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The Lighting Handbook, 10th Edition: PDF & Book Bundle. HBBUNDLE. Bundle Price: $ (Hardcover and Secure PDF) Individual Member Price. That is why the 10th edition of the new IES Lighting Handbook is an essential knowledge reference for anyone in lighting. Hardcover or Secure PDF: 1, pages (Download: 11 files) Publisher: Illuminating Engineering Society (). Intended for energy managers, electrical engineers, building managers, lighting designers, consultants, and other electrical professionals, this book provides a.
List Price: Advance your knowledge of lighting Successful lighting professionals must be able to incorporate into their work many new technological and scientific developments. That is why the 10th edition of the new IES Lighting Handbook is an essential knowledge reference for anyone in lighting. The 10th edition brings together some of the best minds in the lighting community to present the current state of knowledge as it relates to lighting and lighting design. With reliable and comprehensive information in a single source, practitioners can approach projects with confidence.
That is why the 10th edition of the new IES Lighting Handbook is an essential knowledge reference for anyone in lighting.
The 10th edition brings together some of the best minds in the lighting community to present the current state of knowledge as it relates to lighting and lighting design. With reliable and comprehensive information in a single source, practitioners can approach projects with confidence.
Hardcover or Secure PDF: Skip to content. HB List Price: HB Categories: These hazy patches or bands of greenish light, on which white, pink, or red streamers sometimes are superposed, appear to km 60 to mi above the earth. They are caused by electron streams spiraling into the atmosphere, primarily at polar latitudes. Some of the lines in their spectra have been identified with transitions of valence electrons from metastable states of oxygen and nitrogen atoms. The light-producing compounds are not always required to be in a living organism.
Many bioluminescent compounds can be dried and stored many years and then, in response to exposure to oxygen or some other catalyst, emit light. Fabricated Sources Historically, light sources have been divided into two types, incandescent and luminescent. Fundamentally, the cause of light emission is the same: electronic transitions from higher to lower energy states.
The mode of electron excitation and the resultant spectral distribution of the radiation are different, however. Incandescent solid substances emit a continuous spectrum, while gaseous discharges radiate mainly in discrete spectral lines. There is some overlap, however. Incandescent rare-earth elements can emit discrete spectra, whereas high-pressure discharges produce a continuous spectrum.
The two classic types, with subdivisions showing associated devices or processes, are listed as follows see also Chapter 6, Light Sources, for discussion on some of the following : I. Incandescence A. Filament lamps B. Pyroluminescence flames C. Candoluminescence gas mantle D. Carbon arc radiation II. Luminescence A. Photoluminescence 1.
Gaseous discharges 2. Fluorescence 3. Phosphorescence 4. Lasers B. Electroluminescence 1. Electroluminescent lamps ac capacitive 2. Light-emitting diodes 3. Cathodoluminescence electron excitation C.
Miscellaneous luminescence phenomena 1. Galvanoluminescence chemical 2. Crystalloluminescence crystallization 3. Chemiluminescence oxidation 4. Thermoluminescence heat 5. Triboluminescence friction or fracture 6. Sonoluminescence ultrasonics 7. In solid materials the molecules are packed together, and the substances hold their shape over a wide range of physical conditions. In contrast, the molecules of a gas are highly mobile and occupy only a small part of the space filled by the gas.
If the solid or gas is hot, the molecules move rapidly; if it is cold, they move more slowly. The incandescence of a lamp filament is caused by the heating action of an electric current. Pyroluminescence Flame Luminescence A flame is the most often noted visible evidence of combustion. Flame light may be due to recombination of ions to form molecules, reflection from solid particles in the flame, incandescence of carbon or other solid particles, or any combination of these.
The combustion process is a high-temperature energy exchange between highly excited molecules and atoms. The process releases and radiates energy, some of which is in that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum called light.
The quality and the amount of light generated depend on the material undergoing combustion. Candoluminescence Gas Mantle Incandescence is exhibited by heated bodies which give off shorter wavelength radiation than would be expected according to the radiation laws, because of fluorescence excited by incandescent radiation.
Materials producing such emission include zinc oxide, as well as rare-earth elements cerium, thorium used in the Welsbach gas mantle. Carbon Arc Radiation A carbon arc source radiates because of incandescence of the electrodes and because of luminescence of vaporized electrode material and other constituents of the surrounding gaseous atmosphere. Considerable spread in the luminance, total radiation, and spectral power distribution may be achieved by varying the electrode materials.
In the first case, line spectra result, such as those of mercury or sodium arcs. In the second case, narrow emission bands result, which cover a portion of the spectrum usually in the visible region. Both cases contrast with the radiation from incandescent sources, where the irregular excitation at high temperature of the free electrons of innumerable atoms gives rise to all wavelengths of radiation to form a continuous spectrum of radiation, as discussed in "Blackbody Radiation" above.
Photoluminescence Gaseous Discharge. Radiation, including light, can be produced by gaseous discharges as discussed previously under "Atomic Structure and Radiation. A free electron emitted from the cathode collides with one of the two valence electrons of a mercury atom and excites it by imparting to it part of the kinetic energy of the moving electron, thus raising the valence electron from its normal energy level to a higher one.
Simplified energy diagram for mercury, showing a few of the characteristic spectral lines. The conduction electron loses speed in the impact and changes direction, but continues along the tube to excite or ionize one or more additional atoms before losing its energy stepwise and completing its path. It generally ends at the wall of the tube, where it recombines with an ionized atom. A part of the electron current is collected at the anode.
Conduction electrons, either from the cathode or formed by collision processes, gain energy from the electric field, thus maintaining the discharge along the length of the tube. After a short delay the valence electron returns to its normal energy level, either in a single transition or by a series of steps from one excited level to a lower level.
At each of these steps a photon quantum of radiant energy is emitted. If the electron returns to its normal energy level in a single transition, the emitted radiation is called resonance radiation Figure In some cases as in the high-pressure sodium lamp a portion of the resonance radiation is self-absorbed by the gas of the discharge before it leaves the discharge envelope.
The absorbed energy is then re-radiated as a continuum on either side of the resonant wavelength, leaving a depressed or dark region at that point in the spectrum. In the fluorescent lamp, UV radiation resulting from luminescence of the mercury vapor due to a gas discharge is converted into light by a phosphor coating on the inside of the tube or outer jacket.
If this emission continues only during the excitation, it is called fluorescence. Figure shows schematically a greatly magnified section of a part of a fluorescent lamp. Magnified cross section of a fluorescent lamp, schematically showing progressive steps in the luminescent process, which finally result in in the release of visible radiation.
Fluorescence curve of a typical phosphor, showing initial excitation by ultraviolet rays and subsequent release of visible radiation. Simplified energy diagram for a typical phosphor. Color Characteristics of Important Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors The phosphors used in fluorescent lamps are crystalline inorganic compounds of exceptionally high chemical purity and of controlled composition to which small quantities of other substances the activators have been added to convert them into efficient fluorescent materials.
With the right combination of activators and inorganic compounds, the color of the emission can be controlled. A typical schematic model for a phosphor is given in Figure , and an energy diagram for a typical phosphor is shown in Figure In the normal state the electron oscillates about position A on the energy curve in Figure , as the lattice expands and contracts due to thermal vibration. For the phosphor to emit light it must first absorb radiation.
In the fluorescent lamp this is chiefly at The absorbed energy transfers the electron to an excited state at position B. After loss of excess energy to the lattice as vibrational energy heat , the electron again oscillates around a stable position C for a very short time, after which it returns to position D on the normal energy curve, with simultaneous emission of a photon of radiation.
Stokes' law, stating that the radiation emitted must be of longer wavelength than that absorbed, is readily explained by this model.
It then returns to A with a further loss of energy as heat and is ready for another cycle of excitation and emission. Because of the oscillation around both stable positions A and C, the excitation and emission processes cover ranges of wavelength, commonly referred to as bands. In some phosphors two activators are present.
One of these, the primary activator, determines the absorption characteristics and can be used alone, as it also gives emission. The other, the secondary activator, does not enter into the absorption mechanism but receives its energy by transfer within the crystal from a neighboring primary activator. The emitted light from the secondary activator is longer in wavelength than that from the primary activator.
The relative amount of emission from the two activators is determined by the concentration of the secondary activator. The phosphors now used in most "white" fluorescent lamps are doubly activated calcium halophosphate phosphors in combination with rare-earth-activated phosphors. Figure shows the characteristic colors and uses of phosphors currently employed in the manufacture of fluorescent lamps.
Figure gives the characteristics of some phosphors useful with mercury and metal halide lamps. Impurities other than activators and excessive amounts of activators have a serious deleterious effect on the efficiency of a phosphor.
In some fluorescent materials, electrons can be trapped in metastable excited states for a time varying from milliseconds to days.
After release from these states they emit light. This phenomenon is called phosphorescence. The metastable states lie slightly below the usual excited states responsible for fluorescence, and energy usually derived from heat is required to transfer the electron from the metastable state to the emitting state. Since the same emitting state is usually involved, the color of fluorescence and phosphorescence is generally the same for a given phosphor.
In doubly activated phosphors the secondary activator phosphoresces longer than the primary activator, so the color changes with time. Short-duration phosphorescence is important in fluorescent lamps in reducing flicker in alternating current ac operation. Phosphors activated by IR radiation have an unusual type of phosphorescence. After excitation they show phosphorescence, which becomes invisible in a few seconds.
However, they retain a considerable amount of energy trapped in metastable states, which can be released as light by IR radiation of the proper wavelength.
Solid Laser. In addition to amplifying light, lasers produce intense, highly monochromatic, well-collimated, coherent light. Color Characteristics of Some Phosphors for Mercury and Metal Halide Lamps Coherent light consists of radiation whose waves are in phase with regard to time and space. Ordinary light, although it may contain a finite proportion of coherent light, is incoherent because the atomic processes that cause its emission occur in a random fashion.
In a laser, however, electronic transitions are triggered stimulated by a wave of the same frequency as the emitted light. As a consequence, a beam of light is emitted, all of whose waves are in phase and of the same frequency.
A prerequisite to laser action is a pumping process whereby an upper and a lower electron level in the active material undergo a population inversion. The pumping source may be a light, as in a ruby laser, or electronic excitation, as in a gas laser. The choice of laser materials is quite limited. First, it must be possible to highly populate an upper electronic level; second, there must be a light-emitting transition from this upper level with a long lifetime; third, a lower level must exist that can be depopulated either spontaneously or through pumping.
Laser construction is as important to laser action, as is the source material. Since light wavelengths are too short to allow building a resonant cavity, long multi-nodal chambers are made with parallel reflectors at each end to feed back radiation until lasing takes place.
The effect is to produce well-collimated light that is highly directional. Consider as an example the pink ruby laser, whose electronic transitions are shown in Figure , and whose mechanical construction is indicated in Figure This laser is pumped by a flash tube a , and electrons in the ruby b are raised from level E1 to E3.
The electrons decay rapidly and spontaneously from E3 to E2.
The fact that this light has been reflected many times by parallel mirrors ensures that it is well collimated. The electrons are then available for further pumping Figure Simplified diagrammatic representation of electronic transitions in a ruby laser. Gas Laser. In a solid laser there are three requirements: a material that reacts energetically to light, a population inversion generated by pumping in energy at the correct level and a growth of the internal energy caused by the reflection of photons within the solid.
While the same requirements are met in a gas laser, two other characteristics are available, namely strong, narrow spectral lines and unequal emission at different energy levels. An example of such a gas laser is that containing a mixture of helium and neon Figure Helium is used as the energizing gas because it has a level from which it can lose energy only by collision.
This level corresponds to the one at which neon radiates energy in the form of red light. On energizing helium in a gas discharge inside a cavity whose ends are reflecting and that contains both helium and neon, the helium transfers energy by collision with neon. The excited neon emits photons, which begin to amplify by cascading between the two reflecting surfaces until the internal energy is so large that the losses through the partially transmitting mirror become equal to the internal gains and the laser becomes saturated.
Simplified diagram of a ruby laser. Photon cascade in a solid laser. Before the buildup begins, atoms in the laser crystal are in the ground state a. Pumping light [arrows in b ] raises most of the atoms to the excited state. The cascade c begins when an excited atom spontaneously emits a photon parallel to the axis of the crystal photons emitted in other directions pass out of the crystal. The buildup continues in d and e through thousands of reflections back and forth from the silvered surfaces at the ends of the crystal.
When amplification is great enough, light passes out at f. Structure of helium-neon gas laser, showing essential parts. Operation of the laser depends on the right mixture of helium and neon to provide an active medium.
A radio-frequency exciter puts energy into the medium. The output beam is built up by repeated passes back and forth between reflecting end plates. Semiconductor Laser. A third type of laser uses a semiconducting solid material where the electron current flowing across a junction between p-type electron-deficient and n-type electron-rich material produces extra electrons in the conduction band Figure These radiate upon their transition back to the valence band or lower-energy states.
If the junction current is large enough, there will be more electrons near the edge of the conduction band than there are at the edge of the valence band, and a population inversion may occur. To use this effect, the semiconductor crystal is polished with two parallel faces perpendicular to the junction plane. The amplified waves can then propagate along the plane of the junction and are reflected back and forth at the surfaces.
Electroluminescence24 Certain phosphors convert ac energy directly into light, without using an intermediate step as in a gas discharge, by utilizing the phenomenon of electroluminescence. Diagram of an LED p-n junction. Diagrammatic cross section of an electroluminescent lamp.
Electroluminescent Lamps ac capacitive. An electroluminescent lamp is composed of a two-dimensional area conductor transparent or opaque on which a dielectric-phosphor layer is deposited. A second two-dimensional area conductor of transparent material is deposited over the dielectric-phosphor mixture. An alternating electric field is established between the two conductors with the application of a voltage across the twodimensional area conductors.
Under the influence of this field, some electrons in the electroluminescent phosphor are excited. During the return of these electrons to their ground or normal state the excess energy is radiated as light.
Figure shows a cross-sectional view of an electroluminescent lamp. Figure gives the properties of some electroluminescent phosphors. The color of the light emitted by an electroluminescent lamp is dependent on frequency, while the luminance is dependent on frequency and voltage. These effects vary from phosphor to phosphor. The efficacy of electroluminescent devices is low compared to incandescent lamps. It is of the order of a few lumens per watt. Light-Emitting Diodes. Light-emitting diodes LEDs produce light by electroluminescence when low-voltage direct current is applied to a suitably doped crystal containing a p-n junction Figure The doping is typically carried out with elements from column III and V of the periodic table of elements.
When activated by a forward biased current, If, the p-n junction emits light at a wavelength defined by the active region energy gap, Eg. The phenomenon was observed as early as in naturally occurring junctions, but was not considered practical due to its low luminous efficacy in converting electric energy to light.
Efficacy has increased considerably since then such that LEDs are used for signals, indicators, signs, and displays. Properties of Some Electroluminescent Phosphors When the forward biased current If is applied, minority carrier electrons are injected into the p-region and corresponding minority carrier electrons are injected into the n-region.
Photon emission occurs as a result of electron-hole recombination in the p-region. Electron energy transitions across the energy gap, called radiative recombinations, produce photons i. The energy band gap Eg, shown in Figure , is the separation between the conduction energy band and the valence energy band in the semiconductor crystal. The characteristics of the energy band gap determine the quantum efficiency and the radiative wavelengths of the LED device.
The efficacy is dependent on the visible energy generated at the junction and losses due to reabsorption when light tries to escape through the crystal. Due to the high index of refraction of most semiconductors, light is reflected back from the surface into the crystal and highly attenuated before finally exiting.
The efficacy expressed in terms of this ultimate measurable visible energy is called the external efficacy. The external efficacies are moderate, though the internal efficacies are calculated to be very high. For more information see Chapter 6, Light Sources. Cathodoluminescence is light emitted when a substance is bombarded by an electron beam from a cathode, as in cathode-ray and television picture tubes.
Galvanoluminescence is light that appears at either the anode or the cathode when solutions are electrolyzed. Crystalloluminescence lyoluminescence is observed when solutions crystallize; it is believed to be due to rapid reformation of molecules from ions.
The intensity increases upon stirring, perhaps on account of triboluminescence see below. Chemiluminescence oxyluminescence is the production of light during a chemical reaction at room temperatures.
True chemiluminescences are oxidation reactions involving valence changes. Thermoluminescence is luminescence exhibited by some materials when slightly heated. In all cases of thermoluminescence, the effect is dependent on some previous illumination or radiation of the crystal. Diamonds, marble apatite, quartz, and fluorspar are thermoluminescent.
Triboluminescence piezoluminescence is light produced by shaking, rubbing, or crushing crystals. Triboluminescent light may result from unstable light centers previously exposed to some source or radiation, such as light, X rays, radium emissions, and cathode rays; centers not exposed to previous radiation but characteristic of the crystal itself; or electrical discharges from fracturing crystals.
Sonoluminescence is light that is observed when sound waves are passed through fluids. It occurs when the fluids are completely shielded from an electrical field and is always connected with cavitation the formation of gas or vapor cavities in a liquid. It is believed the minute gas bubbles of cavitated gas develop a considerable charge as their surface increases.
When they collapse, their capacitance decreases and their voltage rises until a discharge takes place in the gas, causing a faint luminescence. Today, physical detectors have all but eliminated visual assessment for photometric purposes. Two common physical detector types in use today are photodiodes and photomultiplier tubes. Thermal detectors and photoconductive detectors are used for IR measurements. Photodiodes Photodiodes are the most commonly used photodetectors for photometry and radiometry.
Because of their excellent linearity and stability freedom from fatigue , they replaced selenium cells, which had been widely used.
Photodiodes are based on solid-state p-n junctions that react to external stimuli such as light. Rather than emitting light for the LED p-n junction, photons are absorbed in the p-n junction Figure Detectors are made of specific solid-state materials such as silicon, germanium, and indium-gallium-arsenide InGaAs.
Silicon photodiodes have sensitivity from the UV to nearIR region of the spectrum, and their spectral responsivity generally increases approximately linearly with wavelength throughout the visible region of the spectrum.
Combined with a filter for photopic spectral response, silicon photodiodes are commonly employed in photometers.
Recent high-quality silicon photodiodes have a dynamic range of eight orders of magnitude or larger and can also be used with special electronics for very low levels where photomultipliers had been required.
Based on the quantum physics of photodiodes, some types of high-quality silicon photodiodes can be used as highaccuracy radiometric standards.
This method, called the silicon photodiode self-calibration technique, was introduced during the late s. Photomultiplier Tubes Photomultiplier tubes PMTs are widely used as detectors for photometric and radiometric applications requiring high sensitivity Figure A PMT is a vacuum tube with a photocathode, a number of dynodes i. High voltages are applied between photocathode and dynodes and anode.
The first element, the photocathode, is negatively biased and will eject photons called photoelectrons in response to radiant energy, due to the photoelectric effect.
The photoelectrons hit the next dynodes with higher energy, creating more electrons secondary electrons , which flow to the next dynode where even more electrons are emitted, eventually causing a cascade effect that multiplies the original number of photoelectrons by several orders of magnitude. Thus, photomultipliers have very high sensitivity. Spectral response ranges depend on the photocathode and the type of glass in the outer envelope, but they generally cover the visible region.
Some others extend to the UV and near-IR regions of the spectrum. The stability of the voltage supply to PMT is especially critical to accurate measurements. Silicon photodiodes generally are more stable than PMTs.
Photometers employing a PMT generally require an internal calibration source. Schematic diagram of a photomultiplier and its electric circuit. From: G. Related titles. Jump to Page.
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