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Handbook on Bioethanol: Production and Utilization (Applied Energy Technology Series) Technology Series) by Charles Wyman ebook PDF download. Through a sustained research program and an emerging economic competitiveness, the technology for bioethanol production is poised for immediate. This handbook is .. Technology Applications for Bioethanol. Commission will use in order to promote the production and utilization of 9 http://eur-lex. portal7.info
Sharma, A. Joshi, K. Arora Abstract Bioethanol is a natural product and mostly produced by the sugar fermentation process of agricultural feedstock. The main source of sugar required to produce ethanol comes from fuel or energy crops. The fuel crops are grown for energy use includes sugar cane, bagasse, miscanthus, sugarbeet, sorghum, molasses, corn stover, grain, wheat, straw, cotton and other biomass, as well as many types of cellulosic waste.
Arora Abstract Bioethanol is a natural product and mostly produced by the sugar fermentation process of agricultural feedstock. The main source of sugar required to produce ethanol comes from fuel or energy crops. The fuel crops are grown for energy use includes sugar cane, bagasse, miscanthus, sugarbeet, sorghum, molasses, corn stover, grain, wheat, straw, cotton and other biomass, as well as many types of cellulosic waste.
Crops available for human consumption being used presently as biofuel feedstock may be replaced with halophytes as these plants have great capability to grow in saline soil and can be irrigated with saline water.
Significant and good quality of lignocellulosic biomass is produced in halophytes which can be converted into bioethanol using enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. Halophytes have greatest potential in their utilization in restoration of degraded saline locations, coastal stabilization, as a source of nonconventional cash-crop, food, forage, fodder, oilseed and production of cheap biomass for sustainable agriculture.
A vision of using halophyte plants for bioethanol production can only be achievable if we can recognize alternate species that can be cultivate on saline soils and would not compete with conventional agricultural resources.
Here, we review current progress and highlight the key species of halophytes of Thar Desert for greater economic approach and energy efficiency use in near future.
Key words: bioethanol, biofuel, halophytes, lignocellulosic biomass, Thar desert, Rajasthan Complex, New Delhi , India e-mail: varshasharma gmail. Sukhadia University, Udaipur , Rajasthan, India e-mail: jaya gmail. Basu, P. Zandi, S. Chalaras eds. It is a high octane fuel and has replaced lead as an octane enhancer in petrol.
Blending ethanol with petrol oxygenates the fuel mixture so that it burns completely and reduces harmful emissions.
Bioethanol fuels is obtained by chemical reaction between ethylene and steam, it is mainly produced through fermentation of sugars like fruit juice, sugarcane juice molasses and other starchy feedstocks like wheat, corn and potato are known as first generation bioethanol.
Bioethanol is produced from vegetable waste, wood, straw or whole plants, it is called cellulosic ethanol. The lignocellulosic biomass includes agricultural waste in the form of crop straw, husks and forest residue. Continuous supply of energy is a requirement of economic development as fossil fuel based energy resources may only ends few more decades and population and energy consumption rates increasing steadily. To deal with the food vs. They have capability to survive and reproduce under highly saline conditions where many plants cannot survive.
The Thar — the Indian Desert — includes the arid and semi-arid portions of western India and part of Pakistan. Halophytes have abundance of ligno-cellulosic biomass which, may be converted into ethanol Fig Dandy Chenopodiaceae , Sesuvium sesuvioides Fenzl Verdc. Aizoaceae , Sporobolus helvolus Trin. Chenopodiaceae , Trianthema triquetra Willd.
Aizoaceae , Zygophyllum simplex L. Zygophyllaceae and Salvadora persica L. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current scenario of bioethanol and advances made in halophytes plants species of Thar Desert for scope of bioethanol or biofuel production and their supplementary role in sustainable development. Currently, plant based feedstock derived components such as carbohydrates; lignins, triglycerides, cellulose, hemicelluloses and sugar are being researched for possible conversion to hydrocarbon fuels.
In India, ethanol is mainly derived by sugarcane molasses, which is a by- product in the conversion of sugar cane juice to sugar. With advanced, energy saving production technology bioethanol can considerably reduce the climate relevant greenhouse gas emissions from transport and traffic.
According to ethanol blending programme in India, the ethanol blending started in India in According to Ministry of New and Renewable Energy.
The overall production of the EU declined slightly as well to 6. In , EU bioethanol production peaked at about 5. Major consumers of bioethanol from to are showing in Table The sector has been benefitted from low feedstock prices and restrictive measures on bioethanol imports. While production expanded, consumption fell, and as a result the EU reached self-sufficiency in This market balance was also reached in Both production and consumption fell to about 5.
On an energy basis, this is equivalent to In and , EU bioethanol production is anticipated to decline slightly to about 5.
The domestic bioethanol market has been affected by a shrinking domestic market as gasoline consumption is on the decline and national blending mandates are adjusted downwards.
Of this total, about distilleries have the capacity to distil over 2 billion liters of conventional ethanol. India produces conventional bioethanol mostly from sugar molasses and partly from grains. Production of advanced bioethanol is in its research and development stage. According to document published by GOI report 10 Ministry of Petroleum and natural gas, total demand of ethanol all over the country is Lac liters and existing production of ethanol is Lac liters.
India is consuming more ethanol than it produces production Table The consumption basket will comprise million liters for fuel ethanol and 1. So, we have to explore the potential of halophytes in large amount for biofuel production as halophytes have capability to grow in waste saline degraded and marginal lands.
The lignocellulosic biomass and oil seeds from halophytes are potential source of biofuels. In the recent past, several salt tolerant plant species have been identified with the potential to produce huge biomass on the salinity- affected lands. Lignin or its derivatives can inhibit or compromise the cellulase activity and therefore, pose major challenge for the conversion of biomass to ethanol.
In addition, they have faster growth rate therefore are even better than the conventionally used fuel crops. Besides, this plant community undergoes a number of modifications in their anatomy and physiology Stomatal response, leaf area, leaf thickness, root shoot ratio, osmotic adjustment, and enzyme actions and bear witnesses for increase biomass production.
We, hereby, depict and set forth the biology and biomass producing potency in allusion to lignocellulosic feedstock for producing biofuel. For instance, genera like Suaeda, Salavadora, Tamarix, Salicornia, Cressa, Phragmites, Panicum, Salsola are a few principal biomass producing genera which have got a dignified potential for production of lignocellulosic feedstock.
This prominent attribute make them a consistent biofuel aspirant up to a pretty larger extent. It is also considered as seepweed or sea-blites.
These species commonly exist in coastal areas belonging the nautical districts of Gujarat and are also spread across the semi-dry marshy areas of Rajasthan as well as East-West cost of India Fig For say, some of them are confined as perennial shrubs Suaeda fruticosa L.
Gmelin, S. Furthermore, NaCl salt favourably affects the growth and augmentation of these plants, wherein Na can be substituted by K. These species tend to prevail with in natural habitats such as saline marshy wet, dry flats and non-saline inland regions but scarcely persist in the mangrove biome.
It has been expended that about species of Salvadora are spared across the arid and semi-arid region of Asia and Africa. Common name; Kharo, Jhal, Diar, Bahapilu are particularly found in the costal and desert provinces in India, including Gujarat and Western part of Rajasthan.
Leaves of S. Upon ripening, the fruits of S. Furthermore, both the species of Salvadora are profoundly rooted mesomorphic xerophyte as well as facultative halophyte with increased salt tolerance. Thus, the fundamentally vital facet of this oil is its constituency of low percentage of C8 and C10 fatty acid. In addition to it, this oil is used in soaps, detergent and cosmetic industries.
It has been set forth that one hand; S. Most of these species are purely deciduous with an exception of T. Tamarix are distinctly characterized by slight branches with grey-green foliage.
Besides, their leaves are scale-like, mm lengthy and overlap one-another around the stem.
Interestingly, it has been prompted that trees growing naturally in brackish or salty habitats may serve as a source for cellulosic biomass that can be further utilised for syngas production or biomass production.
For instance, T. On the other hand, it has been contemplated that T. This species is intrinsically inborn all over the tropical and semi-tropical regions of the world. A couple of species are encompassed within the arid and semi-arid region of the India that circumscribes P. Beside these studies, parallel studies on P. On other hand, studies on P. It comprise of a large number of species that are abundantly scattered over saline soil in Asia , Europe and other parts of the world but are scarcely scattered across the dry saline areas of Rajasthan as well as coastal areas of Gujarat and Maharashtra.
Thus it has manifested that most of them species evince C 4 photosynthesis and apart from this, they also fructify an increased biomass yield in arid region. In additions to this, Salsola tends to resist high salinity but tends to maintain a pretty higher concentration of osmotically active substances in order to complete with the water-retaining capacity of the surrounding medium. The outcomes of these studies thus, contemplated that it contains around Therefore, the decreased amount of lignin content thereby, makes it a more appropriate candidate for cost efficient biofuel production.
This genus incorporates around 50 species which are incarnated over the saline swampy areas of tropic and sub-tropics, enclosing the southern part of Asia and Europe.
It has also been prompted that due to the pervasiveness of multilayer palisade tissue along with considerable cell with in spongy mesophylls, Salicornia evinces a crowning assortment of succulence. Despite the fact that Salicornia is a genus capable of producing oil rich seeds, several species of this genus have been augmented and cultivated in saline soil provided with seawater.
Therefore, it sets as a potential source of commercial oil. For instance, S. Besides, S. These plants are inborn to the humid and sub-humid areas of the ecosphere.
This genus comprises of ample number of species, for say, Cressa australis, R. Br, C. Besides this, it augments in extremely saline circumstances and evinces tolerance level up to mM NaCl. Also, the salt gland acts as a desalination entity in this species and thus, tends to maintain the equilibrium within leaves, via secretion of excess salts.
Another advantage of these species is that these possess ironic oil content. This further indicates that Cressa species are pretty good entities for long term storage and processing.
Therefore; these virtues value parameters make it a first class biodiesel candidate. This genus appears to be distributed throughout the temperate and tropical regions of Asian subcontinent including Afghanistan, Pakistan, Japan and India. Out of these six species, only two species viz P. Beside, studies conducted on them have prompted that it is capable of producing massively high yield of biomass that is about three to five times greater than a devoted bioenergy crop Panicum virgatum L.
Accordingly, it was unveiled that it possesses about 8. Apart from this the fibers that contains around Parallel studies on P. Have also been carried out which expounded that it augments with in dense bushes through tillers and evinces a vigorous growth in shorter time period. Therefore, P. Halophytes are also a potential for the purposes of desalination and restoration of saline soils, withstand high soil salinity and saline water irrigation, phytoremediation and wetland restoration.
Various halophytic vegetation are growing in different Indian Thar desert which have their important role in sustainable agriculture Table Convolvulaceae , Salsola baryosma Schult. Dandy Chenopodiaceae , Suaeda fruticosa L.
Table Salsola, Suaeda, Salicornia, Atriplex, and Trienthema sp. Soil desalination Salvadora persica, Salicornia bigelovii and Cakile Industrial oil 4 maritim production Phytoremediation 67,68 5.
Cressa cretica, Salsola imbricate, Salvadora persica, uticals Salicornia, Atriplex and Heliotropium sp. Sesuvium portulacastrum and Salsola Cosmetics Suaeda fruticosa, Salvadora persica, Salsola baryosma, Agroforestry 78,79 8.
Haloxylon recurvum, Trianthema triquetra ecosystem 80 9 Suaeda, Salicornia, Salsola, and Haloxylon species Source of chemicals In addition, the new concept halophytic crops attract more and more attention for making jet fuel and use of these plants in sustainable development like environmental protection.
With this perspective, halophytes plants would have an emerging role in future as they can be grow in the extreme saline conditions for biofuel production and solve the problem without compromising to supply fresh water to grow them.
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The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production. Plant Sci. Sagar, A. Bioenergy and sustainable development.
Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 32 1 , Kasera, P. Ecology of inland saline plants. In Desert Plants pp. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Hameed, A. Halophytes: Biology and Economic Potentials.
Karachi University Journal of Science, 39, Wong, Y. Orient J Chem, 30 2 , Alonso, D. Catalytic conversion of biomass to biofuels.
Green Chemistry,12, GOI Report, May Auto fuel vision and policy Ezeonu, C. Alternative sources of petrochemicals from readily available biomass and agro-products in Africa: A review. J Pet Environ Biotechnol, 7 5 , Adeniyi, O. Ethanol fuel production from cassava as a substitute for gasoline.
Dispersion and Technology Journal Ayhan, D. Importance of biomass energy sources for Turkey. Energy Policy Journal, 36, Sharma, V. Biodiesel production for sustainable agriculture. In: Lichtfouse ed. EU, Biofuels Annual Report Exclusive web offer for individuals on print book only.
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Toggle navigation Additional Book Information. Description Table of Contents. Summary Bioethanol is a versatile transportation fuel and fuel additive that offers excellent performance and reduced air pollution compared to conventional fuels. Its production and use adds little, if any, net release of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, dramatically reducing the potential for global climate change.
Through a sustained research program and an emerging economic competitiveness, the technology for bioethanol production is poised for immediate widespread commercial applications.
Written by engineers and scientists providing a technical focus, this handbook provides the up-to-date information needed by managers, engineers, and scientists to evaluate the technology, market, and economics of this fuel, while examining the development of production required to support its commercial use.
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