For undergraduate-level introductory courses in Asian Philosophy and Asian Religion. This text carefully introduces and analyzes the views and the arguments. Presents a collection of English translations of the basic text that have shaped the major Asian philosophical traditions. PDF File: Asian Philosophies by Koller, John M. [Pearson, ] 6th Edition [ Paperback] Edition [Paperback] (Paperback) by Koller for online ebook. Asian .
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Editorial Reviews. Review. "The author not only loves his field, he obviously cares very much Kindle Store; ›; Kindle eBooks; ›; Politics & Social Sciences. Editorial Reviews. Review. "There is no better textbook which disentangles Asian philosophies Kindle Store · Kindle eBooks · Politics & Social Sciences. Read "Asian Philosophies" by John M. Koller available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today and get $5 off your first purchase. With an inside view from an expert.
Confucius developed a system that saw man as a social being, interconnected to society through a system of moral and social ethics, concerned with perfecting human character to create a virtuous social order. While the traditions of Confucianism have historical and regional variations, there are certain central ideas and values which are common. These values have constituted the key elements of the traditions of societies which have endured history and political upheavals. The basic Confucian concepts embrace a dynamic cosmological worldview for promoting harmony amidst change, where individuals exist in concentric circles of relationships with ethical responsibilities that place importance on the family, within a hierarchical social system, where loyalty to elders is paramount and a generational concept of gratitude and respect for earlier ancestors exists. Education is the mechanism where individuals are cultured and developed as a means to enrich society and create a social and political order. History is valued as continuality and a basis for moral reflection and learning.
Education is the mechanism where individuals are cultured and developed as a means to enrich society and create a social and political order. History is valued as continuality and a basis for moral reflection and learning.
The worldview purported by Confucius is characterized by four key elements; An anthrop cosmic perspective of the great triad of heaven a guiding force , earth and humans, An organic holism where the universe is seen as unified, interconnected and interpenetrating, where everything interacts and affects everything else, A dynamic vitalism of underlying units of reality which is constituted of the material energy force of the universe chi , the natural force of the universe, which creates reciprocity between man and nature and is the substance of life responsible for continuing process of change in the universe, and Ethics embracing man and nature.
Within this context, Confucian thought sees the person in relation to others and not as an isolated individual. Thus, in Confucian society, the common good is more important than individual good. In this view, self interest and altruism for a common cause is not always mutually exclusive. Confucius was more concerned about the process of human development, rather than theological concepts and ends .
Through education and rituals which signified respect, man would develop five inner virtues; integrity, righteousness, loyalty, reciprocity and human-heartedness, which once developed would radiate externally from the individual, so that society could be governed by man, rather than rules of law. To this end, Confucius defines five primary relationships that will achieve this; ruler and subject, parent and child, elder and younger brother, husband and wife, and friend and friend.
As a child develops and learns, he or she will first learn to love and respect the parents, then brothers and sisters, then relatives, and later all of humanity. This piety is called Hsiao, which is considered the root of all humanity.
This philosophy was able to change the family in agrarian China from a unit of production to a collective moral dimension, with a social code for each rank of the family hierarchy, very different from the Western concept of individualism .
Two other concepts in Confucianism are Tao, the way of life and Te, potency and self-sacrificial generosity with humility, with the moral power of attraction and transformation, associated with these qualities.
The humanistic attribute required to achieve the above is through Ren, which means love, kindness and goodness, qualities of the perfect individual. This is the essence of what makes humans different from other members of the animal kingdom. Through Li, the individual expresses his respect and reverence for others .
Another important aspect of Confucian thought mentioned above is Yi or righteousness. This is where self interest is subservient to organizational interest.
Yi is practiced through cultivating ritual and etiquette and eventually becomes second nature. Zhi or wisdom is the ability to apply the above virtues into life situations which implies an understanding of the Confucian worldview above.
Zhi is therefore much more than knowledge. Finally one must possess Xin or trustworthiness to safeguard the mission of the organization. Romar suggested that Confucian ethics are very similar to the ideas developed by Peter Drucker .
Confucius was not influential in government during his time, serving only in minor positions, and wondering around China giving advice to those few that listened. However, he attracted a number of followers, who later held office in government, advised by Confucius on matters of ethics and piety.
Confucius spent most of his last years working on his classics. After his death, Confucianism had to contend with other philosophies of Taoism and Buddhism during the 3rd to 7th Centuries, creating a blend of philosophies creating Neo-Confucianism, dominating philosophical thought in China during the Tsang Dynasty AD , the Sung Dynasty AD and later during the Ming Dynasty AD. Confucian institutions in China slowly disintegrated after the overthrow of the Last Emperor in , although it survived in practice in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and parts of South-East Asia after that time.
Confucianism has been examined and debated about its significance to Asian Economic development by Western scholars, over the last few decades. Confucianism is often misunderstood, as to its real interpretations. Most have believed that Confucianism is completely worldly and humanistic, lacking any divinity.
Some scholars have criticized Confucian works as being nothing more than a reaffirmation of earlier thoughts, with no originality  , although Confucius himself stated the need to look back to learn history as examples of models and acts of piety. Many misunderstand the concept of holism, not necessarily meaning holism of society, but holism of the worldview from a family perspective .
However Tu suggested that individualism is a Western mode of capitalism and East Asian had developed another model based on relationships to develop change through consensus and networks, with a sense of personal discipline .
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Although these traditions share a lot in common as holistic medicines, the different philosophical foundations found in each confer distinguishing attributes and unique qualities. SCM is based on a constitution-based approach, and is in this way relatively more similar to the Ayurvedic tradition than to the TCM, although many of the basic SCM theories were originally derived from TCM, a syndrome-based medicine.
SCM and TCM use the same botanical materials that are distributed mainly in the East Asian region, but the basic principles of usage and the underlying rationale are completely different from each other. Meanwhile, the principles of the Ayurvedic use of botanical resources are very similar to those seen in SCM, but the medicinal herbs used in Ayurveda generally originate from the West Asian region which displays a different spectrum of flora.
Over the years, TCM and Ayurveda have evolved and spread around the world. The two medical traditions occupy an increasingly larger portion in the global market, presumably due to the rising interest not only among the consumers but also among medical practitioners [ 1 ]. The historical, cultural and social foundations of the Asian states were cultivated on top of the three main philosophical traditions, namely, the Vedic philosophy giving rise to Ayurveda , Taoism giving rise to TCM and Confucianism.
Although it originated from TCM, traditional Korean medicine TKM eventually evolved into an independent medical tradition with distinctive qualities of its own.
SCM has won increasingly more popularity in Korea and overseas as more people began to recognize the effectiveness of SCM therapy and the advantages of its constitutionally individualized approach. Unlike conventional TM, the SCM is rooted in the neo-Confucianism philosophy and holds a constitution-based perspective [ 4 ].
Ayurveda, TCM and SCM share many aspects in common and yet have individual qualities that make each medical tradition unique and special. This article portrays the basic picture of the three medical traditions of Ayurveda, TCM and SCM and sheds light on their similar and distinctive features. Medical interventions therefore necessarily take into account the multifaceted and complex relationship between the spirit, mind and body, and the aim of therapy is not the elimination of the isolated disease or symptom but the treatment of the body as a whole [ 5 ].
TM diagnosis relies on subjective examination observing, listening, inquiring and palpating of the patient by the medical professional, and TM therapy includes a wide spectrum of therapeutic modalities such as herbal medication, acupunctural therapy and manual therapy. TM herbal remedies are generally a mixture of several medicinal herbs, and the synergistic effect of the ingredients produces the intended therapeutic results.