Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation D ; the number. penetration test spt astm d, astm d dm 15 standard practice for thin compaction, astm d ebook download lehel mobi, standard practice for . Download ASTM dan SNI untuk Perencanaan dan Pelaksanaan. July 12th, - ASTM D SPT Standard Penetration Test pdf 13 ASTM D Sampling.
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This standard is issued under the fixed designation D ; the number 1 This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D18 on Soil and. D / DM Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Fine- Grained Soils for Geotechnical Purposes Standard + Redline PDF Bundle. ASTM D Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Fine-Grained Soils for Geotechnical Purpose - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or.
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Soft clays require Cr of 0 or less than 0. For softer or harder soils Cr tubes may require special order from the supplier. For determination of undrained strength, unconfined compression or unconsolided, undrained triaxial compression tests are often used Test Methods D and D Unconfined compression tests should be only used with caution or based on experience because they often provide unreliable measure of undrained strength, especially in fissured clays.
Unconsolidated undrained tests are more reliable but can still suffer from disturbance problems. Advanced tests, such as consolidated, undrained triaxial compression Test Method D testing, coupled with one dimensional consolidation tests Test Methods D and D are performed for better understanding the relationship between stress history and the strength and compression characteristics of the soil as described by Ladd and Degroot, 4.
Consolidation test specimens are generally larger diameter than those for strength testing and larger diameter soil cores may be required. Disturbance will result in errors in accurate determination of both yield stress 5. Disturbance and sample quality can be evaluated by looking at recompression strains in the One-Dimensional Consolidation test see Andressen and Kolstad 5. The piston sampler Practice D uses a thin-walled tube. However, the piston samplers are designed to recover soft soils and low-plasticity soils and the thin-walled tubes used must be of lower Cr of 0.
These samplers use high Cr tubes of 1. The double-tube samplers are thicker walled and require special considerations for an outside cutting shoe and not the inner thin-walled liner tube.
Figure 2 shows the standard sampler with a ball check valve in the head, which is used in fluid rotary drilled holes.
One variation is a Bishop-type thin-walled sampler that is capable of holding a vacuum on the sampler to improve recovery 1, 2. This design was used to recover sand samples that tend to run out of the tube with sampler withdraw.
Very stiff clays4 generally require use of rotary soil core barrels Practice D, Guide D Mixed soils with sands can be sampled but the presence of coarse sands and gravels may cause soil core disturbance and tube damage. Low-plasticity silts can be sampled but in some cases below the water table they may not be held in the tube and a piston sampler may be required to recover these soils.
Sands are much more difficult to penetrate and may require use of smaller diameter tubes. Gravelly soils cannot be sampled and gravel will damage the thin-walled tubes.
The research shows that loose sands are densified and dense sands are loosened during tube insertion because the penetration process is drained, allowing grain rearrangement.
Use in very stiff and hard clays with insertion by driving or hammering cannot provide an intact sample. Samples that must be obtained by driving should be labeled as such to avoid any advanced laboratory testing for engineering properties.
Any drilling method that ensures the base of the borehole is intact and that the borehole walls are stable may be used. Bent or damaged tubes should be cut off before extruding. Assure that the markings or labels are adequate to survive transportation and storage. NOTE 6Top end of the tube should be labeled top. Field Log 9. This guide is used for logging explorations by drilling and sampling. Some examples of the information required include; The American Society for Testing and Materials takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard.
Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.
This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn.
Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.
Individual reprints single or multiple copies of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at phone , fax , or service astm. Japanese and Norwegian samplers, use thin-walled tubes with 5. A piston sampler Practice 5. These contamination that would enter an open sampling tube. The double-tube sam- the surface using other hydraulic equipment to push in the plers are thicker walled and require special considerations for sampler.
The push equipment should provide a smooth con- an outside cutting shoe and not the inner thin-walled liner tube.
Figure 2 shows the standard than one to two weeks, unless they are stainless steel or sampler with a ball check valve in the head, which is used in fluid rotary drilled holes. This is because once the core is in contact with the steel AM are commonly used but it must meet the strict the SSID tube, there are galvanic reactions between the tube and the soil Special Smooth Inside Diameter and DOM Drawn Over which generally cause the annulus core to harden with time.
Mandrel tolerances. Table 2 is taken from older versions of There are also possible microbial reactions caused by tempo- this standard, and is in general agreement with Specification rary exposure to air.
Seamless steel tubing Specification A meeting laboratory immediately upon receipt. If tubes are for re-use, requirements of Table 2 may avoid problems associated with soil cores must be extruded quickly within a few days since welded tube, such as improper or poor quality welds, and will damage to any inside coatings is inevitable in multiple re-use. Tubes shall be clean and free Extruded cores can be preserved by encasing the cores in of all surface irregularities including projecting weld seams.
Tubes may 5. In cases where the soil is very weak, it may storage. Measure the inside and outside diameters, and diam- be required to cut sections of the tube to remove soil cores for eter of the cutting edge to check for ovality and Cr 6.
See Appendix X1 for recommended tech- micrometers to ascertain that tubes meet these general toler- niques. NOTE 1—The one to two week period is just guideline typically used in 6. Longer time periods may be allowed depending on logistics and X1. Use tubes at least 3 in. NOTE 2—The quality of the result produced by this standard is 6. For heavy duty or suitability of the equipment and facilities used.
Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D are generally considered capable of competent anticipated re-use, the wall thickness can be increased.
For and objective sampling. Users of this practice are cautioned that compli- example, a 3 in.
If tubes are to be re-used, they Reliable results depend on many factors; Practice D provides a means must be thoroughly cleaned and inspected prior to each re-use. Do not re-use tubes that are bent or out of round, or have 6. Apparatus damaged cutting edges, inside corrosion or corrosion coating damage. Repair re-used tube damage to the cutting edges that 6. Open borehole diameter diameter, De, to clearance ratios ranging from 0. Special order tubes of less than 0. Select the shall not exceed 3.
In the field, if there is evidence of soil disturbance such as loose soil within the tube, samples falling out, compressed or 6.
These special order tubes do not 7. If the depth prompt extrusion of soil cores with no corrosion resistant is less than the cleanout depth there could be excessive coating. Severity of damage is a function of time as well as If the depth is deeper than the cleanout depth this may be interaction between the sample and the tube.
Thin-walled tubes normal because the thin-walled tube will penetrate partially should have some form of protective coating, unless the soil is under the weight of the rods. If the sampler penetrates to be extruded in less than seven days.
Organic or inorganic significantly while resting at the base of the boring, adjust lubricants like penetrating oil and non-stick cooking spray have shorten the push length. Tubes have been coated with problems listed above. It is useful if there is excessive slough collected in lacquer or epoxy for reuse, but lacquer may not be suitable for the open thin wall tubes in unstable boreholes. With the piston locked in longer storage periods and must be inspected for inside wear.
Other types of 7.
Plating of the tubes or alternate base metals may be scraping the wall of the borehole. In general the coating should be of sufficient hard- ness and thickness to resist scratching that can occur from 7.