It provides brief reviews of those. Download PDF Handbook of Optofluidics [ Related] [PDF] [cornell biological engineering handbook] [Books] downloaded. Additionally, some important optofluidic components, principles of their operation . refractive index of the fluid in the channel to guide the light. By Aaron R. Hawkins. Optofluidics is an rising box that includes using fluids to switch optical houses and using optical units to notice flowing media. finally.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Arabic|
|Genre:||Science & Research|
|ePub File Size:||30.42 MB|
|PDF File Size:||19.12 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
Handbook ofOptofluidics Handbook ofOptofluidics Edited byAaron R. Hawkins Holger Schmidt CRC Press Taylor & F. Optofluidics is an emerging field that involves the use of fluids to modify Handbook of Optofluidics DownloadPDF MB Read online. Read e-book online Handbook of Optofluidics PDF. By Aaron R. Hawkins,Holger Schmidt. Optofluidics is an rising box that includes using fluids.
A-1 Mikhail I. F-1 Index I-1 Preface Panta rhei—everything flows. This aphorism, commonly ascribed to the Greek philosopher Heraclitus ca. It can also be applied to the emerging field of optofluidics, which utilizes the flows of photons and fluids and is dynamically evolving from several established research areas. It first appeared in in a keynote paper by Jones reviewing the use of fiber optics for sensors and systems, including the control of pneumatic valves . The term did not gain traction, however, until a couple of decades later.
The level of the individual chapters is suitable for readers ranging from advanced undergraduate students to senior scientists in academia and industry. While not attempting to be a textbook, it is hoped that the handbook will serve as a starting point and reference for developing graduate courses in this rapidly expanding field.
Organization Part I: Foundations of Optofluidics Part I introduces the scientific foundations that contribute to optofluidics. These chapters are intended to provide condensed reviews of mature fields while emphasizing the aspects that are of particular relevance to optofluidics.
They serve as reference materials and will help in the understanding of later, more specialized and detailed chapters. Chapter 1 by Mekala and Erickson introduces the physical concepts of micro- and nanofluidics with an emphasis on transport properties. Starting with a description of the physical laws governing fluid flow, t hey explore issues of scaling i n m icro- a nd na nosystems a nd t he movement of liquid analytes with a direct bearing on many analytical applications.
The chapter closes with an outlook on new trends in which light is actively used to move fluids and particles therein.
In Chapter 2 , Hawkins et a l. Their overview of current fabrication methods displays the breadth of the field that combines complementary approaches from microfluidics and solid-state microfabrication.
A t horough review of process steps starting from a bare wafer and ending with a pac kaged system is given and illustrated with representative examples from optofluidics. Chapters 3 t hrough 5 i ntroduce relevant aspects of integrated optics and showcase t he key role o f this field i n optofluidics.
I n C hapter 3, Janz provides a c oncise ye t c omprehensive re view of pa ssive integrated optics, covering materials and methods of conventional integrated optics that do not necessarily involve fluids. His chapter also provides a s ense of the multitude of possible devices and functionalities many of which are revisited using optofluidic approaches in later chapters.
Chapter 5 on optoelectronics by Bernini and Zeni takes integrated optics one step further to active devices used for generating and collecting light.
Due to t he dominance of semiconductors in this area, the basic physics of semiconductors and lasers are introduced, followed by a t horough description of the use of these devices in spectroscopic applications and optofluidics. After a brief discussion of Bragg waveguides, the focus shifts to hollow-core fibers with two-dimensional photonic crystal claddings, their guiding mechanisms, and their practical Preface xi limitations.
A d iscussion of t he ramifications of i ntroducing liquids i n hollow-core fibers provides a unique perspective on these structures that is essential for their use in optofluidic applications. In Chapter 6, Zhang completes the coverage of optics background by reviewing spectroscopic methods that have traditionally been associated with microscopy and biophotonics.
He provides an in-depth review of the vast field of spectroscopic techniques with a focus on Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques that have found frequent use in optofluidic research. Part I c oncludes w ith C hapter 7 b y C hung a nd c olleagues w ho p rovide a m uch-needed s ystems perspective. I n t his chapter, optofluidics i s placed i n c ontext w ith t he l arge a nd g rowing number of approaches to building labs-on-chip. They review standard lab-on-chip components and procedures with s pecific e xamples o f optofluidic l abs-on-chip, i ncluding t he emerg ing a rea o f s calable s elfassembly.
Part II: Optical Elements and Devices Part II explores the synthesis of fundamental concepts in optofluidics to create novel devices, specifically those with optical properties that are manipulated by fluids.
A main theme that runs through this part is the dynamic reconfigurability made possible by flowing and reshaping fluids. Chapter 8 by Karnutsch and Eggleton begins with an overview of fluid-defined optical elements. This chapter is highlighted by a case study of planar 2D photonic crystal waveguides that can be filled with fluids and dynamically tuned at telecommunications wavelengths.
In keeping with the theme of fluidic tuning, Chapter 9 by Mao et al. These include lenses, mirrors, prisms, and sensing arrays that can be dynamically adjusted to alter focal lengths and reflecting angles.
Zamek et al. This chapter a lso introduces t he idea of creating sensors t hat a re based on t he easily changeable nature of fluids. Chapter 10 highlights such a s ensor based on plasmonic properties which are more fully explained in Part III and Chapter 11 by Suter and Fan explores sensors based on tuning optical resonances. R ing resonators, in pa rticular, a re featured, including necessary background on t heir operation a nd de sign.
F luid-tuned r ing re sonators a re demonstrated a s s ensitive elements i n pa rticle sensing and as light sources. The final chapter i n Pa rt II, Chapter 12 by K ristensen a nd Mortensen, f urther i nvestigates t he use of fluidic elements as light sources.
These include lasers that utilize fluids as gain media, especially in on-chip implementations. They show that the sensitive nature of laser resonances can also be exploited to convert optofluidic lasers into sensors that monitor their constituent lasing fluids. D ue to t he h igh potential for future applications, a natural emphasis on biosensing and biomedical applications is present. The first two chapters provide some background and context for how optics have traditionally been used in particle sensing and manipulation.
Chapter 13 by Cipriany and Craighead provides an in-depth review of single-molecule analysis, which is particularly suited for optofluidic implementation due to the sm all s cales i nvolved.
C ontemporary si ngle-molecule de tection te chniques a re i ntroduced a long with bac kground i nformation on c ommonly u sed m aterials a nd dye s. In Chapter 14, Chiou introduces the use of optical forces for particle manipulation.
Starting with a review of optical and optoelectronic particle-trapping principles, the application of these ideas to waveguide-based trapping in optofluidic settings is discussed. Building on the physical concepts introduced in Chapters 3 and 4, Barth and colleagues discuss m icrostructured c ylindrical fibers w ith s olid a nd h ollow c ores i n C hapter The chapter focuses on practical issues such as fiber fabrication and fi lling and losses, and reviews applications in biological and chemical sensing in optofluidics.
In Chapter 16, Schmidt explores the role o f liquidcore waveguides with a focus on planar integrated waveguides. He reviews guiding mechanisms and waveguide types, and highlights examples for the use of liquid-core waveguides as functional parts in optofluidic particle detection and manipulation. Both R aman spectroscopy a nd plasmonics a re ga ining p opularity i n biosensing a nd related applications.
C hapters 17 a nd 18 provide a c omprehensive c overage of t he optofluidic i mplementations of these nonfluorescence-based analyses methods. Raman detection is discussed in Chapter 17 by Benford et al. After reviewing conventional setups and experimental characteristics unique to Raman spectroscopy, they provide a detailed discussion of surface-enhanced Raman detection of proteins, peptides, and cardiovascular disease markers, illustrating the potential for medical applications of this technique in integrated settings.
Chapter 18 features an introduction by Sinton et al. They carefully introduce the physical foundations of plasmonics in electromagnetic theory, followed by a detailed look at s tate-of-the-art plasmonic structures for biosensing. The outlook to p ossible f uture plasmonic circuits e stablishes t he c onnection to C hapter 1 9 b y C hen a nd c olleagues i n w hich t he a uthors d iscuss optofluidic approaches to flow cytometry and cell sorting.
These two techniques are widespread, canonical methods for biological cell analysis. They introduce the principles and current status of this field and discuss challenges and possible approaches to miniaturized cell analysis. A concluding review of specific i mplementations based on liquid-core waveguides points the way toward future optofluidic cell analysis systems.
Throughout this book, the reader will find n umerous thematic connections that are highlighted by the individual authors whenever possible. For example, Chapter 5 introduces optoelectronic elements, and their optofluidic implementations are described in Chapters 8 through 10, and Likewise, optical waveguides a re d iscussed i n Chapters 3, 4 , 8 , 15, 16, a nd The most rele vant opt ical a nalysis techniques are also apparent throughout, including fluorescence Chapters 6, 11, 13, 15, and 16 and Raman spectroscopy Chapters 6, 15, and We hope t hat t his w ill serve as a c oncise reference for t he growing optofluidics community and provide a stepping stone in the dynamic flow of optofluidics research.
References 1. Jones, B. Optical fibre sensors and systems for industry, J. E 17 — Erickson, D. Payne, D. N ew lo w-loss liq uid-core fibre waveguide. Le tt. Editors Aaron R.
His research interests include optofluidics, avalanche photodiodes, semiconductor devices, hollow optical waveguides, MEMS, and labs-on-a-chip. He has authored or coauthored over technical papers. More information about him and his research group can be found at www.
After serving as a p ostdoctoral fellow at t he Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, he jo ined t he University of California, Santa Cruz, in , where he i s currently a p rofessor o f ele ctrical eng ineering a nd t he d irector o f t he W.
Ke ck C enter f or N anoscale Optofluidics. He has authored or coauthored over publications and several book chapters in various fields of optics. His research interests are integrated optofluidics for single-particle detection and analysis, integrated atomic spectroscopy and single-photon nonlinearities, and nano-magneto-optics.
Moreover, additional potential application areas such as energy harvesting were identified and a number of topical reviews on various aspects of the field are now available [ 10 — 16 ]. Bioanalysis applications have received so much attention due to the much larger efforts that have been initiated in the lab-on-chip community for creating miniaturized instruments that help deal with the ever-increasing need for biomedical testing.
Infectious diseases, for example, are constantly threatening humans and are among the leading causes of deaths across the globe [ 17 ]. Integrated virus detection systems need to fulfill several requirements to satisfy the needs of the medical community. These include low limits of detection of viral or bacterial loads, large dynamic range, and the ability for multiplex detection of multiple targets at once [ 18 ].
Other secondary factors, such as time-to-result, cost, ease-of-use, and experimental complexity, also need to be considered, and the latest optofluidic solutions can now address all these challenges successfully.
Similarly, recent progress in optofluidic particle manipulation and trapping promises another type of powerful and easy-to-use instrument for use in laboratory and clinical diagnostics. It is, therefore, the perfect time to pause and take stock of the most recent trends and achievements in optofluidics.
In this review, we emphasize optofluidic approaches that involve optical waveguides, either planar or fiber-based, as this provides the ultimate level of integration between optical and fluidic elements and functions. We will first highlight fundamental work in devices that implement canonical optofluidic principles and functions. For an in-depth review of the scientific underpinnings of micro-fluidic and integrated optics, see [ 8 ].
Developments in a wide range of optically reconfigurable photonic devices and their incorporation in chip-scale platforms are presented.
We will then discuss current areas of applications with a focus on two areas: particle manipulation and bioanalysis. We will see that the performance of optofluidic devices, for example, in terms of sensitivity at the single particle limit down to single nucleic acids and compatibility with portable carrier platforms such as smartphones, has reached levels that are highly competitive with existing commercial products.
We highlight how practical needs for a bioanalytic application drive the photonic device design and conclude with an outlook to possible future developments. This distinctive property is the driver behind creating reconfigurable photonic devices, which was an early focus of optofluidics [ 1 , 2 ].
One natural choice for such a device is a reconfigurable on-chip light source. Consequently, optofluidic lasers were developed early on, demonstrating key hallmarks of reconfiguration.