We also provide zip files of the all Powerpoint files, PDF files, and all figures used in the text The slides and figures below are copyright Silberschatz, Korth. Branch: master. aobd_eadw/aobd/Database System Concepts 6e By Abraham Silberschatz, Henry Korth and S portal7.info Find file Copy path. Fetching. Chapter 3: SQL Database System Concepts, 5th Ed. ©Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan See portal7.info for conditions on re-use Chapter 3: SQL „ Data.
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DATABASE. SYSTEM CONCEPTS. SIXTH EDITION. Abraham Silberschatz. Yale University. Henry F. Korth. Lehigh University. S. Sudarshan. This volume is an instructor's manual for the 4th edition of Database System by Abraham Silberschatz, Henry F. Korth and S. Sudarshan. The slides and figures below are copyright Silberschatz, Korth. Sudarshan, Object-Based Databases, ppt, pdf, September 20, XML, ppt, pdf.
We implemented a quality management system QMS approach to systematically reestablish laboratory testing, after evaluating structural and functional damage. PHLs were inoperable immediately after the storm. PHLs serve an integral role in protecting human health by conducting laboratory tests to identify disease outbreaks and monitor the safety of food, water, and the environment. PRDH served a population of more than 3. However, this agency issued a waiver to regulatory requirements. The locations a and the types of testing provided b are presented.
The locations a and the types of testing provided b are presented. The main goal of this work was to facilitate the reestablishment of full laboratory testing capacity at PRDH.
This Perspective describes the significant challenges faced in restoring laboratory functions, capacity, services, and clinical testing in Puerto Rico, the specific efforts that were needed after the event and the lessons learned in this process.
The actual implementation of recovery activities fall in Phase 2 with recalibration, validation or replacement of equipment, supplies and reagents. Activities that belong to QSEs pertaining to restoring service such as customer management and continual improvement were ascribed to Phase 3 Fig. QSEs were used as a useful framework for an emergency response.
Phase 1 included assessments, facilities and safety, organization and personnel training; Phase 2 included process control, equipment, downloading an inventory and documents and records; phase 3 included Information management, customer service, occurrence management and continual improvement.
An important aspect of a quality systems approach to disaster recovery is the identification and implementation of Quality Indicator QI assessment 2. QIs provide an objective measure to potentially evaluate all critical domains identified in the disaster recovery process.
Data from and outcomes associated with those domain assessments may be implemented in a consistent and comparable manner across settings and over time.
When assessing the quality of restored laboratory services using QIs, it is important to ensure systematic and consistent data collection and analysis by using a comprehensive set of indicators that addresses all stages of the assessment 2.
In Phase 1, after assuring the safety of all the personnel, facilities were assessed to systematically identify the areas of impact and the organization of the response was established.
Laboratory assessments were conducted by an interdisciplinary team of CDC laboratory scientists with experience in management of laboratory quality, safety, and CLIA-regulated testing, who represented a variety of subject matter expertise areas.
Team members were recruited for overlapping 3-week deployments, in an approach that facilitated a flexible, rapidly mobilizable and sustainable emergency response. The first representatives of the team deployed to Puerto Rico on 12 October , in recognition that rapid needs assessment is foundational to strategic response.
Deployment timing was impacted by logistical constraints due to limited access to the island following a natural disaster of the scale of Hurricane Maria. Assessments of spaces critical for restoring testing capacity for these pathogens were completed within 2 weeks of the first deployment. Deployers used an assessment tool previously developed for the baseline assessment of foodborne, waterborne, and environmental laboratory activities.
The tool also contained questions about accreditation, licensing, quality and additional questions covering CLIA activities were also added. Subsequent members of the laboratory team assessed remaining laboratory spaces, including those at other PRDH facilities across the island, throughout the month of November.
While the individual findings from APHL and CDC assessment teams were consistent, this quality-focused approach was developed by CDC deployers to address the need for a prospective, systems-wide evaluation of the impact of the hurricane to facilitate recovery of this complex laboratory network.
Multiple barriers to re-establishment of services were identified in the aftermath of Hurricane Maria, including a need for access to uninterrupted municipal power, facility damage, damage to critical equipment and reagents, and challenges with procurement. However, two laboratory facilities in San Juan and Mayaguez, see Fig. Table 1 Laboratory needs identified by initial assessments Full size table Fig. Note the assessment was conducted for the distinct laboratory areas, and some units work in a shared laboratory space.
Each QSE encompasses multiple subdomains; percentage disruption for each laboratory was estimated by calculating the percentage of these subdomains that were impacted by Hurricane Maria Full size image This QSE-based approach facilitated the integration of prospective laboratory assessments with response activities, through the identification and monitoring of inter-dependent laboratory needs.
In addition to analytical instruments used for diagnostic, surveillance and environmental testing, disruptions were documented for safety equipment e. Reagents stored at room temperature also have temperature range requirements, which were challenging to maintain without climate control.
Therefore, an initial priority was to mitigate critical laboratory needs in the facilities and safety domain, followed by procurement of reagents and tools necessary for qualification of equipment Fig. A critical intangible impact of Hurricane Maria on PHL capacity was the status of laboratory certifications.
PRDH laboratories are certified by several agencies. Proficiency testing, a method of evaluation by an external regulatory body based on the ability of a laboratory to evaluate a panel of standardized unknown specimens, is a cornerstone of laboratory certification. Laboratory Team members worked with PRDH laboratory SMEs to understand the impact of Hurricane Maria on proficiency and certification timelines, which could potentially result in regulatory non-compliance.
This phased approach informed assessment of reagent needs to support quality assurance of clinical, surveillance and environmental testing e. Phase 2: Rapid procurement In Phase 2, by controlling the process of how equipment was excessed if damaged or downloadd and inventoried, the response moved quickly into the next phase of restoring local diagnostic and surveillance testing.
Maintaining documents and records was key to ensure items were received and qualified and that service and maintenance contracts were procured. Hurricane Maria also impacted procurement. The only two delivery routes to Puerto Rico are by air and by sea.
Because of disruption in routine shipping systems, optimization of these procedures e. To expedite procurement of laboratory supplies and bring diagnostic and environmental testing services and surveillance activities back online in Puerto Rico, the CDC Laboratory Team partnered with the CDC Foundation.
Floating point and double-precision floating point numbers, with machine-dependent precision. Floating point number, with user-specified precision of at least n digits. SQL names are case insensitive i. If there are c1 copies of tuple t1 in r1 and c2 copies of tuple t2 in r2, there are c1 x c2 copies of the tuple t1.
Suppose multiset relations r1 A, B and r2 C are as follows: Suppose a tuple occurs m times in r and n times in s, then, it occurs: Attributes in select clause outside of aggregate functions must appear in group by list Database System Concepts, 5th Edition, Oct 5, 3. Find all loan number which appear in the loan relation with null values for amount.
Above query can be written in a much simpler manner. The formulation above is simply to illustrate SQL features. The view name is represented by v. First, compute avg balance and find all tuples to delete 2. Next, delete all tuples found above without recomputing avg or retesting the tuples Database System Concepts, 5th Edition, Oct 5, 3. Download pdf. Remember me on this computer.