A computer system (fig) consists of mainly four basic Basic computer Organization b. .. The basics behind the Open Source Initiative is that when. Computer Fundamental for BBA, portal7.info and BCA . The Droid is a Smartphone capable of basic computing tasks such as emailing and web Transmitting those documents over the Internet is now easier than ever with the PDF file format. This Computer Fundamentals tutorial covers a foundational understanding of moderate level of expertise in knowledge of computer basics from where you.
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PDF | 4 hours read | On Nov 9, , Jeleel Adekunle ADEBISI and others published 5. to know some basic things about the computer and the world. INTRO. The software is the instructions that makes the computer work. Software is held either on your computers hard disk, CD-ROM,. DVD or on a diskette (floppy disk) . This tutorial explains the foundational concepts of computer hardware, knowledge of computer basics from where you can take yourself to the next level.
Computer Basics Learning computer basics is a dreaded nightmare for any new computer user. There are so many things to learn about computers and the fact that they change with new updates every day, the entire learning process seems a little bit crazy. I have been working on computers for more than 25 years and when I first started to use a computer there was no such thing as Windows. You had to navigate around the computer by using DOS command lines, and believe me, computers did not look pretty in those days. I must say, that learning computer basics now days is a lot easier, as everything is right in front of you on your desktop with a graphical interface.
Being a machine, it does not suffer from boredom, tiredness or lack of concentration, even if millions of computations are to be performed by a computer. It performs the calculations with same accuracy and speed. Installing the computer requires a grueling and expensive task of system analysis and design. There is a scarcity of computer professionals to do this. Management tends to treat computer like ordinary equipment Viz. Computer pervades the working of the entire organization and unless managements involve themselves fully during the system development effort and the employees, the customers, the vendors etc.
The initial investment can be very high though this can be mitigated to some extent by the rental and tax concessions. The need to obtain stand by facilities in the event of breakdown of any computerized systems. Manual systems, though slow, are vastly flexible.
If the format of a report, for example has to be changed, it can be readily done by communicating the necessary instruction to the concerned staff whereas in a computerized system, this would have to go through all the stages of systems analysis and design before it is effected System Software And Application Software Software is a set of instructions, programs which enable the computer to perform specified task.
In other words, software is nothing but binary code instructions which control the hardware. In most of the organizations the computer is a valuable resource.
Among the resources that a computer has are processing time, storage space, printers, terminals and information. The management of these resources is performed largely by a type of system software called an operating system. When users interact with the computer the interaction is with system software. System software is a set of programs that manage the resources of a computer system, so that they are used in an optimal fashion, provide routine services such as copying data from one file to another and assist in the development of applications programs.
System software consists of programs that assist the computer in the efficient control, support, development and execution of application programs. Application software on the other hand, performs specific tasks for the computer user.
System software: They can be broadly classified in to three types. System control programs control the execution of programs, manage the storage and processing resources of the computer and perform other management and monitoring functions. Other examples are DBMS and communication monitors. System support programs provide routine service functions to the other computer programs and computer users.
Libraries, utilities, job accounting etc. System development programs assist in the creation of application programs.
System programs are developed and sold by both computer companies and specialized software firms. Application Software: It is a program written for, or by, a user to perform a specific job.
General purpose application software such as electronic spreadsheet has a wide application. Specific purpose application software, such as payroll and sales analysis is used only for the application for which it is designed. The system software controls the execution of the application software and provides other support functions such as data storage.
What is an operating system? The operating system is a program that acts as an interface between the user and the hardware. It is a collection of programs that coordinates the operations of computer hardware and software. Functions of an operating system: Starting the Computer: In addition, ROM contains a bootstrap loader program that is used to start a computer. When the computer is turned on, it automatically begins to execute the boot program.
This program first runs diagnostic programs to check the status of RAM and of each of the attached system devices. The boot program then reads in the operating system executive program from the disk.
The layout of the memory at this stage is shown in figure. Running application programs: To run an application programs such as word processing program, the user types the name of the program after getting the Dos prompt on the screen. When the application program is in RAM, the operating system executive program gives control of the computer system to the applications programs.
The computer then executes the application program. When the application program is running the operating system manages the allocation of memory. When a user requests that a program be run, the operating system allocates the memory required for the program instructions and for data. Running utility programs: An operating system includes utility programs that give the user control over various features of the computer system. The utility programs are either resident or transient.
Disk Copy A: Managing files: Information on the disk is organized into files. A file is collection of Bytes. What are assembly languages? What are its advantages and disadvantages? Assembly Languages are structurally similar to machine language and the programmer uses symbolic names than numerical representation of operations. This reduces coding time and the amount of information the programmer has to remember. They use assembler to convert the program in to machine language object program.
Assembly languages are also known as symbolic languages as they use symbols to represent the arithmetic and logical operations.
Instead of using machine code operation numbers, the programmer can use mnemonics and symbolic operands which are very easy to learn and remember. They are not portable.
There are many low level languages. They are machine dependant. For example IBM — Assembly language. ICL — System 4 user code. Honey well — Easy coder. What is Hardware Hardware is best described as a device that is physically connected to your computer or something that can be physically touched. A perfect example of hardware is a computer monitor, which is an output device that lets you see what you're doing on the computer. Without any hardware, your computer would not exist, and software would not be able to run.
In the image to the right, are a webcam and an example of an external hardware peripheral that allows users to make videos or pictures and transmit them over the Internet. What are hardware upgrades? A hardware upgrade is any new hardware that replaces or adds to old hardware in the computer. A good example of a common hardware upgrade is a RAM upgrade, where the user is increasing the computers total memory, which will increase its overall speed and efficiency. Another good example is doing a video card upgrade, which is the act of removing the old video card and replacing it with a new video card that is much more capable than the previously installed video card, again increasing the capabilities of the computer.
Your PC Personal Computer is a system, consisting of many components. Some of those components, like Windows XP, and all your other programs, are software. The stuff you can actually see and touch, and would likely break if you threw it out a fifth-story window, is hardware. Not everybody has exactly the same hardware. But those of you who have a desktop system, like the example shown in Figure 1, probably have most of the components shown in that same figure.
Those of you with notebook computers probably have most of the same components. Only in your case the components are all integrated into a single book-sized portable unit. Figure 1 The system unit is the actual computer; everything else is called a peripheral device. Your computer's system unit probably has at least one floppy disk drive, and one CD or DVD drive, into which you can insert floppy disks and CDs. There's another disk drive, called the hard disk inside the system unit, as shown in Figure 2.
You can't remove that disk, or even see it. But it's there. And everything that's currently "in your computer" is actually stored on that hard disk.
We know this because there is no place else inside the computer where you can store information! Your computer's hard disk can store as much information as tens of thousands of floppy disks, so don't worry about running out of space on your hard disk any time soon. As a rule, you want to store everything you create or download on your hard disk. Use the floppy disks and CDs to send copies of files through the mail, or to make backup copies of important items.
During the average session sitting at the computer, you'll probably use only a small amount of all that's available.
The stuff you're working with at any given moment is stored in random access memory often abbreviated RAM, and often called simply "memory". Much faster than any disk. For you, "fast" translates to less time waiting and more time being productive.
So if RAM is so fast, why not put everything in it? Why has a hard disk at all? The answer to that lies in the fact that RAM is volatile. As soon as the computer is shut off, whether intentionally or by an accidental power outage, everything in RAM disappears, just as quickly as a light bulb goes out when the plug is pulled. So you don't want to rely on RAM to hold everything. A disk, on the other hand, holds its information whether the power is on or off. The Hard Disk All of the information that's "in your computer", so to speak, is stored on your computer's hard disk.
You never see that actual hard disk because it's sealed inside a special housing and needs to stay that way. Unlike RAM, which is volatile, the hard disk can hold information forever -- with or without electricity.
Most modern hard disks have tens of billions of bytes of storage space on them. Which, in English, means that you can create, save, and download files for months or years without using up all the storage space it provides?
In fact, if that message appears, it won't until you're down to about MB of free space. And MB of empty space is equal to about blank floppy disks. That's still plenty of room! The Mouse Obviously you know how to use your mouse, since you must have used it to get here. But let's take a look at the facts and buzzwords anyway.
Your mouse probably has at least two buttons on it. The button on the left is called the primary mouse button, the button on the right is called the secondary mouse button or just the right mouse button. I'll just refer to them as the left and right mouse buttons. Software is the general term for information that's recorded onto some kind of medium.
For example, when you go to the video store and rent or download a tape or DVD, what you're really getting is the software that's stored on that tape or disk. Your computer is a hardware device that reads software too. Most of the software on your computer comes in the form of programs. A program consists of "instructions" that tell the computer what to do, how to behave. Just as there are thousands of albums you can download on CD for your stereo, and thousands of movies you can download to play on your VCR or DVD player, there are thousands of programs that you can download to run on your computer.
You usually get some programs. For example, when you download a computer it will probably have an operating system like Windows XP already installed on it. If you do download a specific program, it would be to perform some specific task. For example, you might use a graphics program to touch up photos, or you might use a word processing program to write text.
You're using your Web browser program right now to read this text assuming you're not reading a printed copy on paper. Just as there are umpteen different brands of toothpaste, there are umpteen different brands of word processing programs, graphics programs, and Web browsers. For example, all graphics programs are designed to help you work with pictures.
When you download a program, you get the program stored on a CD as in the example shown at left. You may not have seen any boxes containing software when you bought your computer.
That's because the software that came with your computer has been pre-installed onto your computer's hard disk for you. You don't need to use the CD to run a program that's already installed on your computer. You only need to keep the CDs as backups, in case something goes wrong with your hard disk and you need to re-install the programs.
What Programs Do I Have? Perhaps you're wondering what programs are installed on your computer. Usually when you download a computer, they tell you what programs you're getting with it. So if you were to go back to the original ad from which you bought your computer, you'd probably find the names of programs you already have listed there. Though there's no need to do that, because every program that's currently installed on your computer is listed in your All Programs menu assuming you're using Windows XP.
When you first open the Start menu, the left column lists programs you've used the most recently Figure a1. If your computer is brand new, then the programs listed there will just be some examples. Not by a long shot. The All Programs option on the Start menu provides access to all your installed programs. When you first click on or just point to the All Programs option, the All Programs menu that appears Figure a2 will show icons and name of program groups, as well as some programs.
Figure a2 It's easy to tell the difference between a program and a program group. When you click on, or point to, a program group, icons and names of programs within that group appear on a submenu.
The submenu will contain programs within that group, and perhaps some more program groups. The submenu that opens contains more program groups, and specific programs you can run.
Figure a3 Your Start menu won't look exactly like the one shown in the figures, because different computers have different programs installed. Just like different people who own CD players own different CDs. Running Programs When you click on the icon for a program, the program opens. Which means the program appears on the screen, so you can use it. Each program will appear in its own program window on the Windows desktop.
For example, in Figure a4 the photograph in the background is the Windows desktop. Floating about on top of that desktop are four different program, each in its own separate program window. Figure a4 Elements of Program Windows While not two programs are exactly alike, most program windows contain certain similar elements.
Stretched across the top of the program window is the title bar, which usually shows the name of the program that's inside the program window. Beneath the title bar is the menu bar, which gives you access to the tools and capabilities of that specific program.
The toolbar provides quick one-click access to frequently-used commands in the menu bar. The status bar at the bottom of a program provides general information. Figure a5 shows, in animated form, the title bar, menu bar, toolbar, and status bar of several different sample programs.
Figure a5 Software is often divided into two categories: Includes the operating system and all the utilities that enable the computer to function.
Includes programs that do real work for users. For example, word processors, spreadsheets, and database management systems fall under the category of applications software. An Operating System is a set of programs that help in controlling and managing the Hardware and the Software resources of a computer system.
A good operating system should have the following features; 1. Help in the loading of programs and data from external sources into the internal memory before they are executed. The main functions of DOS are to manage disk files, allocate system resources according to the requirement.
Basically, DOS is the medium through which the user and external devices attached to the system communicate with the system. DOS translate the command issued by the user in the format that is understandable by the computer and instruct computer to work accordingly.
It also translates the result and any error message in the format for the user to understand. DOS recognize two wildcard characters: CD Displays the name of or changes the current directory. CLS Clears the screen. DATE Displays or sets the date.
DEL Deletes one or more files. DIR Displays a list of files and subdirectories in a directory. ECHO Displays messages, or turns command echoing on or off. COM program command interpreter. MD Creates a directory. PATH Displays or sets a search path for executable files. REM Records comments remarks in a batch file or config. REN Renames a file or files. RD Removes a directory. TIME Displays or sets the system time. TYPE Displays the contents of a text file. VOL Displays a disk volume label and serial number.
What Is Dbms? As one of the oldest components associated with computers, the database management system, or DBMS, is a computer software program that is designed as the means of managing all databases that are currently installed on a system hard drive or network.
Different types of database management systems exist, with some of them designed for the oversight and proper control of databases that are configured for specific purposes. Here are some examples of the various incarnations of DBMS technology that are currently in use, and some of the basic elements that are part of DBMS software applications. As the tool that is employed in the broad practice of managing databases, the DBMS is marketed in many forms.
All these products provide for the creation of a series of rights or privileges that can be associated with a specific user. This means that it is possible to designate one or more database administrators who may control each function, as well as provide other users with various levels of administration rights.
This flexibility makes the task of using DBMS methods to oversee a system something that can be centrally controlled, or allocated to several different people. What is ICT? Lets focus on the three words behind ICT: ICTs are often spoken of in a particular context, such as ICTs in education, health care, or libraries. What is Linux? Pronounced lee-nucks or lih-nucks. A freely-distributable open source operating system that runs on a number of hardware platforms. The Linux kernel was developed mainly by Linux Torvalds and it is based on Unix.
Because it's free, and because it runs on many platforms, including PCs and Macintoshes, Linux has become an extremely popular alternative to proprietary operating systems. What is Unix? Pronounced yoo-niks, a popular multi-user, multitasking operating system developed at Bell Labs in the early s. Created by just a handful of programmers, UNIX was designed to be a small, flexible system used exclusively by programmers. UNIX was one of the first operating systems to be written in a high-level programming language, namely C.
This meant that it could be installed on virtually any computer for which a C compiler existed. This natural portability combined with its low price made it a popular choice among universities. A computer virus is usually hard to detect if it's disguised as a harmless file, in the case of a Trojan horse virus. This type of virus doesn't replicate itself like most viruses, but instead opens your computer up to malicious imposters.
Leaving you to wonder, how can you tell if you're computer is infected? Luckily, your computer after coming in contact with a virus or worm will display some symptoms and signs of infection. It is particularly useful to know the signs that indicate an infection. Because you can unintentionally introduce a virus to your computer at anytime when you run an infected program or open an email attachment. To guard against this you need a good anti-virus program Signs of a Computer Infection Some signs that may indicate that your computer is infected include: The list of viruses is quiet long and complex.
So, we simplified the list by mentioning few broad categories of viruses that can put your computer and all your personal data on it, in danger. These computer viruses include: Computer Viruses Boot Sector viruses: A boot sector virus infects diskettes and hard drives. All disks and hard drives contain smaller sections called sectors. The first sector is called the boot. MBR functions to read and load the operating system.
So, if a virus infects the boot or MBR of a disk, such as a floppy disk, your hard drive can become infected, if you re-boot your computer while the infected disk is in the drive. Once your hard drive is infected all diskettes that you use in your computer will be infected. Boot sector viruses often spread to other computers by the use of shared infected disks and pirated software applications.
The best way to disinfect your computer of the boot sector virus is by using antivirus software. A program virus becomes active when the program file usually with extensions. DRV carrying the virus is opened. Once active, the virus will make copies of itself and will infect other programs on the computer. Multipartite viruses: Stealth viruses: Polymorphic viruses: Macro Viruses: Trojan Horse Viruses Blaster Hardware vs.
Software Software is a general term used to describe a collection of computer programs, procedures, and documentation that perform some task on a computer system. Practical computer systems divide software systems into three major classes: Software is an ordered sequence of instructions for changing the state of the computer hardware in a particular sequence.
It is usually written in high-level programming languages that are easier and more efficient for humans to use closer to natural language than machine language.
High-level languages are compiled or interpreted into machine language object code. Software may also be written in an assembly language, essentially, a mnemonic representation of a machine language using a natural language alphabet. Hardware is best described as a device that is physically connected to the computer or something that can be physically touched.
Without any hardware your computer would not exist and software would have nothing to run on. It is the physical part of a computer, including the digital circuitry, as distinguished from the computer software that executes within the hardware. There are several differences between computer hardware and software.
Comparison chart Improve Hardware Software this chart System software, Input,storage,processing,control, and output Types: Programming software, and devices. Application software. To deliver its set of Inter Hardware starts functioning once software is instructions, Software is dependency: Software failure is systematic. Hardware failure is random. Hardware does have Failure: Software does not have an increasing failure at the last stage.
To perform the specific task Hardware serves as the delivery system for you need to complete. The hardware of a computer is Software is generally not Function: Hardware faults are physical. Software faults are not. Software does not wear out Lifetime: Hardware wears out over time. It is physical in nature It is logical in nature Collection of instructions that enables a user to interact with the computer.
Software is a Devices required to store and execute or run the program that enables a Definition: Internet Explorer , Microsoft label makers, routers , and modems. What are the different kinds of computer hardware? For the examples of computer hardware and peripheral devices, read on..
Hardware is the physical aspect of a computer. While computer software exists in the form of ideas and concepts, computer hardware exists in substance. By definition, the different parts of a computer that can be touched constitute computer hardware. Computer hardware includes central processing unit, motherboard, microchips as well as computer peripherals like input-output and storage devices that are added to a host computer to enhance its abilities.
Here is an overview of the different kinds of computer hardware. Computer Hardware Examples Here is a list of some of the fundamental units of a computer that form the set of hardware components. It is a subsystem that transfers data within and between computers. A parallel bus is capable of carrying multiple data works in parallel while a serial bus carries data in a bit-serial form.
An internal bus connects the internal components of a computer to the motherboard while an external bus connects the external computer peripherals to the motherboard. Short for Accelerated Graphic Port, AGP is a high-speed point-to- point channel that enables the attachment of a graphics card to the computer's motherboard. It is a low-latency point-to-point link that uses high bandwidth and acts in a bi-directional manner.
It facilitates power management.
The peripheral component interconnect standard refers to the computer bus connecting peripheral devices to a motherboard. It is a computer expansion card interface format. Universal Serial Bus, as it is called, acts as an interface to a host computer. It enhances the plug-and-play capabilities of a computer.
USB is a popular device used today. Also known as the Common System Interface, Quick Path is a point-to-point processor interconnect that stands in close competition with Hyper Transport. It is a computer bus that enables the transfer of data between mass storage devices and the motherboard.
It enables the transfer of data from computer storage devices like hard drives and tape drives. It is a point-to-point serial protocol. It is a set of logic machines that can execute computer programs. The fundamental function of a CPU is to execute sequences of stored instructions known as programs. During its first step of operation, the processor retrieves instructions from the program memory. This step is known as the 'fetch' step.
In the 'decode' step, the processor breaks up the instructions into parts after which it is executed. During the fourth step of write back, the CPU writes back the results of the processed instructions into memory.
Computer fan: It is attached to the CPU and is used to lower the temperature of a computer. There are several fans in the computer case, which help maintain a constant flow of air to the computer system. It is a computer program that is embedded in a hardware device.
It is midway between hardware and software. Being a piece of computer program, it is similar to software, while being tightly bound to hardware makes it close to being a hardware component. A motherboard provides the computer system with all the electrical connections, the basic circuitry and components required for its functioning.
Power Supply: This component is responsible for supplying power to the computer. It converts the AC power from the mains to low voltage DC power for the internal components of a computer. AT is one of the commonly used power supplies. Short for random access memory, RAM is the physical memory of a computer. It is used to store the currently running programs and is attached to the motherboard.
Sound Card: It is a computer expansion card that enables the input and output of audio signals to and from a computer. Sound cards provide multimedia applications with the audio components. Storage Controllers: They are located on the motherboard or on the expansion cards. Video Card: Video card that is also known as the graphics card is a hardware component, which generates and outputs the images to a display.
USB flash drives are the relatively recent storage media that have become a rage today. Tape drives and zip drives are less commonly used while the floppy disks are obsolete today.
Hard disks and solid-state drives are used for internal storage. Here is a brief introduction to each of these storage media. Know all about the hard drives.
Blue-ray Disc: It is an optical disc storage media format. It obtains its name from the blue laser that is used to read and write this type of disc. Owing to its shorter wavelength, blue-ray discs can store large amounts of data. BD-ROM drive is used for reading data from a blue-ray disc and a BD writer can be used for both reading from and writing to a blue-ray disc. Compact Disc: Popularly known as CDs, compact discs are storage devices for storing digital data.
Standard CDs can store around 80 minutes of audio. CD- ROMs contain data that is accessible for reading and is not modifiable. CD- ROMs are used for distribution of computer software and multimedia applications. A CD Writer is an optical disc drive that uses laser radiation or electromagnetic waves for reading and writing data onto discs. Commonly known as a digital video disk and abbreviated as DVD, a digital versatile disk is an optical disc storage media.
With physical dimensions similar to those of a compact disc, DVDs can store data as much as six times more than a CD. Disc Array Controller: It manages physical disc drives and brings them to the form of logical units.
It provides a disk cache and implements hardware RAID. All you need to do is download the course and open the PDF file. This specific program is classified in the Computer architecture category where you can find some other similar courses. Thanks to people like you? Who share their knowledge, you can discover the extent of our being selected to easily learn without spending a fortune!
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