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The information contained within this Basic Electronics Tutorials guide is provided When working with Electrical or Electronics components and circuits, all. Basic Electronics Tutorials and Revision is a free online Electronics Tutorials Resource for Beginners and Beyond on all aspects of Basic Electronics. Basic Electronics Tutorial in PDF - Learn Basic Electronics in simple and easy steps starting from basic to advanced concepts with examples including Materials .
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After you finish building the circuit and plug in the power, it should blink. If it does not blink, carefully check all of your connections and orientation of all of the parts. A trick for quickly debugging the circuit is counting components in the schematic versus components on your breadboard. If they don't match, you left something out. You can also do the same counting trick for the number of things that connect to a particular point in the circuit.
Once it is working, try changing the value of K resistor. Notice that by increasing the value of this resistor, the LED blinks slower and that by decreasing it, the LED blinks faster. The reason for this is that the resistor is controlling the rate at which the 10uF capacitor is filling and discharging. Before you design an electronic project, you need to know what a circuit is and how to create one properly. An electronic circuit is a circular path of conductors by which electric current can flow.
A closed circuit is like a circle because it starts and ends at the same point forming a complete loop. In contrast, if there is any break in the flow of electricity, this is known as an open circuit. All circuits need to have three basic elements. These elements are a voltage source, conductive path and a load. The voltage source, such as a battery, is needed in order to cause the current to flow through the circuit.
In addition, there needs to be a conductive path that provides a route for the electricity to flow. Finally, a proper circuit needs a load that consumes the power. The load in the above circuit is the light bulb. Schematic Diagram When working with circuits, you will often find something called a schematic diagram. These symbols are graphic representations of the actual electronic components.
Below is an example of a schematic that depicts an LED circuit that is controlled by a switch. It contains symbols for an LED, resistor, battery and a switch.
By following a schematic diagram, you are able to know which components to use and where to put them. These schematics are extremely helpful for beginners when first learning circuits. Below are a few of the most commonly used electronic symbols in the US. To find the resistor value, you need to know the voltage and the amps for your LED and battery.
Next, you need to find out what voltage your battery is. In this example, we will be using a 9V battery. This will give you a voltage of 7 which needs to be divided by. This project is a great starter project for beginners. We will be using test leads to create a temporary circuit without having to solder it together. You can count the number of pulses to tell how much time has gone by. This stream of output pulses is often called a clock. More than just a Pulse The pulse is nice but it only happens one time.
An oscillator puts out an endless series of pulses. The Oscillator A Clock. Capacitors usually have two legs. The same idea is true when the capacitor is discharging. The difference is that a capacitor can only hold a small fraction of the energy that a battery can.
The picture on the right is the symbol used for capacitors in circuit drawings schematics. The picture above on the left shows two typical capacitors. Below is a graph of the voltage in the capacitor while it is charging. As with a rechargable battery. It does not matter which way you put them in a circuit.
When you put one in a circuit. Below is a graph of what the voltage is in the capacitor while it is discharging. These can hold a lot of charge. Even if a TV has been disconnected from the wall for a long time.
One leg is the positive leg and the other is the negative leg. If the capacitor has been charged to 12 volts and then we connect both legs to ground. The positive leg is the one that is longer. So if we have a 12 volt supply and start charging the capacitor.
Except for really big capacitors like the ones found in old TVs. A capacitor is similar to a rechargable battery in the way it works. The smallest capacitors in this kit do not. Capacitors do not always have a positive leg and a negative leg. If you do any calculations using the value of the capacitor you have to use the Farad value rather than the picofarad or microfarad value. In this kit we have 2 33pf capacitors. But eventually the capacitor will charge up to some point where the second switch comes on.
A microfarad is 0. The values are given in Farads but a Farad is a really large unit of measure for common capacitors. Larger capacitors can store more energy and take more time to charge and discharge. The way the timer works is that when you flip the first switch. Since the voltage starts at 0. They do not have any sense of time. The resistor is used to control how fast the capacitor charges. We can control the speed of the capacitor's charging and discharging using resistors.
So the 33pf capacitor has a value of 33 picofarads or 0. The way the pulse is created is by using some components in a circuit attached to the see the circuit below. The bigger the resistance. Pf means picofarad and uf means microfarad. We can flip a switch and start charging the capacitor. When you apply a voltage they turn on and when you take away the voltage they turn off. The voltage in the capacitor can then be used as an input to another switch. The pinout for the timer is shown below.
A picofarad is 0. This circuit is made of a capacitor and a resistor. This value is always written on the larger can shaped capacitors. So by itself. So the 10uf capacitor is 0. Capacitors are given values based on how much electricity they can store.
If you apply more than 25 volts to them they will die. Capacitors are also rated by the maximum voltage they can take. Deep Details Pin 2 Trigger is the 'on' switch for the pulse. The capacitor is charged through a resistor connected to Vcc.
The voltage on Pin 7 is also pulled to ground. The current starts flowing into the capacitor. The technical term for this opposite behavior is 'Active Low'. The line over the word Trigger tells us that the voltage levels are the opposite of what you would normally expect.
Then the pulls the voltage at Pin 3 to ground and you have created a pulse. Sometimes instead of a half circle. When the output is Vcc the LED will be on. When Pin 2 Trigger is at Vcc. When the output is 0 volts the LED will be off. When 0 volts is applied to the trigger Pin 2. To turn the switch on you apply 0 volts to pin 2.
Pin 3. You may need to bend the pins in a little so they will go in the holes. Building the Circuit Place the across the middle line of the breadboard so that 4 pins are on one side and 4 pins are on the other side. We connect the positive side of the capacitor to this pin and the negative side of the capacitor to ground. The voltage on this pin starts at 0 volts. Pin 6 is the off switch for the pulse. Pin 3 is the output where the actual pulse comes out.
Leave the power disconnected until you finish building the circuit. When Pin 2 goes to 0 volts. The diagram above shows how the pins on the are numbered. Again notice the inverting action. Then the capacitor starts charging. Seeing the pulse To see the pulse we will use an LED connected to the output. You can find pin 1 by looking for the half circle in the end of the chip. Connect Pin 4 to Vcc.
We will hook up the so that it triggers itself. Connect Pin 1 to ground. It takes some time for the charge to drain through RB. Now connect the power. Pin 7. But the capacitor can not discharge immediately because of RB. The disconnects Pin 7 from ground.
It should be about a 2 second pulse. Start with Pin 2 connected to Vcc. As the capacitor is discharging. Remove the wire connected to Pin 2 from Vcc. You will need to bend the positive long leg up and out some so that the negative leg can go in the breadboard. Connect a wire to Pin 2 to use as the trigger. Connect the other leg of the ohm resistor to the output. Then you will be able to easily reach Vcc and Ground lines from both sides of the board.
Connect Pin 8 to Vcc. The more resistance RB has. Pin 3 and Pin 7 will go to ground. You should be able to trigger the again by touching the wire connected to pin 2 with your finger or by connecting it to ground and removing it. If the wires are too short. To trigger the again. The way this works is that we add in a resistor between the capacitor and the discharge pin. Connect the negative leg of the capacitor to ground. The LED will come on and stay on for about 2 seconds. Before you start building the circuit.
Connect Pin 7 to Pin 6 with a jumper wire. The time it takes to discharge the capacitor will be the time the LED is off. Take out the jumper wire between Pin 6 and Pin 7 and replace it with a 2. To build this circuit from the previous circuit. Disconnect the power.
You are changing the amount of time that it takes for the Capacitor to charge and discharge. Formulas These are the formulas we use for the to control the length of the pulses. Now reconnect the power and the LED should flash forever as long as you pay your electricity bill.
Use the jumper wire at pin 2 to connect Pin 2 to Pin 6. If a chip has not been erased before programming. There are two setup options that you may want to change at some point in the future.
To change the commands you need a device like the PG When you turn on the power to the microcontroller it goes through a series of commands. So for our circuit we have: Click here to download the software from our website. These commands are put in the chip by you. Leave these options on while working through the projects in this chapter. This chapter will show you some simple programs and how to download those to the microcontroller. The second option is Auto Verify. Double click on this file to run it and follow the instructions.
The first option is Auto Erase. Then lock the chip into the socket by pushing the handle down into the closed position. This option automatically verifies that the code was programmed correctly. The handle of the green socket should be in the up open position. In most situations you will want to leave this on so that the chip is erased before programming it with new code.
You can make it do different things by changing the commands usually called the program. Microcontrollers A microcontroller is an integrated circuit IC that is programmable. C is the capacitor value in Farads. The PG lets you download the program from your computer to the microcontroller.
When programming a chip. This will install AY Pad. These show the basic steps of compiling programs and downloading them to the microcontroller. Double click the setup. It is called a compiler or assembler. After doing these two projects you should be able to study the assembly language code and modify it to do various things with the LEDs.
It converts the microcontroller commands from a text version that we can understand to a number version that the microcontroller can understand. The main file we will use is TASM.
It is a fancy text editor that colorizes text files. You should now be ready to work through section 2. This will extract all the files we need for the projects.
Now double click on tasminst. Copy this file and paste it in the new tasm folder on your C drive. Making an LED Blink. To run AY Pad. The IC is shown below.
Connect the red wire from the power supply adapter to the input of the To use these parts we need to build a regulated 5 volt source. Run a black jumper wire from the ground row to the ground of the Find the uF capacitor and put the long leg positive leg in the row of holes with the 12VDC line and put the short leg negative leg in ground the row of holes next to the blue line.
Sometimes the input supply line the 12VDC above may be noisy. Most digital logic circuits and processors need a 5 volt power supply. Then use a yellow jumper to connect the 5 volt output to the row of holes with the red stripe beside it. Connect the black wire from the power supply adapter to the ground row with the blue line beside it.
The LM is simple to use. The breadboarded circuit is shown below. This 5 volt output will be used as Vcc in the following projects. Usually you start with an unregulated power supply ranging from 9 volts to 24 volts DC.
To help smooth out this noise and get a better 5 volt output. To make a 5 volt power supply. This is another set of pins that can be used as general inputs and outputs.
The is shown below. Pin 2 and Pin 3 are also part of Port 3. You can make programs run faster by using a faster crystal such as 24 MHz. The speed of the crystal determines the speed that the runs at. Pin 10 is the ground connection for the Pins 4 and 5 are connected to the Pins 12 to 19 make up Port 1. You can give it a set of commands to follow and it will run through those commands and do exactly what you want it to do. Pin 1 is Reset. They can be connected to LEDs to turn them on and off this would be using them as outputs.
This section will give a quick overview of the pins of the and then Section 2. Or they can be connected to switches so that the can look and see if a user has turned a switch on or off this would be using them as inputs. Port 3 includes P3. You can learn more about them in the documents listed at the end of Section 2.
The uses this crystal to create a clock. This pin can be used to force the to start over at the beginning of the program. Pins 6. Do this by placing the chip sideways on a hard flat surface so 10 pins from one side of the chip are laying flat against the surface.
You will probably need to bend the legs in slightly so the chip will go in the holes. Then bend all the chips at once by pressing gently on the chip. Building the circuit. Always use the chip extractor to pull the chip off the board. Be careful when removing the from the board. Try not to bend the pins legs when removing the chip. This project will require you to remove the from the board to program it. Start the PG software.
First we will assume we already have the program written. It is ok to guess if you are not sure which one is which. If you had to guess about which Comm. It should be in the folder with the TASM software at c: We will take a closer look at the program after making the LED blink.
Put the into the PG programmer look at Section 2. The file ledtest. This file should be at C: Change to the directory where the TASM files are type cd c: If it gives you a different message. The commands we use the most are shown in section 2. If the number actually starts with a number then it is red. The register names show up in purple. The assembly language program is shown below. Red is also used for numbers. Start up the AY Pad software.
Otherwise it will be black. For a complete list of commands and descriptions. Take a look at the program and see if it makes sense. Save the file and then go back and do steps 2 and 3 to see how this changes the program. In this program we use the register A the main register.
The real commands are in blue. Numbers in the microcontroller are stored in registers. Leave the power disconnected from the circuit you have built. Open the ledtest. CPL P1. The next command. We can also use R0. You can move different values into those control registers to change how the operates.
The microcontroller will keep going through this loop until you turn the power off. Without a delay. Everything in green is just comments created by using a. Plug the power supply into the power supply adapter which should be connected to the board. See if you can follow the program through. Black is used for numbers and also for names that we create. Real code starts below. The first two routines are for delays so we. It will run and return to here. INC R6.
ComPLement invert P1.
You may also want to look at the file mem. The above files have general information for the Atmel family of microcontrollers.
The file arch. For information specific to the The file hardware. Add in the LEDs and the resitors as shown in the diagram below. The numbers are in digital binary format. Then move the microcontroller to the circuit. The LEDs should all come on.
Then they should start blinking on and off as the counter counts up from 0 to all on to all off. The program for this is ledproj2. Click here to see the next tutorial on using the to make sound with a speaker. For more information on working with digital numbers. To see the sales ad for the Microcontroller Beginner Kit.
Click here to see the tutorial on using the with a 7 segment display. Click here to see the tutorial on using a switch as an input to the microcontroller. For pricing. Click here to see the tutorial on using Light Sensors with the microcontroller. This design is intended for use with an Atmel microcontroller a 20 pin version of the The parts for this kit are included in Kit and the Microcontroller Beginner Kit.
It is a fully assembled board made for experimenting with microcontrollers. Click here for more information on the ExpBoard. See part 2 for parts list and see Order Form for price and ordering information or call This design is intended for use with an Atmel Once you have compiled the program. Instead of just making an LED blink. In this project the program is similar. The basic process of compiling an assembly language program and loading it into the microcontroller was covered in the first microcontroller project.
If you want a printed copy of this and the other tutorials. It includes: You can order the parts for this project. This design is intended for use with an Atmel programmable microcontroller a 20 pin version of the microcontroller. An or can be substituted for the if the connections are moved to the appropriate pins on those chips.
You can hear that the sound is lower in frequency. To start. You can start to hear the speaker making noise at about 50 blinks per second.
This is one cycle. The first two commands each take 12 clock cycles and the 3rd command CJNE takes 24 clock cycles.
But with the speaker. Using a 7 Segment Display with the Click here for more sound examples. This is also called the frequency.
This project uses the same code as the first program. You should hear a tone coming from the speaker. If the LED was hooked up. That change makes it so that rather than delaying a half a second. Save it as a new file called sounds. Connect the power. The basic process of compiling a program written in assembly language and then programming the resulting file into the microcontroller was covered in the first microcontroller tutorial.
It is a frequency of Hertz where Hertz means cycles per second. Compile the sounds. This changes the delay from half a second to one millisecond. If you want to make the frequency go down.
Right now the microcontroller is putting out about cycles per second. But instead of calling it blinks. By just looking at the code. Click here for the next tutorial. This will make the frequency Hertz. So each loop takes 48 clock. How to get exactly the frequency you want: To figure out how to get an exact frequency.
You can only see the LED going on and off up to about 25 blinks per second. You can find this out by looking for information on the commands in arch. Lets start by determining what frequency the sounds. Each time through the loop it does 3 commands. We need to figure out how long this routine lasts. The information below is fairly advanced so don't worry if you want to skip it. If we wanted to get closer to exactly 1 ms we could change the loop so that it only repeats times rather than This means the clock is running at a frequency of In terms of frequency.
It has to be some multiple of Since the shortest commands take 12 clock cycles. The closest multiple of 12 is So one cycle takes about 2 ms This is called the period. These add an extra 96 clock cycles each time through. The easiest solution is to make our loop longer. Then find out how many microcontroller clock cycles this is by dividing by 0.
So this extra time must be considered if you are trying to get a very precise frequency. That is an extra cycles. With 2 delays per cycle this is a period of 0. Say you want to make Hz. We are using an To convert that to frequency. To translate this into time. That will not be exactly Hz because we had to round off in some places you can't do To find the period.
To really be exactly right on the frequency you are making. We can only go up to loops so then we can either make our loop take more time. Then you get cycles per second.
To figure out exactly what frequency that we made. Each loop is 0. Each delay should be 0. This equals cycles after dropping the decimal part.
We can add in an extra 12 cycles per loop by putting in a NOP no operation command. Then divide this by 2 to find out how long each delay must be there will be 2 delays per cycle. You are limited in how close you can get to an exact frequency by the microcontroller clock speed. Since it takes 2 times through to make a cycle on the output.
MHz is MegaHertz which is millon cycles per second. This gives you the period equal to 0. Using our loop that takes 48 cycles. So the period is actually 0. The faster the clock is. The resulting code is shown in sound