Ali Kufi, the author of Chachnama, in turn, claimed his work was a translation of an 8th-century work in Arabic. The English-language Chachnama is thus. popularly as the Chachnama. This book is regarded as the earliest source of the early Muslim (Arab) raids and subsequent conquest of Sindh. It is perhaps the. Chach Nama also known as the Fateh nama Sindh and as Tareekh al-Hind wa a's-Sind . Nabi Bakhsh Khan Baloch, Chachnama (Islamabad, ). ( Annotated critical edition.) Harish Chandra Talreja, Chachnamah Sindh Par Arabo Ke Hamale Ka.
|Language:||English, Spanish, French|
|Genre:||Science & Research|
|ePub File Size:||30.85 MB|
|PDF File Size:||19.54 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
Dec 16, Chachnama, a thirteenth Century Persian manuscript authored by a irony, because Asif's central argument is that the Chachnama is not a. The multi-genre Persian text Chachnama, written in Uch in , represents a deficiencies in the Elliot's translations and published the first full English. Reproduced in PDF format. By: Sani Hussain Panhwar testimony of the Arab, now given to the English-knowing world, for the first time, is, to my mind, of the.
At one time it was considered to be a romance until Mountstuart Elphinstone 's observations of its historical veracity. Sources The sources of Sakifi collections may be classified as follows: Arab historical lays, and ballads. Stories told by individuals whose names were forthcoming. Stories traceable to individuals of a certain caste, e. Hearsay and apochryphal stories. While Kufi is also seen as having employed some " Purple prose " he is regarded as having accurately translated the bulk of the Arabic material as well attributing the sources of information, whether they are from individuals or even "tradition".
They are now solitary and brittle as eggs and their women, fair and fragrant as musk-deer, are now asleep in our harems. Common Era year is an approximation of the Islamic calendar date AH. Commissioners Press , Section 14 Then Dhar wrote a letter to his brother, couched in gentle words, and in it he referred to the horoscope of Bi, and said: The astrologers divined, by means of their science, that this princess would be the queen of Alr, and her husband would be the king who was to hold fast all these territories.
To remedy and avert this unpleasant consequence, I took it upon myself to commit this shameful breach of royal etiquette and social rules.
We now make the apology that what we considered expedient to do was done through necessity, and not of our own free will. Do therefore excuse us.
He also sent some beautiful pearls and valuable jewels, as well as some Abyssinian male and female slaves, some pretty presents, and unparalleled rarities to the capital of the Khalfah. A number of Mussalman women also went with them with the object of visiting the Kaabah, and seeing the capital city of the Khalfahs.
When they arrived in the province of Kzrn, the boat was overtaken by a storm, and drifting from the right way, floated to the coast of Debal. Here a band of robbers, of the tribe of Nagmrah, who were residents of Debal, seized all the eight boats, took possession of the rich silken cloths they contained, captured the men and women, and carried away all the valuable property and jewels.
The 'Causes Belli', Islamic religious fervour, resistance, politics, intrigue, betrayal of the Buddhist. This book is a contemporary Arabic account of what transpired and evidently is biased towards the Arabs and Mohammed Bin Qasim.
Raja Dahir is still a great hero of the Sindhi people irrespective of religious affiliations: Based on more recent and extensive research of Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad and Maulana Nadvi on Indo-Arab relations state that between AD and AD the Arabs launched as many as 15 failed attacks with all of them being repulsed with heavy loss of life on the Arab side. In fact in a few instances only 6 and once only 2 soldiers returned to Baghdad.
Interestingly, Sinan a relative of Mohammed who the prophet blessed at birth to succeed in all endeavours of whom Sinan even claimed to have dreamt of during his campaign promising success died at Brahmanabad killed by the Sindhis in battle, his army was annihilated to the last man.
It was only the 16th expedition that succeeded, temporarily. Thus with this perspective we should read the Chachnama when force of arms and jihad could not deliver success to the Arabs the betrayal of our own people handed over the gates of the fort and our lands to our enemies.
The villains are the Buddhist who acted as the 5th column of the Islamic horde against their Brahmin rulers and of course the Arabs who tried to find the slightest excuse to wage war against Sindh.
Buddhist obviously resented the Brahmins, their religious rivals and conspired with the Arabs to oust them. Bin Qasim on the other hand continuously complained of Raja Dahir withholding tribute to the Caliph and thus Causes Belli.
In fact Raja Dahir was a powerful ruler and an independent sovereign owing nothing to the Caliph. Bin Qasim starts his invasion at Debal or Devalaya an important trading port of Sindh under the pretext that Raja Dahir had captured some muslims ships and passengers which in fact was the act of piracy by some freebooters and the Raja had no part in it.
At any rate Bin Qasim would have been routed and destroyed at the very outset if Raja Dahir had not listened to suspect advice given by a Alafi Arab in his service and instead taken the battle to the enemy at the outskirts of Debal itself.
It was not to be and even though Raja Dahir and his soldiers fought bravely he attained martyrdom leaving his kingdom to his son Jai Sen another great warrior. However, more than heroes, the period of Arab conquest of Sindh had its heroines -- Surya Devi and Parimal Devi, the daughters of Dahir. The caliph, reports the Chachnama, was "charmed with their perfect beauty'' and their blood-sucking blandishments''.
However, the two princesses said to the Khalifa that Qasim had already violated their chastity. The Caliph flew into a rage. He ordered that Mohammed Bin Qasim be killed and his body brought to him in a bullock's hide. When the orders were duly executed, the princesses revealed that they had cooked up the violation story only to avenge "the ruination of the king of Sindh and Hind and desolation of the kingdom of our fathers and grandfathers''.
The enraged Caliph ordered them tortured to death and had their torn bodies thrown into the river Tigris. The defeat of Sindh had been partly avenged. Not in this book: After the death of Raja Dahir in battle the Arab influence was confined to Debal and the surrounding coastline.
Dahir's son Jaisiah had become a Muslim to survive only to become Hindu again to live with honor. The Arabs thereupon sent a huge army twenty-five years later under the leadership of Salim. A treaty of peace was signed only when Salim surrendered all equipment, gave his daughter Maiya in marriage to Bappa Rawal, and vowed that the Arabs would never again attack India. But then who has ever known a muslim to have kept his word to an infidel. Legend has it that Raja Dahir was so powerful and renowned around the known world that he even offered refuge to Imam Hussain who was being persecuted in Arabia.
Imam Hussain in fact was on his ways to Sindh when was he was way laid and killed treacherously at Karbala by Yazid, I believe an agent of the Caliph. Please read on and enjoy. Keep in mind that this is an Arabic account so take facts with a fist full of salt and pepper. John Dowson, ed. Overview : The work known as Chach-na'ma is an account of the first Arab invasion of Sindh.
The original Arabic text is lost, but the text survives in the Persian translation undertaken by Muhammad 'Ali bin Hamid bin Abu Bakr Kufi during the early thirteenth century. The translator, in his preface, writes that in H. Leaving the city of Uch he traveled to Alor and Bhakar, where there was still a significant Arab population. The narrative of the text begins with, and takes its name from, the Brahmin Chach, according to the text overthrew the Buddhist king of Sindh, Akham Lohana, and made himself king of Sindh.
His son, Dhir, succeeded to the throne, and it was during his rule that the Arabs invaded Sindh. The account of Chach's usurption and rule is thus a prelude to the account of the Arab overthrow of his successor. This invasion takes up the bulk of the narrative. It was undertaken during the reign of the Umaiyid Caliph 'Abdul Malik , who appointed Hajjj, the governor of Iraq and Khurasan, to lead invasions into Transoxiana and Sindh. These invasions were undertaken, respectively, by his two generals, Qutaybah bin Muslim and Muhammad bin Qsim.
Muhammad bin Qsim marched to Sindh with 15, men. He arrived at Debal, a port city near the modern Karachi, in There he was bolstered by the arrival of his artillery by sea, and took the town. This was followed by his conquest of Alor, located north of Hyderabad in June In the fighting before Aror the Raja Dhir was slain. The next year he also conquered the important city of Multan. Following the rapid conquest of Sindh, Arab progress was checked.
In part this was caused by internal division. In Hajjj died, and in the Calif Walid I took interest in the campaign and recalled the conquering general, Muhammad bi Qsim. Arab control thereafter rapidly disintegrated, leading many local rulers to repudiate their allegiance to the Arabs.
The next Calif, 'Umar II , was evidently unable to check this development. He sought, but was unable to secure, their nominal acceptance of Arab suzerainty. The Arabs also met stiff resistance from neighboring Indian kings. The Arabs were thus unable to expand beyond Sindh, but they were able to maintain their hold on the province.
The region out of the control of the Caliphate, but remained under Muslim control; in an Ismaili Fatamid dynasty declared its indendence in Multan. Excerpts Content 1. Muhammad bin Qsim takes the fort of Alor, loots it, and slays King Dhir. Jaisiya attempts to organize resistance; Muhammad bin Qsim takes the forts of Bahrur and Dhalila. Muhammad bin Qsim conquers Multan. The fort is taken and Bai Main , the sister of Dahir, burns herself Muhammad Kasim disposed his army, and ordered the miners to dig and undermine the walls.
He divided his army into two divisions; one was to fight during the day with mangonels, arrows, and javelins, and the other to throw naphtha, fardaj?
Thus the bastions were thrown down. Bai Main , sister of Dahir, assembled all her women, and said, "Jaisiya is separated from us, and Muhammad Kasim is come. God forbid that we should owe liberty to these outcast cow-eaters! Our honour would be lost!
Our respite is an end,2 and there is nowhere any hope of escape; let [p. If any wish to save herself she may. Muhammad took the fort, and stayed there for two or three days. He put six thousand fighting men, who were in the fort, to the sword, and shot some with arrows. The other dependants and servants were taken prisoners, with their wives and children.
Detail of the slaves, cash, and stuffs, which were taken It is said that when the fort was captured, all the treasures, property, and arms, except those which were taken away by Jaisiya, fell into the hands of the victors, and they were all brought before Muhammad Kasim. When the number of the prisoners was calculated, it was found to amount to thirty thousand persons, amongst whom thirty were the daughters of chiefs, and one of them was Rai Dahir's sister's daughter, whose name was Jaisiya. The head of Dahir and the fifth part of the prisoners were forwarded in charge of K'ab, son of Maharak.
When the head of Dahir, the women, and the property all reached Hajjaj, he prostrated himself before God, offered thanksgivings and praises, for, he said, he had in reality obtained all the wealth and treasures and dominions of the world. Hajjaj sends the head of Dahir, and some of his standards, to the Capital Hajjaj then forwarded the head, the umbrellas, and wealth, and the prisoners to Walid the Khalifa.
When the Khalifa of the time had read the letter, he praised Almighty God. He sold some of those daughters of the chiefs, and some he granted as rewards.
When he saw the daughter of Rai Dahir's sister, he was much struck with her beauty and charms, and began to bite his finger with astonishment. I exceedingly admire this girl, and am so enamoured of her, that I wish to keep her for myself. Nevertheless, it is better that you should [p. She lived a long time with him, but no child was born from her. Afterwards, another letter was received about the capture of the fort of Rawar.
It is said that after the conquest was effected, and the affairs of the country were settled and, the report of the conquest had reached Hajjaj, he sent a reply to the following effect.
I was much pleased and overjoyed when it reached me. The events were recounted in an excellent and beautiful style, and I learnt that the ways and rules you follow are conformable to the Law. Except that you give protection to all, great and small alike, and make no difference between enemy and friend.
God says, 'Give no quarter to Infidels, but cut their throats. You should not be too ready to grant protection, because it will prolong your work.
After this, give no quarter to any enemy except to those who are of rank. This is a worthy resolve, and want of dignity will not be imputed to you. Peace be with you! Jaisiya sends letters from Brahmanabad to Alor, 4 Batiya, and other places Some historians from amongst the religious Brahmans have narrated respecting the death of Dahir and adventures of Muhammad Kasim, that when the accursed Rai Dahir went to hell, Jaisiya took refuge in the fort of Brahmanabad, and Rawar was taken, Jaisiya made preparations for war and sent letters in all directions; viz.
He informed them of Dahir's [p. He himself was in Brahmanabad with his warriors ready to fight. Between Dawar and that city there were two fortresses called Bahrur and Dhalila which contained about sixteen thousand fighting men.
When Muhammad Kasim reached Bahrur he besieged it for two months. After the war had been protracted so long, Muhammad Kasim ordered that part of his army should fight by day and part by night.
They threw naphtha and plied their mangonels so that all the warriors of the adverse party were slain, and the walls of the fort thrown down. Many slaves and great plunder were taken. They put the fifth part of it into the public treasury. When the news of the capture of Rawar and Bahrur reached Dhalila, the inhabitants knew that Muhammad Kasim possessed great perseverance, and that they should be on their guard against him.
The merchants fled to Hind, and the men of war prepared to defend their country. The text was originally written in Arabic, but — as has happened many times in the history of literature — unfortunately the Arabic text was lost and the work only survives in a 13th century CE Persian translation. The Chachnama, the principal source of our information on the Muslim conquest of Sind, elaborates a royal code which demands sensitivity to the fluidity and shifting nature of the real world of politics.
Hands Off Washington Records. The resulting work is of value not only in terms of the military campaigns the text describes, but also for its description of medieval Sindh, in which the bulk of the population appears to have been Buddhist. Hajjaj bin Yusuf then dispatches his nephew Muhammad bin Qasim who enters Sindh by way of Balochistan.
Press Esc to cancel. In preparation of the current volume his team examined engliwh combined five primary texts found in present-day Pakistan and incorporated such other fragments as could be found and examined.
The Valley of Flowers. This page was last edited on 25 Decemberat It claims to be a translation of an earlier Arabic text but that claim is, as Asif argues, a gesture in gaining currency, legitimacy and authority in the period it was written—the 13th century. Ali Kufi dedicates the text to the then governor of Multan, Nasiruddin Qabacha.
Chach consolidates the boundaries of his empire and is succeeded by his son Dahar. Sindh was annexed to the empire of the East India Company in Asif studies the aftermath of Chachnama and argues that it is misunderstood and misclassified as a work of history. It claims to be a translation of an earlier Arabic text but that claim is, as Asif argues, a gesture in gaining currency, legitimacy and authority in the period it was written—the 13th century.
In claiming to be a work of history, an authentic account that originates in an Arabic text written in 8th century, the author of Chachnama, Ali Kufi, strategically positions his creation to be perceived as carrying a certain magnitude. Asif demonstrates that this self-styling as history cannot be taken at its face value.