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You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions , which are based on Reading Passage 1 below. It may have taken Michelangelo four long years to paint his fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, but his earliest predecessors spent considerably longer perfecting their own masterpieces. Scientists have discovered that prehistoric cave paintings took up to 20, years to complete. Rather than being created in one session, as archaeologists previously thought, many of the works discovered across Europe were produced over hundreds of generations, who added to, refreshed and painted over the original pieces of art. Until now it has been extremely difficult to pinpoint when prehistoric cave paintings and carvings were created, but a pioneering technique is allowing researchers to date cave art accurately for the first time and show how the works were crafted over thousands of years. Experts now hope the technique will provide a valuable insight into how early human culture developed and changed as the first modem humans moved across Europe around 40, years ago.
So it's easy to forget that malls are actually a relatively recent development. The first suburban shopping malls as we would recognise them today only started to be built in America in the s, and in most of the rest of the world in the decades after that as the craze for mall shopping went global. But 50 or so years on, while malls are still an important part of the retail economy, mall owners have little to celebrate as increased competition from the Internet means fewer and fewer people walk into their air-conditioned halls.
In the U. A, few if any new malls have opened since , and those already operating are having to work harder and harder to attract customers. One of the first indoor 'shopping centres' was the Cleveland Arcade, built in the late nineteenth century. However, this was an inner city shopping venue without parking and cannot really be considered the forebear of today's malls which didn't appear until much later and in response to a new feature of urban development.
Their invention is usually credited to an Austrian-born U. His solution was to try to recreate in the suburbs the same compact shopping experience as was found in city centres the shopping mall, a town square for the suburbs, but one with plentiful parking for the increasingly car-dominated culture of the s.
It would be a mistake, however, to assume that consumers have always flocked to malls on impulse without any effort being made to entice them. In fact, if my own local mall is any guide, these institutions have always found it necessary to publicise themselves and actively seek customers. In the s my local mall ran a variety of publicity events such as beauty pageants, fashion parades and even a bed-making competition.
More recently these events have focussed on appearances by minor celebrities, aspiring singers, unemployed actors, and discarded contestants from the latest television reality series. So it's apparent that malls have never taken their customers for granted and have always been prepared to lure them away from alternative shopping venues. While malls come in a variety of shapes and sizes, they nearly always contain at least one supermarket, and it is arguably this store that is the crucial component of any mall: What's more, the whole mall enterprise has learned a great deal from supermarkets, which have always led the field in understanding the shopper's mind.
Studies conducted since the s have established certain fixed principles to apply to supermarket design: The potential for all shops to exploit consumers in similar ways is one that mall designers have been quick to recognise. These days it's not an understatement to say that malls extensively spy on their customers in order to better understand their shopping habits. This, of course, is justified in terms of 'better meeting customer needs', but it also has the fortunate by-product of increasing sales.
Cameras are commonly used in numerous malls around the world, not just for security purposes but also to monitor shoppers' behaviour so as to learn how to exploit it. It's commonplace today for business schools to conduct these sorts of studies, to record how long shoppers spend in every store, which goods they inspect, what they try on and whether or not they ask for assistance.
This way, according to marketers, real-time shopping in actual stores will always be more popular than internet-based alternatives. Are germs bad?
Scientists know that bacteria make humans sick, but research suggests some bacteria may also keep people alive.
The bacterium Helicobacter pylori H. However, it would be a mistake to assume from its diminutive proportions or the fact that it occurs so frequently that the bacteria is a benign presence in the human body. In the s doctors realised that antibiotic medications could free the body of the bacterium and thus cure various illnesses including gastritis and stomach ulcers. At the time there was complete consensus among scientists that H.
Professor Blaser still remembers how certain the academic community was in those days about H. I don't know of anyone who said, We'd better think about the consequences.
Professor Blaser's laboratory was ahead of the field and developed the original blood analysis techniques to identify the bacterium, and most of them are commonly in use today.
But Professor Blaser has a mind that engages with a number of different intellectual activities; for example, in addition to his medical work, he helped to set up an important magazine of literary criticism in the United States. And perhaps it was this diversity of perspective that first caused him to wonder about H. In particular, he was curious to know how a bacterium that was as old as humans could survive in the human body if its only role was negative. As a result, Professor Blaser began to examine fresh aspects of the bacterium, such as its molecular make up and behaviour.
On the basis of extensive research into the subject, the paper concluded that, despite the prevailing consensus to the contrary, H.
He pointed to the fact that, while the incidence of H. Professor Blaser hypothesised that the bacterium occurs quite naturally in the human stomach and that the changes to the stomach's composition caused by its removal over recent decades account for today's increasing rates of diabetes, obesity and asthma.
This is certainly an area of medical research worth watching over the years ahead. Building cities right How do we plan and design the best urban environments? In this sense then, most of us are urban dwellers: Yet despite this widespread familiarity with the urban environment, the issues involved in town planning and design are hugely complex and sometimes misunderstood, according to Dr Simon Lavers, a senior lecturer in urban planning and management at the Millennium Institute.
Urban planners need to incorporate this reality at the heart of their designs, creating urban facilities intended for all residents, whether that be galleries, museums, recreational centres, or open areas such as parks and squares. Too often, she argues, urban planning is geared solely towards commerce and city centres are sold into private ownership. Says Evans, 'Most cities are good at protecting their great landmarks and national monuments, but the smaller heritage sites, the homes of lesser writers or community leaders for example, which also give our cities a sense of common ancestry, are too often torn down by property developers and replaced with glass towers.
In reality, good urban planning and design is not that hard, continues Olav. Lavers, however, offers a word of caution. It's not one size fits all. Each city is different, it has its own climate and landscape, its own types of stone, wood and traditional building methods. All of these should be apparent in the way each city is planned. What secrets lie beneath the waters of the Rhne?
No one ever suspected that an ancient Roman ship a long wooden barge had been preserved in the most powerful river of France. The Romans needed millions of curvy clay jars called amphorae to ship wine, olive oil, and fish sauce around the empire, and often didnt use them more than once. During the first century A. Nowadays, the Rhne is the most powerful river in France. Most people cannot imagine wanting to dive into it. Neither could archaeologist Luc Long, at first, but once he discovered the amphorae, his future opened before him.
Hes been investigating the Roman dump ever since. For the first 20 years or so, neither the local authorities nor the general public paid much attention to what he was doing. But while diving in , he noticed a mass of wood swelling from the mud at a depth of 13 feet.
It turned out to be the aft port side of a foot-long barge. The barge was almost intact; most of it was still buried under the layers of mud and amphorae that had sheltered it for nearly years. Long and a colleague sawed a section out of the exposed part, which the colleague analysed in minute detail. As they began diving onto the wreck of the barge that year, Long proceeded with his survey of the rest of the dump and started finding pieces of the town: Word began to leak out.
The French customs police warned Long that antiquities thieves might be watching his operation. When his divers found a life-size statue of Neptune, god of the sea and sailors, they brought it up at night.
Before that diving season was out, another statue was discovered: Portraits of Caesar are surprisingly rare. This one might be the only surviving one that was sculpted while he was alive. You have to understand, said Claude Sintes, the director of the Arles antiquities museum, Arles is a small town.
The locomotive workshop closed in , the rice mill and the paper mill within the past decade. Whats left is mostly tourism. The tourists come in part for Van Gogh, who painted here for a time.
But the town sits on deposits of the Roman pastyou cant sink a shovel into your garden without hitting a Roman stone or tile. The exhibition, later built around the bust of Caesar, after news of it spread around the world, showed that some of the excavated artefacts were commercial grade.
The exhibitions success was astonishing, Sintes said. When a modest town like ours got , visitors, the politicians understood that the economic return was strong. By the fall of , those officials were looking for more culture to invest in.
Suddenly nine million euros became available to build a new wing on Sintess museum and put a Roman barge into it. There was just one catch. The project would need to be completed by That sounds like enough time unless you know about ancient wood. Mud had protected the wood of Arles-Rhne 3 from microbial decay, but water had dissolved the cellulose and filled the woods cells, leaving the whole boat soft and spongy. If the water evaporated, the whole barge would collapse.
The solution was to bathe the wood for months in polyethylene glycol, then freeze-dry it. But the barge would have to be cut into sections small enough to fit into the freeze-dryers.
And the process would take nearly two years. That left only one excavation season, , to extract the boat from the Rhne, and usually the Rhne is safe for diving only from late June to October; otherwise the current is too strong. Three or four months would not be enough to excavate Arles-Rhne 3. Then arrived.
It hardly snowed in the Alps that winter; that spring it barely rained. The Rhnes current was so gentle that Sabrina Marliers team got in the water by early May. Her team worked straight into November and completed the job. When Arles-Rhne 3 sank, it was carrying 33 tons of building stones.
They were flat, irregular slabs of limestone, from three to six inches thick. The boat was pointed upstream, indicating it had been tied up at the quay when it sank. A flash flood had probably swamped it.
As the flood subsided, the cloud of sediment it had kicked up settled out of the water again, draping the barge in a layer of fine clay no more than eight inches thick. In that clay, in contact with the boat, Marlier and her team found the crews personal effects. A sickle theyd used to chop fuel for their cooking fire, with a few wood splinters next to the blade. A plate and a gray pitcher that belonged to the same manboth bore the initials AT. Thats whats exceptional about this boat, said Marlier.
Were missing the captain at the helm. But otherwise we have everything. The list below gives some of the possible reasons why Luc Longs excavation work in the Rhne was challenging. A the local authorities restrictions on certain projects in the river B the competitive attitudes of other archaeologists working in the area C the possibility of excavated items being stolen D the fact that any excavation would interrupt tourist activities E the need to complete a particular project within a given time.
A It had been constructed in a way that was unusual for Roman times.
B It had been broken into several parts by the force of the mud it was under. C It was excavated so it could bring economic benefit to the area. D It was carrying a kind of cargo for which it had not been originally designed. E It contained more preserved items than are normally found on an excavated boat. Rising seas As the planet warms, the sea rises.
Coastlines flood. What will we protect? What will we abandon?
How will we face the danger of rising seas? An extremely altered planet is what our fossil-fuel-driven civilization is creating, a planet where massive flooding will become more common and more destructive for the worlds coastal cities. By releasing carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping gases into the atmosphere, we have warmed the Earth by more than a full degree Fahrenheit over the past century and raised sea level by about eight inches.
This warming of our planet affects sea level in two ways. About a third of its rise comes from thermal expansion from the fact that water grows in volume as it warms. The rest comes from the melting of ice on land. So far its been mostly mountain glaciers, but for the future the big concern is the giant ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica. These areas combined have lost on average about 50 cubic miles of ice each year since Many think sea level will be at least three feet higher than today by Even that figure might be too low.
Coastal cities now face a twin threat: How will they cope?
Malcolm Bowman, a physical oceanographer at the State University of New York, has been trying for years to persuade anyone who will listen that New York City needs greater protection from flooding. He proposes two barriers: Gates would be adjusted for ships and tides, closing only during storms. Another way to safeguard New York might be to revive a bit of its past, according to landscape architect Kate Orff.
She explains how the islands and shallows along the coastline vanished long ago, demolished by harbor-dredging and landfill projects that added new real estate to a growing city. Orff suggests that throughout the harbor, there would be dozens of artificial reefs built from stone, rope, and wood pilings and seeded with oysters and other shellfish.
These would continue to grow as sea levels rose, helping to lessen the impact of storm waves and the shellfish, being filter feeders, would also help clean the harbor. The Netherlands has taken other approaches to the issue of flooding.
In Rotterdam, Arnoud Molenaar is the manager of the citys Climate Proof program, which aims to make Rotterdam resistant to future sea levels. He describes the assorted flood-control structures that have been constructed there, including an underground car park designed to hold 10, cubic meters more than 2. He also mentions Rotterdams Floating Pavilion, a group of three connected, transparent domes on a platform in a harbor off the Meuse river.
These are about three storeys tall, and made of a plastic thats a hundred times as light as glass. Though used for meetings and exhibitions, their main purpose is to demonstrate the wide potential of floating urban architecture.
By the city anticipates that as many as 1, homes will float in the harbor. Among the most vulnerable low-lying cities in the U. There is no obvious engineering solution to flooding on this peninsula as it sits on top of a foundation of highly porous limestone meaning that sea water just flows through the foundation, gradually eroding it.
Even now, during unusually high tides, seawater spouts from sewers in Miami Beach, Fort Lauderdale, and other cities, flooding streets. In a state exposed to hurricanes as well as rising seas, people like John Van Leer, an oceanographer at the University of Miami, worry that one day they will no longer be able acquire insurance for their houses.
If downloaders cant insure it, they cant get a mortgage on it. And if they cant get a mortgage, you can only sell to cash downloaders, Van Leer says. What Im looking for is a climate-change denier with a lot of money. Today, in the urban centres of the 21st century, we are surrounded by a vast spectrum of colours that once only occurred within the natural world.
We now take it for granted that the products that we download and the packaging they are presented in will be available in our preferred shade or tone. Colourful man-made objects have become so ubiquitous that it requires a stretch of the imagination to conceive of a time when such a range did not exist, but until the midth century, this was indeed the case.
It was the ancient civilizations of China, Rome, Persia, India and Egypt where the craft of dyeing fabric was developed; an often complicated and labour-intensive process. Dyes that were derived from vegetables were usually cheaper and more easily obtainable than ones derived from animals.
The roots of a plant called madder were used to create a strong red colour, and the leaves of the indigo shrub produced a colour between blue and violet. Saffron and turmeric plants, now used to colour and flavour food, once created yellow and orange hues for cloth.
Because of the scarcity of certain sources or the complexity of production, some colours were only worn by very wealthy people or royalty, for example, purple which originated in the Mediterranean and was a dye created from the secretions of sea snails; and black, coming from oak or chestnut wood, which indicated high status in 14th century Europe.
In the 15th century, South America began exporting large quantities of a dye called carmine to Europe; this deep crimson-red colour was derived from the crushed bodies and eggs of the cochineal beetle. Carmine remains a major component of food colouring and cosmetics even now. Although dyeing methods had evolved over the millennia, the use of natural sources would always be impractical; there was no guarantee that the colour of dyed material would be consistent or that the material, when exposed to the sun, would not suffer from fading over a period of time.
Furthermore, it would often take months to produce a relatively small quantity of fabric, an insufficient supply for growing populations.
In the 19th century, the expanding European textile industry created a need for larger quantities of cheaper and more adaptable dyes. It was a young English chemist, William Henry Perkin, who responded to this need, quite by accident.
In , he was experimenting in his laboratory, with the aim of synthesising the drug quinine, used to help people suffering from malaria. One of the chemical compounds he was testing was aniline. From this, he obtained a black solid, and then isolated a dye that could colour silk purple.
The dyed silk did not fade in the sun and did not wash out. Perkin had thus created the first synthetic dye. He built a factory to manufacture the dye on an industrial scale, and developed a technique to apply the dye to cotton materials that could be made into dresses and accessories. The new colour, which Perkins named Aniline Purple, quickly became fashionable and much in demand, both in Britain and overseas.
Due to its growing reputation in France, Perkins made a sensible marketing decision and changed the name to mauve, after the French word for the purple mallow flower.
Perkins discovery not only inspired other scientists and researchers to experiment with synthetic colours, but also demonstrated to manufacturers that colour novelty could be used to attract customers.
Now, when it comes to establishing a brand, it is often the use of colour or a colour combination that speaks to potential downloaders, and it is colour which often determines consumer choice. Summary The craft of dyeing has been practised since ancient times.
Early civilizations found it was more difficult to get dyes from Some colours were traditionally worn only by By the 15th century, a crimson-red dye, which is still used in However, there were various problems with using natural sources; it was never certain that the exact same colour would appear in dyed material; gradual Fortunately, in , while chemist William Henry Perkin was attempting to find a way of treating His purple-dyed fabrics made of Companies now rely heavily on colour to make their The amazing brains of babies Recent scientific techniques have challenged our beliefs about the way that babies think.
In the past three decades remarkable discoveries have been made about the way babies think and the development of their brains. It was previously thought in the scientific community that babies and young children were amoral and therefore unable to understand the perspective of other people, and that they were also quite irrational; unable to make sense of the world around them. However, new scientific techniques have proved otherwise. From an evolutionary point of view, one of the most fascinating things about humans is that they take a very long time to develop all the skills and knowledge required to survive independently of their parent.
In other words, humans experience a far longer childhood than any other species. Nevertheless, this does, in fact, benefit them in the long run. Of course, the young of some animal species can fend for themselves within hours or days of being born. Known as precocial species, these animals enter the world with specific innate capabilities that allow them to survive in a particular set of environmental circumstances.
They can move with agility, search for food, and avoid predators intuitively without conscious thought. In other words, they just know what to do. Altricial species behave rather differently. They must learn how to co- ordinate their limbs, need feeding by their parents, and must be protected from enemies. But while all this is happening, learning is still occurring in their very flexible brains.
Neurons, or nerve cells as they are also known, are the cells in the brain that process and transmit information through electrical and chemical signals. These signals between neurons happen via synapses, specialized connections with other cells. It is now known that the brains of babies have many more connections between neurons than adults.
The area of the brain called the prefrontal cortex takes a particularly long time to develop, however. In an adult, this region allows a person to focus on achieving internal goals, and to work out which actions are most likely to achieve them quickly and effectively. It is also the area which allows a person to control their feelings and moderate their social behaviour.
On the surface, therefore, it may seem that the slow development of the prefrontal cortex is a disadvantage, but actually it may aid the process of learning. The prefrontal cortex also restricts irrelevant thoughts or behaviours, and in a baby, because they are uninhibited in this way, it may encourage them to explore freely and learn flexibly, giving them an eventual advantage over other species.
What are the implications of this for the way we raise our young children? Science has certainly demonstrated how vitally important a childs early years are, and some policy makers have responded to this by insisting on the establishment of early education programmes and continual testing. Many parents are also anxious to give their children a head start by enrolling them in extra classes and paying for out-of-school tuition.
Yet science suggests that children learn best from normal daily interaction with other people and things, and from playful exploration of their environment within a safe setting. This is when all those neurons get excited the most. Thirty years ago, scientists believed that human babies lacked Today the common belief is quite different. Scientists have realised that human babies period of Unlike precocial species which are born with In humans, the prefrontal cortex, responsible for efficient action and This slow development of the prefrontal cortex, however, allows What some scientists have concluded, is that the most effective learning in young children occurs when they take part in as many A emotional balance B academic situations C instinctive abilities.
D communication strategies E basic logic F everyday experiences. G extended immaturity H creative thinking I intellectual development. Champions of the track Researchers investigate what makes some athletes faster than others.
With the next Olympics in sight, athletes, their trainers, and sports fans alike are wondering just what new records will be set in the marathon. In this event, runners must cover a distance of just over 26 miles, and whats amazing is that todays champions are running at a pace that could only be achieved for the 10, metres run a mere century ago.
So have humans become better built in some way? Is it to do with better nutrition or training routines? Research teams have been looking into why these accomplishments have become possible. Professor Eileen Atkinson is at the forefront of such studies. She has concluded that there are a number of key factors responsible for improved speed and pace. A hundred years back, there was no such thing as training every day. The widely held belief amongst athletes and coaches was that three or four times per week was sufficient, otherwise athletes could risk overtraining and actually get worse rather than better at running.
In the years since, that view has been completely rejected and the amount of training has increased: Atkinson is also keen to point out that athletes are no longer just from the developed world; perhaps partly due to sponsorship, athletes from developing countries are also able to compete, and with increasing frequency, win.
Atkinson and her team have also looked at what kind of treadmill times first-class athletes have achieved in the past and now. What they have found is that there is very little difference between current and previous generations when it comes to performance on a running machine. So why the big difference on the track? Atkinson puts it down to the fact that the design and construction of racetracks have come a long way, and sport shoe technology has seen similar improvement.
Both these developments could be giving todays runners an edge. Atkinsons team have also been carefully measuring the oxygen consumption of athletes compared to non-athletes while on treadmills. In top athletes, the maximal oxygen uptake the maximum capacity for oxygen consumption will be far higher than the capacity of non-athletes, meaning that cardiac output, the amount of blood pumped per minute, will also be better.
This all helps indicate a runners level of aerobic fitness. Another interesting aspect of successful marathon running that Atkinson explored was the impact of ageing on performance.
Although the generally held view is that peak performance is normally achieved somewhere between the mid-twenties to mid-thirties, and that runners will experience a decline thereafter, this is an average, and not necessarily true for all individuals. Some runners in their forties, even fifties, are able to go the distance due to their commitment to tough training programmes.
In other words, there is no set point at which an athlete should announce retirement. Atkinson is also keen to dispel another popular myth. The belief that there is a specific gene that guarantees athletic superiority is an idea that has no scientific foundation. Many genes play a role in enhancing athletic performance, but the likelihood of any one person having the exact grouping of genes required to become a natural champion is minimal.
Rather, for many young athletes, it comes down to internal motivation and external incentives. Sugar and society How has sugar impacted on human development and health?
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