Global warming is a long-term rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system, an .. According to the global carbon project, carbon emission rates plateaued from to , rose by % in , then rose again by % in. global mean temperature increase with the rapid increase of CO2 emission. Cause of Global Warming. Fossil fuel consumption is increasing rapidly to satisfy . Evs Project on Global Warming PDF - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Evs-project-on-global-warming-pdf.
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Introduction. Global warming is in the news. While scientists agree that temperatures are rising, they disagree as to the causes and the rate of change. blame developing countries for global warming . the West to check pollution and global warming could be The California based International Project for. Global warming (EVS Project). 1. Ravenshaw Junior College Cuttack Project Report: Presented by: Preetish Priyadarshi SamalFor having.
Effects of Global Warming:What is the greenhouse effect. Scientists have spent decades figuring out what is causing global. Cumulative magnitude of climate change impacts see Figure 1. Nova Scotia. Scientists have been able to study climate change by looking. Finding solutions: the options for preventing global warming. DRAFT
Climate models are designed to simulate the responses and interactions of the oceans and atmosphere, and to account for changes to the land surface, both natural and human-induced. Though the models are complicated, rigorous tests with real-world data hone them into powerful tools that allow scientists to explore our understanding of climate in ways not otherwise possible.
Model simulations by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimate that Earth will warm between two and six degrees Celsius over the next century, depending on how fast carbon dioxide emissions grow. Scenarios that assume that people will burn more and more fossil fuel provide the estimates in the top end of the temperature range, while scenarios that assume that greenhouse gas emissions will grow slowly give lower temperature predictions.
The orange line provides an estimate of global temperatures if greenhouse gases stayed at year levels. Climate Feedbacks Greenhouse gases are only part of the story when it comes to global warming. Changes to one part of the climate system can cause additional changes to the way the planet absorbs or reflects energy. These secondary changes are called climate feedbacks, and they could more than double the amount of warming caused by carbon dioxide alone. The primary feedbacks are due to snow and ice, water vapor, clouds, and the carbon cycle.
Snow and ice Perhaps the most well known feedback comes from melting snow and ice in the Northern Hemisphere.
Warming temperatures are already melting a growing percentage of Arctic sea ice, exposing dark ocean water during the perpetual sunlight of summer. Snow cover on land is also dwindling in many areas. In the absence of snow and ice, these areas go from having bright, sunlight-reflecting surfaces that cool the planet to having dark, sunlight-absorbing surfaces that bring more energy into the Earth system and cause more warming.
In the past years, the glacier has lost half its volume and has retreated more than 1. As glaciers retreat, sea ice disappears, and snow melts earlier in the spring, the Earth absorbs more sunlight than it would if the reflective snow and ice remained. Water Vapor The largest feedback is water vapor.
Water vapor is a strong greenhouse gas. In fact, because of its abundance in the atmosphere, water vapor causes about two-thirds of greenhouse warming, a key factor in keeping temperatures in the habitable range on Earth. But as temperatures warm, more water vapor evaporates from the surface into the atmosphere, where it can cause temperatures to climb further. The question that scientists ask is, how much water vapor will be in the atmosphere in a warming world?
The atmosphere currently has an average equilibrium or balance between water vapor concentration and temperature. As temperatures warm, the atmosphere becomes capable of containing more water vapor, and so water vapor concentrations go up to regain equilibrium. Will that trend hold as temperatures continue to warm? The amount of water vapor that enters the atmosphere ultimately determines how much additional warming will occur due to the water vapor feedback.
The atmosphere responds quickly to the water vapor feedback. So far, most of the atmosphere has maintained a near constant balance between temperature and water vapor concentration as temperatures have gone up in recent decades. If this trend continues, and many models say that it will, water vapor has the capacity to double the warming caused by carbon dioxide alone. Clouds Closely related to the water vapor feedback is the cloud feedback.
Clouds cause cooling by reflecting solar energy, but they also cause warming by absorbing infrared energy like greenhouse gases from the surface when they are over areas that are warmer than they are. In our current climate, clouds have a cooling effect overall, but that could change in a warmer environment. Clouds can both cool the planet by reflecting visible light from the sun and warm the planet by absorbing heat radiation emitted by the surface.
On balance, clouds slightly cool the Earth.
Clouds can become brighter if more moisture converges in a particular region or if more fine particles aerosols enter the air. If fewer bright clouds form, it will contribute to warming from the cloud feedback.
See Ship Tracks South of Alaska to learn how aerosols can make clouds brighter. Clouds, like greenhouse gases, also absorb and re-emit infrared energy. Low, warm clouds emit more energy than high, cold clouds. However, in many parts of the world, energy emitted by low clouds can be absorbed by the abundant water vapor above them.
In a world without low clouds, the amount of emitted infrared energy escaping to space would not be too different from a world with low clouds. Clouds emit thermal infrared heat radiation in proportion to their temperature, which is related to altitude. This image shows the Western Hemisphere in the thermal infrared. Warm ocean and land surface areas are white and light gray; cool, low-level clouds are medium gray; and cold, high-altitude clouds are dark gray and black.
High cold clouds, however, form in a part of the atmosphere where energy-absorbing water vapor is scarce. These clouds trap absorb energy coming from the lower atmosphere, and emit little energy to space because of their frigid temperatures.
In a world with high clouds, a significant amount of energy that would otherwise escape to space is captured in the atmosphere. As a result, global temperatures are higher than in a world without high clouds. If warmer temperatures result in a greater amount of high clouds, then less infrared energy will be emitted to space.
See Clouds and Radiation for a more complete description.
A recent observational study found that fewer low, dense clouds formed over a region in the Pacific Ocean when temperatures warmed, suggesting a positive cloud feedback in this region as the models predicted. Such direct observational evidence is limited, however, and clouds remain the biggest source of uncertainty--apart from human choices to control greenhouse gases—in predicting how much the climate will change.
For now, primarily ocean water, and to some extent ecosystems on land, are taking up about half of our fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions. This behavior slows global warming by decreasing the rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide increase, but that trend may not continue. Warmer ocean waters will hold less dissolved carbon, leaving more in the atmosphere.
About half the carbon dioxide emitted into the air from burning fossil fuels dissolves in the ocean. This map shows the total amount of human-made carbon dioxide in ocean water from the surface to the sea floor.
Blue areas have low amounts, while yellow regions are rich in anthropogenic carbon dioxide.
High amounts occur where currents carry the carbon-dioxide-rich surface water into the ocean depths. Map adapted from Sabine et al. On land, changes in the carbon cycle are more complicated. Under a warmer climate, soils, especially thawing Arctic tundra, could release trapped carbon dioxide or methane to the atmosphere. Increased fire frequency and insect infestations also release more carbon as trees burn or die and decay.
On the other hand, extra carbon dioxide can stimulate plant growth in some ecosystems, allowing these plants to take additional carbon out of the atmosphere. However, this effect may be reduced when plant growth is limited by water, nitrogen, and temperature. This effect may also diminish as carbon dioxide increases to levels that become saturating for photosynthesis. Because of these complications, it is not clear how much additional carbon dioxide plants can take out of the atmosphere and how long they could continue to do so.
The impact of climate change on the land carbon cycle is extremely complex, but on balance, land carbon sinks will become less efficient as plants reach saturation, where they can no longer take up additional carbon dioxide, and other limitations on growth occur, and as land starts to add more carbon to the atmosphere from warming soil, fires, and insect infestations.
This will result in a faster increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide and more rapid global warming. In some climate models, carbon cycle feedbacks from both land and ocean add more than a degree Celsius to global temperatures by Emission Scenarios Scientists predict the range of likely temperature increase by running many possible future scenarios through climate models.
It takes decades to centuries for Earth to fully react to increases in greenhouse gases.
Carbon dioxide, among other greenhouse gases, will remain in the atmosphere long after emissions are reduced, contributing to continuing warming. In addition, as Earth has warmed, much of the excess energy has gone into heating the upper layers of the ocean. Like a hot water bottle on a cold night, the heated ocean will continue warming the lower atmosphere well after greenhouse gases have stopped increasing. Even if greenhouse gas concentrations stabilized today, the planet would continue to warm by about 0.
The impact of increased surface temperatures is significant in itself. But global warming will have additional, far-reaching effects on the planet. Global warming will shift major climate patterns, possibly prolonging and intensifying the current drought in the U. The white ring of bleached rock on the once-red cliffs that hold Lake Powell indicate the drop in water level over the past decade—the result of repeated winters with low snowfall.
Changing Weather For most places, global warming will result in more frequent hot days and fewer cool days, with the greatest warming occurring over land. Longer, more intense heat waves will become more common. Storms, floods, and droughts will generally be more severe as precipitation patterns change.
Hurricanes may increase in intensity due to warmer ocean surface temperatures. Apart from driving temperatures up, global warming is likely to cause bigger, more destructive storms, leading to an overall increase in precipitation. With some exceptions, the tropics will likely receive less rain orange as the planet warms, while the polar regions will receive more precipitation green.
White areas indicate that fewer than two-thirds of the climate models agreed on how precipitation will change. Stippled areas reveal where more than 90 percent of the models agreed. It is impossible to pin any single unusual weather event on global warming, but emerging evidence suggests that global warming is already influencing the weather.
Heat waves, droughts, and intense rain events have increased in frequency during the last 50 years, and human-induced global warming more likely than not contributed to the trend. Some island nations will disappear. Between and , the sea level increased by 1. And the rate of sea level rise is accelerating. Since , NASA satellites have shown that sea levels are rising more quickly, about 3 millimeters per year, for a total sea level rise of 48 millimeters 0.
Sea levels crept up about 20 centimeters 7. Sea levels are predicted to go up between 18 and 59 cm 7. Higher sea levels will erode coastlines and cause more frequent flooding.
As temperatures rise, ice will melt more quickly. Satellite measurements reveal that the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets are shedding about billion tons of ice per year—enough to raise sea levels by 0. If the melting accelerates, the increase in sea level could be significantly higher. Impacting Ecosystems More importantly, perhaps, global warming is already putting pressure on ecosystems, the plants and animals that co-exist in a particular climate zone, both on land and in the ocean.
Warmer temperatures have already shifted the growing season in many parts of the globe. The growing season in parts of the Northern Hemisphere became two weeks longer in the second half of the 20th century. Spring is coming earlier in both hemispheres. This change in the growing season affects the broader ecosystem. Global warming: Making a Difference One Watt at a Time.
Is the world getting warmer? If so, are the actions of mankind to blame for earths temperature increases? Conclusions and strategies for managing climate change.
Research carried out to assess the impact of global warming and climate. Analysis were obtained from the Canadian Climate Impact Scenarios project. Global warming EVS Project. Global warming. EVs can operate nearly emissions-free. Apr Presented by Preetish Priyadarshi Samal Contact: Feb Solar power.
Able Energy. And hence the global warming benefits of EVs depend on where they are being. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Faizan Ahmed. Akshay Aggarwal. Amit Hadawale. Varun Sawant. Rahul Jain. Prasad Gavhane. Sanjeev Kumar. Saif Kasmani. Arpan Ghosh.