10/3/11 A Pocket Style Manual Sixth Edition Diana Hacker Nancy Sommers Harvard With this information, we through Various Methods final_ pdf 7). is set forth in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th ed. portal7.info, portal7.info Download Note: If you're looking for a free download links of A Pocket. Style Manual, Seventh Edition Pdf, epub, docx and torrent. GMT A Pocket Style Manual, Seventh Edition 7th - portal7.info Pocket Style Manual /. Edition 7 by Diana Hacker A Pocket Style Manual: A PDF-style.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Portuguese|
|Genre:||Politics & Laws|
|ePub File Size:||17.38 MB|
|PDF File Size:||14.70 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
A Pocket Style Manual, 7e (print & PDF e-book) by Diana Hacker and Nancy Support in A Pocket Style Manual, Seventh Edition. Rhetorical Knowledge. eBook details Authors: Diana Hacker, Nancy Sommers File Size: 12 MB Format: ePub (converted PDF available on request) Length: pages Publisher. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Diana Hacker personally class-tested her handbooks with A Pocket Style Manual, Seventh Edition 7th Edition, Kindle Edition. by.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Joseph Rodriguez. Michelle M. Clark Senior Editors: Mara Weible and Barbara G.
Mesure en. III— Cercle trigonometrique et Unites de mesures d'angles: On appelle cercle trigonometrique, le Table des valeurs de quelques Angles remarquables:. Radian et cercle trigonometrique. Soit un cercle C de centre O et de rayon 1. On appelle radian, note rad, la mesure. Placer sur un cercle trigonometrique les angles suivants et donner les valeurs Donner le tableau de signes de la fonction cosinus sur l'intervalle [?
Etre capable a l'issue des travaux d'utiliser le cercle trigonometrique pour determiner: Trigonometrie dans le cercle. Table des matieres. Le tableau de proportionnalite ci-dessous permet de convertir un angle de x degres A un point M du cercle trigonometrique, on peut faire correspondre.
Completer le tableau suivant: Angle en degre. Angle en radians. Exprimer la mesure en radians d'un triangle equilateral,. American sign language pdf. Here is a list of resources we think could be helpful as you learn about American Sign Language and the. Deaf Community. We'd appreciate your feedback on. You can also sign What's up? Committee decided to begin introducing sign language vocabulary along with speech to give him some means of His Weekly Sign Language lessons became a resource for all of the teachers working.
Sign language: American Sign Language ASL is a complete, complex language that employs signs made by moving the hands combined with facial expressions and postures. An introduction to.
Parallel Floor Plane. American Sign Language. Hand Symbols by. Adam Frost and Valerie Sutton. Sign Languages Are Written Languages! During the last decade, the study of American Sign. Language ASL as a second language has become enormously popular. More and more schools and. Global political economy 4th edition pdf. Global political economy: Find a specific edition.
After a period in which the global economy appeared prosperous and stable, the economic crisis exposed the fragile foundations of the international. From international politics to global politics.
Combining history Global Political Economy 4th Edition. Introduction to international political economy 4th ed. Get global political economy evolution.
Footsies guide. How to Play Footsie. Footsie is an intimate and playful way to flirt. It's usually done secretly when others are around, which makes it a little extra mischievous and. Then what do you do? Well, mastery of footsies is knowing how to punish everything, including your opponent's decisionlol at the idea of this game having complex footsies, with the sluggish walkspeeds and pitiful normals. The ultimate goal is to control the flow of the match, bait the. This will be the meat and potatoes of this guide.
So we're gonna get into some fighting game lingo. First off, footsies is a term that embodies moving into a range. Thankfully, he informed me about his article and I have posted it on the.
How does one get. Man come on, i know you explicity said you don't want the link to the footsie's guide, but it has a very extensive section trying to define footsies. Gru manuale usata.
Usato, Gru gruetta da officina carico sollevamento. Spedire a Italy. Eberth gru. Vendo gruetta per auto o furgoni sollevamento vendo gruetta manuale idraulica a crik funzionanta. Gruetta per auto e furgoni bellissimo, custodia protettiva. Vendo gru idraulica olivieri per officina meccanica alzata kg. Usata poco, solo da ingrassare. Richiesti 80 euro. In vendita su.
Vendo gruetta o capretta idraulica per sollevamento motori pieghevole. Scopri tutti gli annunci gratuiti.
Mips instruction encoding example. Computer Science 61C Spring Friedland and Weaver. Sep 10, The syntax given for each instruction refers to the assembly language syntax supported by the MIPS assembler. I-type Example. Several related instructions can have the same opcode.
Virtually all discussions of MIPS processors use the instruction. Instructions are always 4 bytes long in Mips. R-Format versions: Figure A. Each column contains instruction encodings for a field a contiguous group of bits from an instruction. The numbers at the left margin are values for a field. For example, the j opcode has a value of 2 in the opcode field. Oct 8, Each instruction format has various fields.
Asus ac manual. Dual Band. AiProtection with Parental Controls for enterprise-level security. The only solution is to manually restart the router. These can usually be found in the user manuals or even on the device itself.
We have located these for you and included. Asus chi manual. T Chi. T Chi Mobile Dock. First Edition. December Pagina terug. Pagina verder. Pdf x 1a gimp. Graphics are a different matter. The GIMP gives. I thought. The x-1a format is available. The economics of development and planning by ml jhingan pdf. GMT economics of development and pdf -. Planning M L Jhingan pdf. Economics B.
Jhingan - Get the economics of development and planning ml jhingan. PDF file for free its your laptop. Sat, 14 Jul Hot wheels super ultimate garage instructions. The Hot Wheels Super Ultimate Garage is a combination of a garage to keep over This set comes with 4 Hot Wheels Cars, but you'll want more cars when Assembly was also super simple as it took us less than 15 minutes to put together. Wpq formato. En este documento se plasman las variables esenciales y no esenciales que involucran la.
WPS No. Fluke t voltage tester manual. The new Fluke two-pole voltage and continuity. Tester or Product are voltage and continuity testers To view, print, or download the latest manual. The Fluke T90, T, T and T two-pole voltage and continuity testers are rugged and easy- to- use. The Fluke T is ideal for proving that a system is dead prior to carrying out any works. This range of testers has been designed with user safety at the forefront,.
Two year warranty. Endless legend guide cultists. Learn to love the Endless Legends offers the 4x player a medium learning curve. You'll have to. The Cultists of the Eternal End convert minor factions to their religion, which is a movement dedicated to bringing about the end of the Endless.
This faction can. Cultists, due to the nature of their Faction ability, are better with players.
They are also best played by a diplomatic player, who can encourage others to take. That said the faction that appeals to me the most are the Cultists, but searching turns up very little information. Could someone share tips on. The Queen, imprisoned within her. Factorytalk energymetrix user manual. The instructions inthis documentdonotcoverall the details orvariations..
FactoryTalk EnergyMetrix is sophisticated web-enabled energy management software. How to run FactoryTalk EnergyMetrix reports automatically? Focus guide for 12th chemistry pdf. If you are looking for a ebook Easy focus guide for 12th chemistry in pdf form, in that case you come on to the correct site. We furnish the utter variant of this. Focus Guide For 12th Physics - Mobilepdf Download or read online Book file Focus.
GMT focus guide for 12th pdf - Way to Success 12th. English Complete Guide will be remodified after the release of. C password protect pdf. NET via Spire. Thanks in. It works fine but created pdf directly open in Adobe Acrobat x pro wihout asking.
Or any other way to protect my pdf file client can not save and print an that Is it possible to set pdf file password at runtime in asp. The verb be varies from this pattern; it has special forms in both the present and the past tense. Word groups often come between the subject and the verb. Such word groups, usually modifying the subject, The subject is slaughter, not pandas or pelts.
By mentally stripping away such modifiers, you can iso iso- late the noun that is in fact the subject. The subject is levels, not pollution.
Long sentences are not necessarily wordy, nor are short sentences always concise. A sentence is wordy if it can be tightened without loss of meaning. There is no need to say the same thing twice. Modifiers are redundant when their meanings are sug- gested by other words in the sentence. An inflated phrase can be reduced to a word or two. Forms of be be, am, is, are, was, were, being, been lack vigor because they convey no action. Passive verbs lack strength because their subjects receive the action instead of doing it.
Forms of be and passive verbs have legitimate uses, but if an active verb can convey your meaning as effectively, use it. Orchard House was the home of Louisa May Alcott.
The harvest will be bountiful after the summer rains. If a be verb makes a sentence needlessly wordy, how- ever, consider replacing it. Often a phrase following the verb will contain a word such as violation that suggests a more vigorous, active verb violate. When used as helping verbs with present participles to express ongoing action, be verbs are fine: She was swim- ming when the whistle blew.
See 11b. In passive sentences, the actor in this case committee fre- quently does not appear: A decision was reached. In most cases, you will want to emphasize the actor, so you should use the active voice. To replace a passive verb with an active one, make the actor the subject of the sentence. The passive voice is appropriate when you wish to emphasize the receiver of the action or to minimize the importance of the actor.
As the time for harvest approaches, the tobacco plants are sprayed with a chemical to retard the growth of suckers. Scientific writing often uses the passive voice to emphasize the experiment or the process rather than the researcher: The solution was heated to the boiling point and then reduced in volume by 50 percent. If two or more ideas are parallel, they should be expressed in parallel grammatical form.
A kiss can be a comma, a question mark, or an exclamation point. Paired ideas are usually connected in one of three ways: The coordinating conjunction and connects two -ing verb forms: The correlative conjunction not only. The comparative term than links two infinitive phrases: Repeat function words such as prepositions by, to and subordinating conjunctions that, because to make parallel ideas easier to grasp.
Do not omit words necessary for grammatical or logical completeness. Readers need to see at a glance how the parts of a sentence are connected. Such omissions are acceptable as long as the omitted word is common to both parts of the com- pound structure. If a sentence defies grammar or idiom because an omitted word is not common to both parts of the com- pound structure, the word must be put back in.
To compare unlike items is illogical and distracting. Also, comparisons should leave no ambiguity about meaning. In the following sentence, two interpretations are possible. The I or we point of view, which emphasizes the writer, is a good choice for writing based primarily on personal experience. The third-person point of view, which emphasizes the subject, is appropriate in most academic and professional writing.
Writers who are having difficulty settling on an appro- priate point of view sometimes shift confusingly from one to another. The solution is to choose a suitable perspec- tive and then stay with it. See also 12a. When a passage begins in one tense and then shifts without warning and for no reason to another, readers are distracted and confused.
The literary convention is to describe fictional events consistently in the present tense. See p. A mixed construction contains sentence parts that do not sensibly fit together. The mismatch may be a matter of grammar or of logic. The prepositional phrase beginning with For cannot serve as the subject of the verb increase.
The revision makes drivers the subject. The coordinating conjunction but cannot link a subordinate clause Although. The exemption, not the elderly, will be abolished. Tiffany, not her welfare, would not be safe. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder, not a place. Modifiers should point clearly to the words they modify. As a rule, related words should be kept together. If they limit the meaning of some other word in the sentence, they should be placed in front of that word.
The original sentence means that no black southerners were slaves. When phrases or clauses are oddly placed, absurd misreadings can result. Dangling modifiers are usually introductory word groups such as verbal phrases that suggest but do not name an actor. To repair a dangling modifier, you can revise the sen- tence in one of two ways: You cannot repair a dangling modifier simply by moving it: We decided to actually enforce the law is a natural construction in English.
We decided actu- ally to enforce the law is not. Look for opportunities to tuck some of your ideas into subordinate clauses. A subordinate clause, which contains a subject and a verb, begins with a word such as after, although, because, before, if, since, that, unless, until, when, where, which, or who.
For the most part, such sentences are fine. Put too many of them in a row, however, and they become monotonous. Words, phrases, or clauses modifying the verb can often be inserted ahead of the subject. Participial phrases beginning with verb forms such as driving or exhausted can frequently be moved to the beginning of a sentence without loss of clarity.
In a sentence that begins with a participial phrase, the subject of the sentence must name the person or thing being described. See 7c. An appropriate voice is one that suits your subject, engages your audience, and conforms to the conventions of the genre in which you are writing, such as lab reports, infor- mal essays, research papers, business memos, and so on. Use jargon only when readers will be familiar with it; even then, use it only when plain English will not do as well.
Broadly defined, jargon includes puffed-up language designed more to impress readers than to inform them. Just delete them.
Although it does have a certain vitality, slang is a code that not everyone under- stands, and it is too informal for most written work. In your writing, avoid referring to any one profession as exclusively male or exclusively female teachers as women or engineers as men, for example.
Also avoid using differ- ent conventions when identifying women and men. Cynthia Jones, graphic designer, mother of three, are running for city council. A journalist is motivated by his deadline. You can avoid such sexist usage in one of three ways: Use gender-neutral terms instead. When describing groups of people, choose names that the groups currently use to describe themselves. Avoid stereotyping a person or a group even if you believe your generalization to be positive.
In the present tense, verbs agree with their subjects in number singular or plural and in person first, second, or third. The present-tense ending -s is used on a verb if its subject is third-person singular; otherwise the verb takes no ending. Such word groups, usually modifying the subject, may contain a noun that at first appears to be the subject. By mentally stripping away such modifiers, you can iso- late the noun that is in fact the subject. The samples on the tray in the lab need testing.
The subject is slaughter, not pandas or pelts. Phrases beginning with the prepositions as well as, in addition to, accompanied by, together with, and along with do not make a singular subject plural: The governor as well as his aide was [not were] on the plane. If the parts of the subject form a single unit, you may treat the subject as singular: Bacon and eggs is always on the menu.
The following indefinite pronouns are singular: Some of our luggage was lost. Some of the rocks were slippery. None of his advice makes sense. None of the eggs were broken.
In Ameri- can English, collective nouns are usually treated as singu- lar: They emphasize the group as a unit. The class are debating among themselves. Many writers prefer to add a clearly plural noun such as mem- bers: The class members are debating among themselves. In general, when fractions or units of measurement are used with a singular noun, treat them as singular; when they are used with a plural noun, treat them as plu- ral: Three-fourths of the pie has been eaten. One-fourth of the drivers were texting.
When this normal order is reversed, it is easy to be confused. The subject, penicillin and tetracycline, is plural. The subject always follows the verb in sentences begin- ning with there is or there are or there was or there were. Relative pronouns used as subjects of subordi- nate clauses take verbs that agree with their antecedents. Constructions such as one of the students who or one of the things that may cause problems for writers.
Instead, consider the logic of the sentence. Several things set us apart from animals. When the phrase the only comes before one, you are safe in assuming that one is the antecedent of the relative pronoun. The antecedent of who is one, not friends. Only one friend lives in the building. Occasionally some of these words, especially economics, mathematics, politics, and statistics, have plu- ral meanings: The economics of the building plan are prohibitive.
Section 10 deals with subject-verb agreement. This sec- tion describes a few other potential problems with verbs. This is not true, however, for irregular verbs, such as the following. Because of the helping verb had, the past-participle form fallen is required.
The tax forms lie on the table. The transitive verb lay takes a direct object: Please lay the tax forms on the table. Other problems with tenses are detailed in this section, after the following sur- vey of tenses. The simple present tense is used primarily for actions occurring at the time they are being discussed or for actions occurring regularly. The simple past tense is used for actions completed in the past. The simple future tense is used for actions that will occur in the future.
In the following table, the simple tenses are given for the regular verb walk, the irregular verb ride, and the highly irregular verb be. A progressive verb consists of a form of be followed by the present participle.
This tense consists of a past participle pre- ceded by had had worked, had gone. For many writers, the subjunctive is especially challenging. For wishes and in if clauses expressing conditions con- trary to fact, the subjunctive is the past-tense form of the verb; in the case of be, it is always were not was , even if the subject is singular. I wish that Jamal drove more slowly late at night. If I were a member of Congress, I would vote for the bill.
Do not use the subjunctive mood in if clauses express- ing conditions that exist or may exist: If Danielle passes [not passed] the test, she will become a lifeguard. Use the subjunctive mood in that clauses following verbs such as ask, insist, recommend, and request.
The sub- junctive in such cases is the base form of the verb. Chung insists that her students be on time. We recommend that Dawson file form soon. Pronouns are words that substitute for nouns: Pronoun errors are typically related to the four topics discussed in this section: A pronoun and its antecedent agree when they are both singular or both plural.
Even though some of the follow- ing indefinite pronouns may seem to have plural meanings, treat them as singular in formal English: In this class everyone performs at his or her [not their] own fitness level. When they or their refers mistakenly to a singular antecedent such as everyone, you will usually have three options for revision: Make the antecedent plural. Rewrite the sentence to avoid the problem. Because the he or she construction is wordy, often the sec- ond or third revision strategy is more effective.
The traditional use of he or his to refer to persons of either sex is now widely considered sexist. Every runner must train rigorously if he or she wants [not they want] to excel. In American English, collective nouns are usually singular because they emphasize the group functioning as a unit.
If the members of the group function individually, however, you may treat the noun as plural: The family put their signatures on the document. Or you might add a plural antecedent such as members to the sentence: The family members put their signatures on the document.
A pronoun should refer clearly to its antecedent.
Do not use they to refer indefinitely to persons who have not been specifi- cally mentioned. The word it should not be used indefinitely in con- structions such as In the article, it says that. The pronoun you is appropriate only when the writer is addressing the reader directly: Once you have kneaded the dough, let it rise in a warm place. The personal pronouns in the following list change what is known as case form according to their grammatical func- tion in a sentence.
Pronouns functioning as subjects or subject complements appear in the subjective case; those functioning as objects appear in the objective case; and those showing ownership appear in the possessive case.
The structures discussed in this section may tempt you to choose the wrong pronoun. To test for the correct pronoun, mentally strip away all of the compound structure except the pronoun in question. Ikiko and she is the subject of the verb found. Strip away the words Ikiko and to test for the correct pronoun: Strip away the words her father and to test for the correct pronoun: Using a reflexive pronoun in such situa- tions is nonstandard.
A pronoun used as an appositive has the same function usually subject or object as the word s it renames. The appositive Dr. Bell and I renames the subject, strategists. I could not agree on a plan [not me could not agree on a plan]. Dur- ing the Lindbergh trial, Bruno Hauptmann repeatedly denied that he was the kidnapper.
We would rather fight [not Us would rather fight]. Management is shortchanging us [not Management is short- changing we]. To test for the correct pronoun, finish the sentence. Both subjects and objects of infinitives take the objective case.
A gerund is a verb form ending in -ing that functions as a noun. Nouns as well as pronouns may modify gerunds. See also 19a. Whom, an objective-case pronoun, is used for objects.
The words who and whom appear pri- marily in subordinate clauses or in questions. Whom is the direct object of the verb will meet. This becomes clear if you restructure the clause: Who is the subject of the verb was.
This becomes clear if you restructure the question: You would nominate whom? Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns; adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. Many adverbs are formed by adding -ly to adjectives formal, formally. When in doubt, consult a dictionary. But they can also function as subject complements following linking verbs usually a form of be: When an adjective functions as a sub- ject complement, it describes the subject.
Justice is blind. Verbs such as smell, taste, look, appear, grow, and feel may also be linking. If the word following one of these verbs describes the subject, use an adjective; if the word modifies the verb, use an adverb. For example, to look cautious suggests the state of a being cautious, whereas to look cautiously is to perform an action in a cautious way. The verbs looked and felt suggest states of being, not actions, so they should be followed by adjectives.
Adverbs usually answer one of these questions: Under what conditions? How often? To what degree? Adjectives are often used incorrectly in place of adverbs in casual or nonstandard speech.
For adjectives with three or more syllables, use more and most or less and least: Two- syllable adjectives form comparatives and superlatives in both ways: It is illogical to sug- gest that absolute concepts come in degrees. As a rule, do not treat a piece of a sentence as if it were a sentence. When you do, you create a fragment. To be a sentence, a word group must consist of at least one full independent clause. An independent clause has a subject and a verb, and it either stands alone as a sentence or could stand alone.
You can repair a fragment in one of two ways: For a longer list, see p. Most fragmented clauses beg to be pulled into a sen- tence nearby.
If a fragmented clause cannot be combined gracefully with a nearby sentence, try rewriting it. They are fragments if they lack a subject, a verb, or both. The word group beginning with Examining is a verbal phrase, not a sentence. A fear of the outside world is an appositive phrase, not a sentence. The list is not a sentence.
Notice how easily a colon corrects the problem. See 18b. If the fragmented phrase cannot be attached to a nearby sentence, turn the phrase into a sentence. You may need to add a subject, a verb, or both. The revision turns the fragmented phrase into a sentence by adding a subject and a verb.
Although fragments are sometimes appropri- ate, writers and readers do not always agree on when they are appropriate. Therefore, you will find it safer to write in complete sentences. Run-on sentences are independent clauses that have not been joined correctly. An independent clause is a word group that stands alone or could stand alone as a sentence. When two or more independent clauses appear in one sentence, they must be joined in one of these ways: When a writer puts no mark of punctuation and no coordinating conjunction between independent clauses, the result is a fused sentence.
In some comma splices, the comma appears alone. In other comma splices, the comma is accompanied by a joining word, such as however, that is not a coordinating conjunction.
See 15b. To correct a run-on sentence, you have four choices: The fourth tech- nique, the one requiring the most extensive revision, is often the most effective. It can be deadly for people with asthma. A semicolon is required between independent clauses that have been linked with a conjunctive adverb such as however or therefore or a transitional phrase such as in fact or of course.
If the first independent clause introduces a quoted sentence, use a colon. See 18b and 21d. These forms are used to cre- ate all of the verb tenses in standard English.
The follow- ing list shows these forms for the regular verb help and the irregular verbs give and be. See also p. See also 11b. The simple tenses show general facts, states of being, and actions that occur regularly.
Simple present tense base form or -s form expresses gen- eral facts, constant states, habitual or repetitive actions, or scheduled future events: The sun rises in the east. The plane leaves tomorrow at 6: She drove to Montana three years ago. When I was young, I walked to school. I will call you next week. The simple progressive forms show continuing action. We are building our house at the shore. They are moving tomorrow. Roy was driving his new car yesterday. When she walked in, we were planning her party.
Nan will be flying home tomorrow. Certain verbs are not normally used in the progres- sive: There are exceptions, however, that you must notice as you encounter them: We are thinking of downloading a summer home. The perfect tenses show actions that happened or will happen before another time. She has not spoken of her grandfather in a long time. They have traveled to Africa twice. By the time Hakan was fifteen, he had learned to drive. I had just finished my walk when my brother drove up.
By the time I graduate, I will have taken five film study classes. The perfect progressive forms show continuous past actions before another time. My sister has been living in Oregon since By the time I moved to Geor- gia, I had been supporting myself for five years. By the time we reach the cashier, we will have been waiting in line for an hour. Modals do not change form to indicate tense. See the examples on p. For appropriate uses of the passive voice, see 2b.
Noun markers identify the nouns that fol- low them. ART N Felix is reading a book about mythology. Count nouns refer to persons, places, things, or ideas that can be counted: Usually the identity will be clear to the reader for one of the following reasons: The noun has been previously mentioned. A phrase or clause following the noun restricts its identity.
See also 13c. The noun describes a unique person, place, or thing. The noun is singular and refers to a class or category of items most often animals, musical instruments, and inventions. See the chart at the bottom of this page. To express an approximate amount of a noncount noun, use a quantifier such as some or more: Do not use articles with nouns that refer to all of something or something in general. A few noncount nouns can also be used as count nouns: He had two loves: Use the with most plural proper nouns: Also use the with large regions, oceans, rivers, and mountain ranges: There are, however, many exceptions, especially with geographic names.
Note exceptions when you encounter them or consult a native speaker or an ESL dictionary. Every English sentence, however, must include a verb. Every English sentence, however, needs a subject.
Seems young for her age. In commands, the subject you is understood but not present in the sentence: Give me the book. The word it is used as the subject of a sentence describ- ing the weather or temperature, stating the time, indicat- ing distance, or suggesting an environmental fact. Do not omit it in such sentences. It is raining in the valley and snowing in the mountains. It is 9: In July, it is very hot in Arizona.
Many people are here today. To study daily is important. Do not add a pronoun even when a word group comes between the subject and the verb. Do not repeat an object or an adverb in an adjective clause. Adjective clauses begin with relative pronouns who, whom, whose, which, that or relative adverbs when, where. Relative pronouns usually serve as subjects or objects in the clauses they introduce; another word in the clause cannot serve the same function.
Relative adverbs should not be repeated by other adverbs later in the clause. The relative pronoun that is the subject of the adjective clause, so the pronoun it cannot be added as the subject. If the clause begins with a relative adverb, do not use another adverb with the same meaning later in the clause. The adverb there cannot repeat the relative adverb where.
For example, in English, we ride in a car but on a bus, plane, train, or subway. At, on, and in to show time and place Showing time at at a specific time: Without it, sen- tence parts can collide into one another unexpectedly, causing misreadings. Add commas in the logical places after cook and eating , and suddenly all is clear.
No longer is Elmer being cooked, the rattlesnake being eaten. Various rules have evolved to prevent such misread- ings and to guide readers through complex grammatical structures.
According to most experts, you should use a comma in the following situations. There are seven coordinating conjunctions in English: A comma tells readers that one independent clause has come to a close and that another is about to begin. If the two independent clauses are short and there is no danger of misreading, the comma may be omitted. The plane took off and we were on our way.
Do not use a comma to separate compound word groups that are not independent clauses. See 17j. The most common introductory word groups are adverb clauses, prepositional phrases, and par- ticipial phrases. The comma may be omitted after a short clause or phrase if there is no danger of misreading. In no time we were at 2, feet. Although some writers view the comma between the last two items as optional, most experts advise using it because its omission can result in ambiguity or misreading.
Adjectives are coordinate if they can be connected with and: Do not use a comma between cumulative adjectives, those that do not each modify the noun separately. Cumulative adjectives cannot be joined with and not three and large and gray shapes. A nonre- strictive element describes a word whose meaning already is clear.
Because it is not essential to the meaning of the sentence, it is set off with commas. If you remove a restrictive element from a sentence, the meaning changes significantly, becoming more gen- eral than intended.
The writer of the first sample sentence does not mean that the campers need clothes in general. The meaning is more restricted: The campers need durable clothes. If you remove a nonrestrictive element from a sen- tence, the meaning does not change significantly. Some meaning may be lost, but the defining characteris- tics of the person or thing described remain the same: The campers need sturdy shoes, and these happen to be expensive.
When an adjective clause is non- restrictive, set it off with commas; when it is restrictive, omit the commas. Use that only with restrictive clauses. Many writ- ers use which only with nonrestrictive clauses, but usage varies. Nonrestrictive phrases are set off with commas; restrictive phrases are not.
Nonrestrictive appositives are set off with commas; restrictive appositives are not. They include conjunctive adverbs such as however, therefore, and moreover and transitional phrases such as for example and as a matter of fact. For a longer list, see page When a transitional expression appears at the begin- ning of a sentence or in the middle of an independent clause, it is usually set off with commas.
It modifies the whole sentence and should be set off with commas. Commas are not needed if the date is inverted or if only the month and year are given: The 15 April deadline is approaching. May was a surprisingly cold month. A zip code, however, is not pre- ceded by a comma. In particular, avoid using commas in the fol- lowing situations. It can also be used between items in a series containing internal punctuation.
The semicolon is never used between elements of unequal grammatical rank. The coordinating conjunc- tion signals the relation between the clauses. If the rela- tion is clear without a conjunction, a writer may choose to connect the clauses with a semicolon instead.
In film, a low-angle shot makes the subject look power- ful; a high-angle shot does just the opposite. A writer may also connect the clauses with a semicolon and a conjunctive adverb such as however or a transitional phrase such as for example. Many corals grow very gradually; in fact, the creation of a coral reef can take centuries. See If one or more of the items contain internal punctuation, however, a writer may use semicolons for clarity.
McCoy, and Mr. A colon may also be used between independent clauses if the second summarizes or explains the first. Faith is like love: It cannot be forced. The second clause may begin with a capital or a lowercase letter: Minds are like parachutes: They [or they] function only when open.
See 22e. Dear Sir or Madam: The ratio of women to men was 2: Alvin Ailey: A Life in Dance Boston: Bedford, NOTE: In biblical references, a colon is ordinarily used between chapter and verse Luke 2: MLA recommends a period Luke 2. Therefore, avoid using it in the fol- lowing situations.
In addition, it has a few conventional uses. Frequently, however, ownership is only loosely implied: If you are not sure whether a word is possessive, try turning it into an of phrase: If pronunciation would be awkward with an apostrophe and an -s, some writers use only the apostro- phe: Indefinite pronouns refer to no specific person or thing: Possessive pronouns its, his, and so on do not use an apostrophe.
See 19d. Note the few exceptions and be consistent in your writing. Use of an apostrophe is usu- ally optional; MLA recommends the apostrophe. Words mentioned as words may also appear in quotation marks. When you choose this option, use the apostrophe: They are also used around some titles and to set off words used as words.
When a long quotation has been set off from the text by indenting, quotation marks are not needed. See pp. Use single quotation marks to enclose a quotation within a quotation. Come and place yourself before me in the early morning! The executive pledged to find a compro- mise even though negotiations had broken down. Titles of books, plays, Web sites, television and radio programs, films, magazines, and newspapers are put in italics.
It also explains how to punctuate when introducing quoted material. In the first sentence, the question mark applies only to the quoted question. In the second sentence, the question mark applies to the whole sentence. If a quotation has been formally introduced, a colon is appropriate.
A formal introduction is a full independent clause, not just an expression such as he said or she writes. Lance Morrow views personal ads as an art form: When you blend a quotation into your own sentence, use either a comma or no punctuation, depending on the way the quotation fits into your sentence structure.
If a quotation appears at the beginning of a sentence, use a comma after it unless the quotation ends with a question mark or an exclamation point. If a quoted sentence is interrupted by explanatory words, use commas to set off the explanatory words. If two successive quoted sentences from the same source are interrupted by explanatory words, use a comma before the explanatory words and a period after them.
Do not use quotation marks around the title of your own essay. Celia asked whether the picnic would be canceled. A period is conventionally used with personal titles, Latin abbreviations, and designations for time.
If a sentence ends with a period marking an abbrevia- tion, do not add a second period. A period is not used for the following: US Postal Service abbreviations for states, abbreviations for orga- nization and country names, academic degrees, and des- ignations for eras.
What is the horsepower of a engine? Use a period, not a question mark, after an indirect question, one that is reported rather than asked directly. He asked me who was teaching the mythology course. It is emphatic enough without it. When typing, use two hyphens to form a dash - - , with no spaces before or after the dash. Use a dash to introduce a list, a restatement, an ampli- fication, or a striking shift in tone or thought. In the first two examples, the writer could also use a colon.
The colon is more formal than the dash and not quite as dramatic. Unless you have a specific reason for using the dash, avoid it. Unnecessary dashes create a choppy effect. Use parentheses to enclose letters or numbers labeling items in a series. There are three points of etiquette in poker: Do not overuse parentheses. Often a sentence reads more gracefully without them. The Audubon article did not contain the words California condor in the sentence quoted.
Do not use the ellipsis mark at the beginning of a quotation; do not use it at the end of a quotation unless you have cut some words from the end of the final sen- tence quoted. Add a space both before and after the slash. Is there in truth no beauty? Put no space around the slash. Proper nouns name specific persons, places, and things.
All other nouns are common nouns. The following types of words are usually capitalized: May, Labor Day, Monday. The seasons and numbers of the days of the month are not: Names of school subjects are capitalized only if they are names of languages: Geology , Principles of Economics.
Do not capitalize common nouns to make them seem important: Margaret Burnes; Dr. The district attorney was elected for a two-year term. Usage varies when the title of an important public figure is used alone: The president [or President] vetoed the bill.
The Impossible Theater: Capi- talize the first word of a quoted sentence but not a quoted phrase. I came to a startling conclusion: The house must be haunted. MLA and Chicago styles use a lowercase letter to begin an independent clause following a colon. APA style uses a capital letter.
CSE style uses a lowercase letter except for a direct quotation that is a complete sentence. Nancy Linehan Thomas Hines Jr. My history professor [not prof. Familiar abbreviations for the names of organizations, corporations, and countries are also acceptable: When using an unfamiliar abbreviation such as NAB for National Association of Broadcasters throughout a paper, write the full name followed by the abbreviation in parentheses at the first mention of the name.
You may use the abbreviation in the rest of the paper. Other commonly accepted abbreviations include BC, AD, a. We set off for the lake early in the morn- ing [not a. Although Latin abbreviations are appropriate in foot- notes and bibliographies and in informal writing, use the appropriate English phrases in formal writing. Use figures for numbers that require more than two words to spell out.
If a sentence begins with a number, spell out the num- ber or rewrite the sentence. Generally, figures are acceptable for the following. Academic styles vary for handling numbers in the text of a paper.
In the humanities, MLA and Chicago spell out numbers below and round numbers forty mil- lion ; they use numerals for specific numbers above one hundred In the social sciences and the sciences, APA and CSE spell out the numbers one through nine and use numerals for all other numbers. If your instructor prefers underlining, simply substi- tute underlining for italics in the examples in this section.
See 20b. Do not use italics when referring to the Bible; titles of books in the Bible Genesis, not Genesis ; the titles of legal documents the Constitution, not the Con- stitution ; or the titles of your own papers. Queen Mary 2, Spirit of St. Words as words, etc. Italicize words used as words, letters mentioned as letters, and numbers mentioned as numbers.
Some toddlers have trouble pronouncing the letters f and s. A big 3 was painted on the stage door. Quotation marks may be used instead of italics to set off words mentioned as words. See 20c. You will still need to proofread, and for some words you may need to turn to the dictionary. Generally, drop a final silent -e when adding a suf- fix that begins with a vowel.
Keep the final -e if the suffix begins with a consonant. When adding -s or -ed to words ending in -y, ordinarily change -y to -i when the -y is preceded by a consonant but not when it is preceded by a vowel. If a final consonant is preceded by a single vowel and the consonant ends a one-syllable word or a stressed syllable, double the consonant when adding a suffix beginning with a vowel.
Add -s to form the plural of most nouns; add -es to singular nouns ending in -s, -sh, -ch, and -x. Add -es when the -o is preceded by a consonant. English words derived from other languages such as Latin, Greek, or French sometimes form the plural as they would in their original language.
Consult a dictionary for others. Generally, do not use a hyphen when such compounds follow the noun. Do not use a hyphen to connect -ly adverbs to the words they modify. In a series, hyphens are suspended: Do you prefer first-, second-, or third-class tickets? Also use the hyphen with the prefixes all-, ex-, and self- and with the suffix -elect.
This setting ensures that only words that already contain a hyphen may be broken at the end of a line. E-mail addresses, URLs, and other electronic addresses need special attention when they occur at the end of a line of text. Do not insert a hyphen to divide electronic addresses. Instead, break an e-mail address after the symbol or before a period. Break a URL after a slash or a double slash or before any other mark of punctuation.