Identify, analyze, and resolve current and potential network security problems Learn diagnostic commands, common problems and resolutions, best practices, . Internetworking Troubleshooting Handbook is intended for network administrators troubleshooting CiscoWorks installations, and on troubleshooting security. Internetworking Troubleshooting Handbook, Second Edition. 2 Cisco network management tools, and third-party troubleshooting tools. Using Router .. User authentication and write protection security. Third-Party.
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It also looked at what data is passed between the two during the information transfer, if it is encrypted, and how the ASA will use that information. The ASA v8. There was a Windows XP machine on the outside, or untrusted, network that will perform the authentication attempt with Wireshark loaded on it to capture the traffic between the client, Windows XP, and the ASA, which is the VPN endpoint. The communication between the XP machine and the ASA is being examined to see if the traffic is able to be deciphered and - 75 - used against either device.
This data is important because there could potentially be passwords or shared secrets being passed between the two devices in clear text. The network had specific settings to help differentiate the data that is being analyzed as inside or outside the network. The inside IP addresses were in the The outside were in the Since the ASA was at the edge of the network, it had an outside address of The remote user was set at During the connection process, the traffic between the two devices were monitored.
Network Setup The network equipment used for the experiment was a Cisco ASA, a Cisco switch, a server, a client, and a computer with Wireshark installed. The ASA was set up with an inside and outside network that served as the testing grounds.
The inside network simulated the trusted network. It had an IP address of The outside network simulated the untrusted network.
It had the IP address of These two subnets represented the two networks trying to gain access to each other through the VPN. On the outside network, there were two IP addresses in use. It had the address of The endpoint stopped the client outside the network until the authentication and authorization took place. On the basic configuration, the traffic can flow from the inside network to the outside network without much configuration.
This is because it is considered normal by most companies to go from an inside network to an outside network, e. It is not allowed for devices outside the network, such as on the internet, to come into the inside network.
After the basic configuration was set up, the VPN configuration was implemented.
Once the user connects, the ASA assigned the client an IP address that is not in the range of the IP address on the inside or outside network. This is for security and - 76 - routing reasons that are beyond the scope of this paper.
The IP address range was from The pool had eleven IP addresses, more than enough for this experiment. A point of interest in the configuration is the actual VPN setup, which includes the protocols, IP address pool, and other general attributes of the VPN. These attributes show how the VPN will connect and communicate. In this case, the Crypto Map shows that it used IPsec with several configurations to accommodate the client.
The shared secret is Cisco, but it is encrypted. This is how the client authenticates with the ASA for the first round of authentication. If the group name and shared password are wrong, the ASA will immediately drop the connection without initiating either phase of the VPN tunnel.
The inside network had two IP addresses in use, A basic user, clandman, with the password of Password was created and was in the User OU, had basic user rights as a domain user, and the Dial-In permission in the user attributes is set to Control Access through Remote Access Policy. A group called VPN-Group1 was also created and clandman was added to this group. The need for leased lines is eliminated, because it works over the public network.
This type of VPN would be used in a business environment where there are different offices in the same company that would like to share resources or be able to communicate in a secure environment. It is accomplished by connecting two VPN devices through an exchange of keys and encryption information to set up a tunnel that the data will pass through Deal, These two VPN types primarily go through the same procedures when it comes to creating the tunnel, except for when they get to authenticating the user Deal, It normally consists of a VPN device at the edge of the protected network and client software on the remote user's computer or device Hucaby, Diffie-Hellman DH keys are exchanges, and the devices authenticate each other.
Credentials sent from user to ASA. Acceptable SAs are set. VPN tunnel established. IPSec is the protocol examined in this paper. Phase I starts with two devices that need to set up a connection but do not have the correct keys. There are two modes in phase I, main and aggressive. The two are very similar, but main mode is more secure, because it sets up a secure tunnel to encrypt the IP headers that show the source and destination.
Aggressive mode takes much less time to set up the phase I tunnel, because it does not establish a secure tunnel to start the exchange of information Bhatnagar, Aggressive mode is the mode used with the Cisco VPN remote-access client, so it was the mode used in this experiment.
During phase I, the remote user sends a set of possible parameters to the VPN device. DH is a key exchange protocol and hashing is a one-way mathematical function that, when applied to data, creates a very large hash file called a digest. It is almost impossible to recreate that digest unless you use the exact key, and it is not reversible.
The VPN device then chooses set parameters that match what it can use from the offered set. The Cisco ASA prompts the user, requesting his username and password. User sends his or her credentials to the Cisco ASA. However, since Windows is widely used, clients already have access to this protocol without additional cost.
It would also be more time consuming to add or remove a user's VPN access. These are called downloadable ACLs Hucaby, Then, policies for users or groups that are allowed to have remote access have to be configured. It is always best to use Windows groups for access, because it is easier to add and remove users from groups when you want to allow or disallow remote access Microsoft, Accounting can also be set up with this server to push to a text file or to a database server.
Research Questions This research will answer two research questions: What data is passed between the ASA and the IAS server and can that data be used to manipulate or gain access to either device?
This research is important to any organization that uses the ASA, because this configuration could limit the VPN ACL and it could expose data with weak encryption or clear text. It also looked at what data is passed between the two during the information transfer, if it is encrypted, and how the ASA will use that information.
The ASA v8. There was a Windows XP machine on the outside, or untrusted, network that will perform the authentication attempt with Wireshark loaded on it to capture the traffic between the client, Windows XP, and the ASA, which is the VPN endpoint.
The communication between the XP machine and the ASA is being examined to see if the traffic is able to be deciphered and - 75 - used against either device. This data is important because there could potentially be passwords or shared secrets being passed between the two devices in clear text. The network had specific settings to help differentiate the data that is being analyzed as inside or outside the network. The inside IP addresses were in the The outside were in the