Breve diccionario etimológico de la lengua castellana. by: Joan Corominas. Publication date: muy rev. y mejorada. External-identifier: urn:acs6: brevediccionario00colo:pdfafbeef Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico is a discursive etymological dictionary of Spanish compiled by Joan Corominas (also spelled Coromines) . Create a book · Download as PDF · Download as PDF · Printable version. The Diccionario crítico etimológico de la lengua castellana is a discursive, four- volume etymological dictionary of Spanish compiled by the Catalan philologist Joan Corominas (), . Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.
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Service furukawa specs operators. Manual mundo comunicao ltda. Research Questions To remind the reader, in this study we seek to answer four main questions: What language donated more loanwords to Spanish? Methodology In order to collect a dataset as exhaustive and extensive as possible that would allow us to address our aforementioned questions, we resorted to two corpora made publicly available, the HathiTrust Digital Library henceforth: HT with its Spanish corpus of , texts Capitanu et al.
Each text in HT is represented as a compressed JSON file that includes metadata about the volume in which it was originally published, such as the year of publication or the author if known, and a list of pages. Each of these pages contains a frequency map for each of the individual tokens found in an automated part-of-speech POS tagging task of the text in the page.
Order and structure are lost, and the original text cannot be reconstructed. Although this might represent a problem to other studies, it is not problematic to ours because word counts were the only requirement to address our questions.
Despite containing several times more tokens ,,, 1-grams, and 46, unique lemmas , the NGram dataset was smaller: around 10GB of clean tabulated data with calculated word counts per year. Processing NGram was easier when compared to the HT format since the NGram dataset only contains isolated information about words some POS annotated , counts, and years and volume of apparition.
An additional problem that the HT database posed was that it only allowed us to use texts up to the copyright start date, that is, volumes that were published in the US before or outside the US before Hence, and as we will see in the results sections, our only source for words in the last century comes from the NGram dataset.
Once the first word counts were calculated, we lemmatized them and ignored proper nouns and other constructions such as initials, numbers, or words with numbers.
It is worth noting that the authors of the NGram dataset reported only 83,,, words in Spanish. Identifying which lemmas were loanwords was possible thanks to the etymological information contained in the electronic edition of the DECH. We built a grammar to recognise the tree structure of the etymology statements. We classified the language tags that the DECH uses to define etymological origin in 10 categories in order to capture, in a group, a set of languages that would share a geographic and temporal relation with regards to the Spanish language.
The groups, with some of their more representative languages in terms of their contribution to the Spanish lexicon, are shown below. Note that we are not including all the source languages that the DECH specifies, but only those that served as donor languages directly to Spanish.
Examples such as these two, by all means, should be counted as loanwords, and not as core Spanish. To be conservative, we counted these items as belonging to the baseline. Therefore, we acknowledge that the number of loanwords from Latin is higher in reality but, unfortunately, this is a limitation of this otherwise highly specific and thorough dictionary.
English was left as its own group because of its unique relationship to Spanish. This language has influenced Spanish at different stages from different parts of the world. If English had been grouped together with other languages, the difference in loanword borrowing from British English and American English to Spanish might have been masked.
Results 4. Donor Languages Out of the 65, lemmas and definitions included in the DECH dictionary, 33, counted with etymology information we were able to extract. And although 19, were found to be loanwords, only 6, appeared in our corpora and came from languages other than Latin and Arabic, which again, were counted as baseline Spanish.
When looking at the donor languages for these lemmas, shown in Figure 1 , we found that Greek and French were the most prolific languages in donating lexical items to Spanish: 2, words come from Greek and 1, from French. Figure 1 Number of loanwords per donor language. The majority of the most prolific donor languages in Figure 1 are not surprising. After all, Spanish in all Spanish-speaking nations shares a geographic relation or a historical or political link with most of these languages.
One of the notable exceptions is Greek, which appears as the top donor to Spanish. The great number of Greek loanwords may be unexpected at first. Spain and Greece have not established direct relations through colonial expansion, wars, or trading in the past centuries other than the one described in Footnote 2.
Upon careful observation of the Greek loanwords, we realize that the borrowing process for this language is unlike the one for the other languages. Besides the great amount of words that originated in Greek and made their way through Spanish via the Vulgar Latin and the Arabic spoken in the Iberian Peninsula before the 20th century which, again, have not been counted as Greek loanwords in this study , we find a great amount of Ancient Greek loanwords in Spanish that were borrowed, unmediated, after the 18th century Fernandez Galiano In the 19th and 20th century, Ancient Greek, as the first internationally prestigious language in history Bergua Cavero , was often resorted to due to the need to keep up with the rapidly evolving fields of science and technology.
New inventions and discoveries, growing by leaps and bounds, required names. It is precisely because loanwords from Ancient Greek are specialized vocabulary that investigations that focus on casual speech or press corpora might overlook the fact that a great amount of Spanish words were loaned by this language. These type of words are simply not common in more casual types of texts but are nevertheless frequent in literature and specialized treaties such as the ones contained in the HathiTrust and Google Books Ngrams databases.
Even before the use of technology, Spanish philologists were well aware of the influence of French on the Spanish lexicon. English, occupying a seventh place in the donor list deserves a special mention. Two main reasons make the results for English only partially representative of the linguistic reality of Spanish nowadays. First of all, as we mentioned, literature tends to be more conservative in terms of lexicon used. Therefore, English loanwords that are being used in Spanish casual speech may have still not made it into the literature.
Loanwords such as selfie or online are increasingly common, but are not equally present in Spanish literature. For these reasons, studies that investigate the use of loanwords which have not been incorporated to dictionaries in casual speech or in texts that describe current affairs find a greater presence of English loanwords Esteban Asencio ; Gerding et al. In other words, our methods have analyzed words that have been present in the language for a long time and have been conventionalized into Spanish.
While it is true that nowadays there are many loanwords that are fashionable and highly common, we cannot foresee for how long they might last. Frequencies As mentioned in Section 3, the reported donor languages were divided into 10 groups with only English being left by itself due to the difficulty of associating it with other languages.
Our two databases, HathiTrust and Google Books NGrams, have different data and, because of this, their results will be presented separately. That is, this figure does not inform the reader of how many loanwords were used which is discussed below in Section 4.
Figure 2 Frequencies of loanwords per language group in HathiTrust corpus. Figure 3 Percentage of loanwords per language group in Google Books Ngrams corpus. This percentage contained a variety of cases: words that were not included in the DECH dictionary because they were loanwords or other neologisms that had not been normalized in the language yet, because they were initials, acronyms or proper nouns, or because the OCR failed to transcribe them correctly.
What can be observed in Figure 2 is, first of all, the preponderance of certain language groups, namely of Eastern and Western Europe and, to a lesser extent, of Ancient Europe and Iberian Peninsula. Leaving aside the question of Eastern European languages momentarily, the predominance of the other three groups reiterates the importance of geographical proximity and the fact that Greek and French were not only prolific in donating lexicon to Spanish, but that their loanwords were frequently used in the literature and in the scientific texts collected by HathiTrust.
Now, the frequency of loanwords donated by Eastern European languages might be slightly misleading at first. There has not been any direct contact, historically, between Spanish and these languages, and Eastern European languages were not resorted to in order to coin new terms for the sciences.
However, the first word appears , times in total, while the latter, the closest in frequency, only appears 15, times. Therefore, it is easy to see that the graph reflects the high frequency of coche. One anonymous reviewer posed the question of what is more informative, the number of loanwords that a language borrows from a donor language or the frequency of such loanwords.
The case of Eastern European languages is perfect to speak to this question. French, on the other hand, has donated more than 1, lexical items, many of which are not as frequent in Spanish as coche. Therefore, we can claim that both the number of borrowed words and the frequency of such borrowed words inform us about different aspects of the contact and relationship between languages. Google NGrams The Google Books Ngram dataset was comparatively larger at , texts in Spanish with ,,, 1-grams between years — As apparent in Figure 3 , we also find a significant degree of noise in the data, specifically before The results of Google Ngrams largely correlate with those of HathiTrust, especially in terms of the importance of Ancient and Western European languages.
What this database allows us to see, due to the increased years of its span, is a steady increase of English loanwords during the second half of the 20th century. Therefore, these results correlate with those that claim that, while English has influenced Spanish vocabulary for centuries, it is only over the past 50 years that there has been a massive influx and use of these loanwords de la Cruz Cabanillas et al.
In addition, it should be noted that this study [or rather the etymological sources it makes use of] does not make a distinction between British and American English and although we can assume that they have influenced Spanish at different times, we cannot prove it with data 3.