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It argues that Indonesian works are materials and sources worth rereading and reinterpreting through which Indonesian philosophers or philosophical works can be reclaimed, or at least unearthed.
Although these works may not sound philosophical, the ways in which readers appreciate them can lead to the discovery of a unique Indonesian philosophy.
Indonesian philosophy, reinterpretation and rereading, reclaiming Indonesian philosophers, classical manuscripts, material works, modern works.
The question seems to bother many Indonesians, but was posed a long ago by Indonesian leaders during the late twentieth century in the context of searching identity of the nation in the struggle for Indonesian independence.
Having the question in mind, they did produce creative works which we, nowadays as readers, should appreciate to find an epistemological foundation in an attempt to designate their pieces as philosophical works. This article briefly presents a modest outline of possibility of appreciating these works by briefly mentioning the works of Soekarno, Tan Malaka, and Tjokroaminoto, which we could reread and reinterpreted with a new perspective.
This article intends to show that indeed these works contain some elements of philosophy. Indeed, the definition of philosophy should be broadened in reading sources so much so that philosophical foundation can be discovered. This article then proceeds to briefly mention the works written during the New Order which also offer different philosophical formulation.
As this article offers a proposal, or outline, of possibility in philosophizing Indonesian works with sketching general ideas, this article does not intend to choose particular works and explain them in a detailed way, but it proposes a sketch, or outline, of four kinds of works which are worth readings and reinterpreting: By proposing such an outline this article tries to offer a possible epistemological foundation of Indonesian philosophy, which can be further developed through a meticulous study, by appreciating basic elements of philosophy, and philosophizing them.
It begin with addressing the question and discussing a proposal which can lead us to find possible answers by randomly mentioning some works along the history of Indonesia. Cambridge English dictionary gives the definition as follows: However, as the field is immensely broad, the Cambridge dictionary of philosophy does not have an entry of the word philosophy itself. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, , Cambridge University Press, , xxvii.
And in reading the works produced along the history of the archipelago of Nusantara philosophy can be discovered. In fact the history of philosophy is never finished. Western philosophy has its own history, starting from Greek, Roman, classical, medieval, and modern philosophy. In the field, there are many areas, from speculative,4 political,5 and philosophy of science. Given this, Indonesia should has its own history of philosophy and the way people put their mind using their wisdom and values, although the word philosophy may not explicitly be mentioned in the works by Indonesians.
The world in nowadays globalization is well connected; surprisingly so was in the past.
If in the past people might fail to see the connection among many people in different regions, such as ancient China and Rome, nowadays scholars will do so with finding evidences to construct the connection between one region to another. The Speculative Philosophers New York: Random House, So far we have no translation of Republic by Plato in Nusantara prior to Western colonialization. But a rather indirect relation between Greek and Nusantara in much later time can be explained.
What is clear is that the relation of East Indies Indonesia during the Dutch colonial time and European culture during the end of Dutch colonialism, in which Ethical policy was implemented, enabled few fortunate Indonesians to pursue Western education, through which the influence of Greek philosophy and modern Western thoughts penetrated their way of thinking.
It is not hard to guess that through European colonialization, some elements of Greece tradition indirectly came to Indonesia.
In fact, Indonesian nationalist leaders such as Tan Malaka,9 Sukarno,10 Tjokroaminoto11 often presented European thought in their works, particularly related to the issues of socialism, nationalism, communism in their effort to support and proliferate the ideas of the struggle for the independence of the nation and to promote reformation of culture and education in the East Indies. During the time of revolution Indonesian leaders were indeed creative in blending Western thoughts, Islamic teachings, and local contexts with the aim to introduce new ideas and to educate their fellow Indonesians.
Kompas, Yayasan Bung Karno, , 1— Bulan-Bintang, However, if we broaden our understanding of philosophy as mentioned above, certainly their works offer value, norm, wisdom, knowledge, reasoning, and other process of philosophical reflections. What is more, we as readers have a vital duty to appreciate and read their works philosophically and find philosophical foundation in them. As recorded in the history of the East Indies, after the adoption of Ethical Policy by the Dutch colonial government, the creative way of mixing of European philosophy and Indonesian ingredients, with the effort of searching identity, was common.
All in all, in the end of nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Indonesian thought was under the influence of Western thought and Eastern traditions, such as Gandhi, Kemal Ataturk, Pan Islamism, etc.
If we consider a broad definition of philosophy, the critical insight is a vital part of philosophical inquiry.
In addition, during the heyday of nationalist and patriotic sentiment, this trend, by which many promoted the adoption of European school of thoughts, became apparent. The unique philosophical attempt lies in the effort of marrying the European way of thinking and Indonesian context leading to produce a unique way of reflection.
Early leaders of nationalist movement, such as Muhammad Yamin, also did so in this direction. In his effort to explain the importance of nationalist awareness for the people of the archipelago, not only did Muhammad Yamin return to the definition of nationalism as understood in European history, but he also recalled the history of Indonesia before colonial period.
In doing so, he returned to 12Kartini, Aku mau Vissia Ita. Yulianto Jakarta; Yogyakarta: An Indonesian Feminist, Clayton, Vic. Sulastin, Sutrisno Jakarta: Djambatan, During the time of revolution, many Western schools of thought, such as socialism, Marxism, idealism, communism, to mention but few, were commonly referred to by Indonesian leaders. Yamin is not exceptional.
This curiosity, along with the effort of searching the identity of the people of the archipelago, bothered the leaders of nationalist movement in the early twentieth century.
Interestingly, the patriotic question of national identity never faded away after Indonesia achieved its independence and later built the government. The spirit of patriotism remained vital in building the new nation. Sukarno, the first president of Indonesia, stressed this idea rhetorically in many occasions. Many projects during the New Order also gave this impression that the search for identity—in the forms of questions such as who Indonesians are and how Indonesia should be defined—continued.
Cornell University Press, Jan Laurens Andries. Brandes, ed.
Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan: The project undertaken by the New Order included reinterpretation of Indonesian independence, the foundation of the state, Indonesian heroes, development of the young nation, and the direction to which the nation under the New Order should move. For many Indonesians who experienced the reform period, that is the fall of Soeharto in , the means a shame of the nation, in which many innocent Indonesian citizens were massacred.
Sukarno thus established his own role as the leader of a new block, a neither communist nor capitalist power. Balai Pustaka, University of Wisconsin Press, Indonesian philosophy, if we attempt to reclaim it, cannot be split from these dynamic contexts.
Furthermore, the question of the existence of Indonesian philosophers were often posed and motivated by a desperate effort to seek the foundation for Indonesian scholarship. This endeavor may be based on an amazement of the way in which global scholarship has lately moved fast and Indonesian scholarship seems lag behind.
In Indonesian understanding, the world of scholarship, including philosophy, is based upon two major traditions, Greek and Eastern wisdoms. Greek philosophy is often combined with theology of Semitic tradition, from Judaism, Christianity to Islam.
Eastern philosophy, such as Indian, Japanese, and Chinese traditions, are also known among Indonesians but not studied well. On the other hand, the majority of Indonesians who embraced Sunni Islam paid attention to religious and theological foundation of classical Islamic philosophy.
Past and Future Yogyakarta: Seyyed Hossein Nasr and Oliver Leaman, vol. Richard J. Mccarthy Beirut: In reality, theology indeed prevails over philosophy in Indonesian Muslim tradition. Practical Sufism has a special place in Indonesian religiosity and reflection.
Indeed, formal symbols of Sharia in the spirit of local regulations Perda become a major trend in the current political identity and commodities in political campaigns. Richard Joseph McCarthy Boston: Twayne Publishers, Muhammad Mahdi Sharif Beirut: Jo n l of Islamic Studies 52, no. Whether they should return to religious piety or rational thinking both of which are imported and are not true own tradition remains unclear.
Note that six religions—Islam, Catholicism, Protestantism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism—officially acknowledged by the government are products of foreign cultures Middle Eastern, European, Indian, and Chinese. They are considered as mere cultures, not religions. Thus returning to the six religious traditions means admitting indirectly that Indonesians are cosmopolitan and at the same time admitting that Indonesian traditions consists of different parts of foreign elements.
The six abovementioned religions are nothing but foreign products but adopted and adapted to Indonesian contexts. On the other hand, in rational thinking, Indonesians have no clear background in producing works which have influence on later generations.
The answer to the question of whether rational thinking or religious piety should be taken in Indonesian epistemology is not simple. Yet, to find Indonesian own tradition or to admit that Indonesians should adopt Western thought is not easy either. To embrace rational thinking cannot avoid Western philosophy based on the spirit of European enlightenment which so far leads the current globalizing world.
Still, to combine religious traditions and Western philosophy is as complicated as the question itself. As Islam is the religion of the majority of Indonesians, Islamic philosophy based on faith and theological discussion becomes an issue which always occupies Indonesian scholarship. However, the question is not entirely new. Early leaders of nationalist movement, as mentioned above, were aware of this issue. But in fact Muhammad Yamin was in the right direction when trying to combine Western thought and the history of the archipelago.
In other words, Yamin sought to find the past in order to create the identity of the future. Hayam Wuruk and Gajah Mada, believed to have united the archipelago, a unity which later becomes an archetype of modern Indonesia. In Sumatera many also returned to Sriwijaya, the old kingdom which predated Majapahit, uniting the archipelago by building sea transportation. The answer to our question whether Indonesia has its own philosopher is yes, it does, but we should do as what early Indonesian leaders have done so, that is by appreciating the previous works but with the spirit of reinterpretation.
Now the question over the existence of Indonesian philosophers is not a modest curiosity. It involves search for identity and foundation not only in scholarly works but also a broader national scope which have been addressed since the revolution of Indonesian independence.
A Proposal To answer the question about the existence of Indonesian philosophers is a long run project. This paper does not intend to give a final and complete answer.
Nor does this paper present an example of the project. However, this paper will propose a sketch, or outline, of what can be done to define Indonesian philosophy and to define Indonesian philosophers. Once again, to argue that Indonesia ever produces its own philosophers does not mean that we will present self-proclaiming local philosophers with their philosophical compendiums. A Translation and Commentary: Geoffrey C. Nagasaki, Japan: Hakkojo, Their works are written in various forms of poems, diaries, doctrinal religious teachings, or merely unclear records carved on the stones of temples.
The term philosophy is not mentioned explicitly. But our task is to rediscover some elements, or foundation, of philosophy in them and to systematize them.
In doing so, we should reread them based on philosophical principles. As we know in hermeneutical philosophy the task of interpretation is never once completed, but reinterpretation is demanded in different time and space. Thus, what Indonesians have written should be reinterpreted based on new demands and new way of reading, thus giving new meaning based on new contexts.
Nor are their works similar in any level to those of the known modern philosophers. But as a basic rule, thinkers or philosophers earned great names due to their works which were appreciated in the scholarly world afterwards.
They did write great books, so much so that their disciples venerated them. But they earned reputation, mainly because later generation appreciated their works and continued their legacy. He remains indeed influential and is respected until today for his great mastery in fiqh Islamic law. But in fact his works such as al-Umm or al-Risalah are not sufficient in defining his greatness. Oneworld, The greatness of thinkers came into reality after their death with their works having influenced the world afterwards.
Plato is great not only because of his Republic26 which is influential on many cultures and has been translated into Latin, Syriac, Arabic, English and other hundred world languages. Similar cases are with other Western thinkers whom later generations venerated.
We have no school of Majapahti, Demak, Mataram, Yogyakarta, Solo, Ciputat, or Sapen, or other literary circles that reinterpret, or at least appreciate, their works. To argue in this vein, Indonesia indeed has thinkers with their works influential on later generations, such as Negara Kertagama29 whose fame lies in the words Bhinneka Tungga Ika, adopted as the Indonesian symbol of diversity and unity.
However, Kertagama needs new readers who are committed to see the work in a different way and in a new light and to reinterpret what it contains. Kertagama, like the Republic, will live on in the hands of new readers who are prepared to assign new meanings. F Ferrari, trans. Tom Griffith Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, Suka Press, Routledge, LKiS, By doing so, this article offers an outline of four possible sources of knowledge epistemology which can be further developed by our generation: Let us briefly explain one by one: If we are fortunate to find an old manuscript, then our task is also to appreciate the source.
Note that material cultures still beg our new way of reading. We are fortunate that old writings such as Syang Hyang Kamahayanikan is still at our disposal. But generally speaking, we inherit too few writings from this old tradition.
However, material sources in the form of temples found across Yogyakarta, East Java, Central Java, Sumatera and Kalimantan are at our disposal which can be read with new interpretation. Keep in mind that Hindu Buddhist temples contain unlimited wisdoms and priceless knowledge about the way our ancestors brought and put Indian traditions into the context of Nusantara.
In short, the idea and reason behind adopting and adapting foreign wisdom put in the new context of Nusantara still challenge our new way of reading. Like material cultures preserved in the architectural works, this source also needs rereading.
Of course, the history of Indonesian religiosity witnesses that Sumatera is a home to Hamzah Fansuri,30 Nuruddin al-Singkili, and other Sufi writers who penned their wisdom by mixing local culture, Persian, Indian, and Arab tradition to express their religiosity. Keep in mind that Sulawesi is also a place where syncretistic tradition remains alive until today.
New traditions are often born in this island. Likewise, Nusa Tenggara also gives birth to a unique tradition of mingling Hinduism, Islam and local traditions.
In this vein, we readers should reinterpret their revelations. Many historians, anthropologists, and sociologists, however, were tempted to treat them as an ethnological data rather than as a system of philosophical reflection which deserves a special attention. Furthermore, numerous works by later leaders, such as Tan Malaka, Soekarno, Yamin, Tjokroaminoto, and others, who injected the spirit of nationalism to Indonesians, as mentioned earlier in this article, can also serve as another epistemological foundation.
By reading these works with a critical attitude, at least the foundation of epistemology of Indonesian philosophy can be unearthed. Bur Rasuanto, trans. Aswab Mahasin Jakarta: Religions Development Marocco and Indonesia.
New Haven [etc. Selected Essays New York: Basic Books, Recalling ancient wisdom But before proceeding to the latest modern work, a foundation of the past should be discovered. Perhaps the oldest writing in the archipelago which remains at our disposal is the Sang Hyang Kamahayanikan which contains Buddhist Tantric philosophy showing how to achieve enlightenment.
The statues of Tatagatha can also be found in many Buddhist temples in Central Java and Yogyakarta the main verb is missing. Thus comparison can be made between Tatagatha in Kahamayanikan and the statues of the temples.
Borobudur, for instance, shows various attitudes and positions of Tatagatha which can be compared to the description in the book. Iconography which serves as the foundation of building of the Borobudur remains vital in our endeavor to unearth ancient epistemology which influenced later culture and religious traditions.
Borobudur itself as material culture needs rereading, such as how to achieve enlightenment in the version 33 I. Sang Hyang Kamahayanan Mantranaya. Naskah-Terjemahan- Penjelasannya Tahun: Lokesh Chandra New Delhi: Golden Tales of the Buddhas Hongkong: The philosophy of three worlds, or three phases of enlightenment: These phases symbolize the steps taken in achieving enlightenment in Buddhist Borobudur; the three worlds are also described in Hindu Prambanan, and in mosques of Demak, Yogyakarta, and other shrines.
To explain them briefly, the world kamadathu basically means underground world which contains examples of sinful deeds which should be avoided. The second world of rupadhatu contains laws and rules in the world of human kind which more or less is comparable to sharia in Islam.
Sharia is a central theme in nowadays Indonesia, as the fever of Sharia can be felt in many local regulations which can threaten the integration of the country and nation.
The third world Arupadhatu sounds similar to, and indeed has becomes inspiration for, the sufi path of Islamic tradition. Arupadhatu is the world where material and worldly affairs have no values, the immaterial world of ascetism and sufism. Hindu tradition can also serve as another foundation of indigenous epistemology. Hindu tradition leaves us with some architectural achievements visible in Central Java, Yogyakarta, and East Java. Sumatera and Kalimantan also give us this evidence, as various temples can also be found in these islands.
These architectural achievements represent the worldview of Hinduism relating to the system of beliefs in Gods, Goddesses, saints, and the way in which society in the archipelago was structured in terms of political, societal, and religious hierarchy.
Take for example the immense temples of sewu thousand in the complex of Prambanan in the border of Yogyakarta and Klaten. Veronique Degroot Yogyakarta: Error rating book. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Details if other: Thanks for telling us about the problem.
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