be more specific about what is bothering him.
This might lead to a better idea of what is troubling the man, like feeling lonely and missing a sense of intimacy with his partner. This technique is an excellent way to help the client dig deep into the problem, understanding what is important to them and how this issue threatens that.
Unique Outcomes Technique This technique is a bit involved and complex, but keep in mind the storytelling aspect of narrative therapy.
In narrative therapy, the client aims to construct a storyline to their experiences which provides meaning and gives them a positive, functional identity. We are not limited to just one storyline, though. There are many potential storylines we can subscribe to, some more negative and others more positive. Instead of continuing to see his or her life from the same perspective as always, the unique outcomes technique can help a client to change their perspective and perceive more positive and life-giving narratives.
Like a book that switches viewpoints from one character to another, our life has multiple threads of narrative running through it with different perspectives, different areas of focus, and different points of interest. Putting the unique outcomes technique to use is simply choosing to focus on a different storyline or storylines from the one that has been the source of your problems.
What seems like a problem or issue from one perspective can be nothing but an unassuming or insignificant detail in another Bishop, As a therapist, you can introduce this technique by encouraging your client s to pursue alternative or new storylines.
Existentialism is not a bleak and hopeless view on a world without meaning. In this way, existentialism and narrative therapy go hand in hand. Narrative therapy encourages individuals to make their own meaning and find their own purpose rather than search for some pre-existing, absolute truth. Borrowing some techniques or interventions from existentialism can provide excellent support for the client working through narrative therapy.
If your client is an avid reader, you might consider suggesting some existentialist works as well, such as those by Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus, or Martin Heidegger.
You can download the printable version of the infographic here. A few of these are described below. Statement of Position Map This simple handout consists of four areas to be filled in: Characteristics and naming or labeling of the problem Mapping the effects of the problem throughout each domain of life it touches home, work, school, relationships, etc.
Evaluation of the effects of the problem in these domains Values that come up when thinking about why these effects are undesirable This map is intended to be filled out in concert with a therapist, but it could be explored individually if it is difficult to find or meet with a narrative therapist.
Generally, the dialogue between a therapist and client will delve into these four areas.
The therapist will ask questions and probe for deeper inquiry, while the client talks through the problem they are having and finds insight into each of the four main areas listed above. There is power in the simple act of naming the problem, and it is necessary to understand how and in which areas the problem is having an effect. Finally, it is vital for the client to understand why this problem bothers them on a deeper level.
What values are being infringed upon or obstructed by this problem?
Why does the client feel negative about the problem? These are questions that this exercise can help to answer. For a much more comprehensive look at this exercise, you can read these workshop notes from Michael White on using the statement position maps. You can also access a PowerPoint in which a similar exercise is covered here.
My Life Story One of the most basic therapeutic principles in narrative therapy is that we find meaning and healing through telling stories. This exercise is all about your story, and all you need is the printout and a pen or pencil. The intention of the My Life Story exercise is to separate yourself from your past to gain a broader perspective on your life.
It aims to help you create an outline of your life without diving too deeply into your memories. First, you write the title of the book that is your life. Once you have the chapter title, come up with one sentence that sums up the chapter. What will you do in the future? Where will you go, and who will you be?
This is where you get to flex your predictive muscles. Finally, the last step is to add to your chapters as necessary to put together a comprehensive story of your life. This exercise will help you to organize your thoughts and beliefs about your life and weave together a story that makes sense to you.
The idea is not to get too deep into any specific memories but to recognize that what is in your past is truly the past.
It shaped you, but it does not have to define you. Expressive Arts This intervention can be especially useful for children, but many adults may find relief and meaning through engagement as well. We all have different methods of telling our stories, and using the arts to do so has been a staple of humanity for countless generations.