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Thus, this set of "perfect" measurements would be the "true" values of the emissions from that PT Test Artifact.
If these "Perfect Results" could then be compared to actual PT results obtained by real i. So, the first thing that needs to be done in a Proficiency Test is to use the measurements collected by each participating Test Lab for each of the types of measurements made e. Without going into a lot of detail, the estimates of the "true" values are best determined using some kind of averaging technique to determine the central tendency of the data.
The use of a simple arithmetic mean of the data readily suggests itself. Unfortunately, the results of simple arithmetic mean calculations are severely affected by "outliers". Note: an "outlier" is a measurement that has a value that is significantly larger or smaller than most of the other measurements in the same PT Data Set. The results of simple arithmetic mean calculations are even more significantly affected by measurements that are bi-modal or tri-modal.
What is actually needed to determine the central tendency of the PT data is some kind of weighted averaging technique that is not very sensitive to "outliers", and to bi-modal or tri-modal data distributions.
Statisticians call such techniques "Robust". Appendix C. Hereafter we refer to the result i. Accordingly, a balanced bilingual is a person equally skilled in the use of two or more languages. By this definition, almost all Indonesians are balanced bilinguals; most master IN and their own ethnic language equally well.
Interlocutor is defined as speaker or hearer in a communication situation. While the descriptive side of the study will emphasise the process or processes of the adoption of MlrRiau as the lengua nacional of Indonesia and of Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore , the analytical side of the study will be devoted mainly to the discussion of language planning or language engineering within the scope of the three problems stated earlier in 1.
Thus, the study will avoid such fields as the h istory of Indonesia in the wider sense of the word, Indonesian culture in general, and IN literature in depth.
Neither a discussion nor a description of the many indigenous vernaculars of the Indonesian archipelago will be given.
Novels, essays, poems, and literary articles written between and will serve as comparative materials. The comparison made will cover stylistics, lexical items, and grammatical arrangements.
No literary evaluation or criticism will be given for these are not the foci of the study. These works have been chosen to show changes in style, vocabulary , and structural arrangements that have occurred in IN within the period of time just mentioned.
The changes, if there are any, may be attributed to the process of standardisation, modernisation or intellectualisation of the language.
Changes in language attitude of a sociolinguistic nature will be looked at, especially those exhibited by the elites of various ethnic groups. The discussion of the same problem will also be centred around some selective groups of people whose language attitude also changes and whose language preference varies according to the existing stimuli around them.
As the area of culture is so vast, it would be impossible to give any extensive analysis of it. Therefore, facets of Malay culture, of which ML is a part, will be discussed only when it is deemed necessary. This study will also attempt to determine the growth trends and spread of ML speakers in the Indonesian archipelago and to use these trends as the basis of a language projection for IN for the year Raffles established Singapore in After its establishment a conflict of interests arose between the British and the Dutch that continued until a settlement was reached in London in The Malay Peninsula and Singapore were placed under British rule, while Sumatra on the other side of the Strait and most of the rest of what is now Indonesia was placed under Dutch administration.
From that year onwards the spread and the development of ML on both sides of the Strait went their own separate ways. Its adoption as the second official language by the Dutch colonial administration took place in The period witnessed the emergence of nationalist movements which used IN as a tool to unite the multi-ethnic population of Indonesia.
At this point IN became a symbol of national identity and national pride. As such it would play the role of a language of wider communication and at least i n the context of South-East Asia, replace English. Chapter II gives a full account of the historical development of ML-from its pre-lingua franca status to its status as the second official language of the Dutch administration and up to its transformation into the national language of Indonesia.
Standardisation of the writing system is discussed in depth in this chapter as are the process of standardisation of IN grammar, and the process of modernisation and intellectualisation of IN vocabulary. Attitudinal changes towards language use are discussed in the first half of Chapter IV.
This section also contains a discussion on sentimental and instrumental attachment to a language.
As a unifying factor among the people of Indonesia a strong attachment is felt towards IN. This chapter makes use of reports of research projects published on this subject by the Center for Language Development in Jakarta.
The second half of Chapter IV presents predictions and projections for the year based on available census figures. The chapter also contains a discussion of the possibility of ML as a language of wider communication. Notes 1 According to Hooykaas, the first scholar who suggested the usage of the name Indonesia was an Englishman by the name of J.
Logan in The word consists of two G reek words: Indos India, or influenced by India and nesos land, island. The word Indonesia was used by Logan to refer to the islands south-east of India which according to his research were more or less influenced by India.
Another orientalist by the name of Adolf Bastian applied the word in in one of his scholarly writings, and since then the name Indones i a has gained currency.
Other scholars too used it in their scientific l iterature about the Netherlands East Indies d. Ruzui For these languages is also used the term Indonesian in continental scholarly writing, while at the same time Indonesia is the name of the Republic of Indonesia and its national language, which is the same as Malay.
More confusion is added by the use of the word Malaysia for the new state combining Malaya, Serawak , and North Borneo Sabah. Alisjahbana in Fishman, ed.
Dasar bahasa Indonesia iala. In the Russian context, the definition of a national language is also different from the one given here in this study. In this chapter, however, a complete and comprehensive account of it will be presented.
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