Research Narrative of maps from Chaharbagh Street of Isfahan Jamalal-din Mahdinejad Abstract | Safavid era is the most brilliant era in architectural history of. Feb 17, PDF | This paper investigates the grid dynamics of the world-famous Iranian city of Isfahan The map Isfahan in Safavid period (16th Century). See a map of Esfahan (Isfahan) in Iran showing the major places of interest.
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Isfahan (Persian: اصفهان, also known as Esfahan) is a city in central Iran, south of Tehran and is the capital of Isfahan Province. The Persians call it Nesf-e Jahan. Isfahan metro map. System. Isfahan (Esfahan) lies in central Iran, some km south of Tehran, and has a metropolitan population of more than 2 million. Map of Esfahan and travel information about Esfahan brought to you by Lonely Planet.
It was a military air base before the revolution. Besides, there are direct buses to Tehran 's Imam Khomeini International Airport leave from Terminal-e Kaveh at , , and possibly other times as well. A trip costs , rials and takes under 6 hours as of Sep By train[ edit ] There is a night-train to Tehran and a daily train to Mashhad. There are no trains to Shiraz. The night train from Tehran to Isfahan costs , rials for sleeping in a comfortable 6-bed compartment. By car[ edit ] Isfahan is well-served by highways.
Unfortunately there has been no proper map for this big and historical city [Isfahan]. If the French Chardin, who traveled to Isfahan at the time of their excellencies the Safavid rulers may God illuminate their graves , mentioned [places] in some maps of Isfahan in his book, it was specifically about governmental buildings.
Fortunately at this glorious time as an indication of the development and the hope that is apparent, under the incredible attention and effort of his excellency Mr.
Sultan Mirza Sayyid Riza Khan who is one of the top officials [seems to be the Chief] of the Police Department of Isfahan, [who] in a short time [even] with the extent of [his] official duties and the lack of deputies and [appropriate] means could manage this great job individually. And whoever has any information about drawing this map will approve that this respectable person, after receiving the initial information, has put in an extraordinary effort to draw this map, such that it requires thousands of words of praise and exclamation for this individual.
All the sciences of beginning and the end, with attention to the world beyond. It is the plan of Isfahan, which is half of the plan of the world. Since it is known that a local map is extremely needed especially a city map for a police department, [it was] at the time of the Deputy Major Ahmad Ali-Khan-i Zand who in was in charge of the Police Department of Isfahan who demonstrated his entire support in the preparation of the complete map of the city of Isfahan, by assigning this simple person [the writer] who works under the supervision for Sultan Mirza Sayyid Riza Khan, who was one top officials of the distinguished department of the police [chief?
And [for the purpose of giving] this humble service for the benefit of the public, it was published on the best paper with the finest print. But it is [important] to mention that there is some previous engineering knowledge [used] in the maps; originally the buildings of Isfahan were finely designed and the streets and the passageways were parallel with each other from north to south and east to west, in a very beautiful and organized manner [representing] the pleasant atmosphere of this historical city.
Then after conquest and military activities [experienced] in the country, all the towers, gates [walls], and other places gradually were destroyed, resulting in a very unpleasant appearance. Fortunately, at the time that I was in service [I have seen] under the sun of prosperity that has shined on the country under the presence of Sardar Sipah [Riza Shah Pahlavi] damad heshmate , and from all aspects the country has begun to progress and [achieve] prosperity, and Isfahan, under the effort and control of the powerful ruler and his excellent service [Riza Shah Pahlavi], has started to have progress including leveling, expanding the passage ways , establishing streets , and there is hope that the city will soon return to its previous shape.
The atmosphere and the culture of the people, the improvements of the appearance of the neighborhoods, and natural geographical location of Isfahan require a more extensive explanation, and since there was not enough space on this map, we have not mentioned them here.
Inshallah we will publish [this information] in a separate document. At the end, in places where roads and angles [cross roads? Printed in the expert office of Mr. Sultan Sayyid Kharamazi?
Isfahan C. Isfahan, the third largest city of modern-day Iran, is famed for its natural and architectural splendor.
Most accounts of its beauty refer to the Safavid period: Isfahan was the storied capital of Iran from to CE, inspiring the famous adage "Isfahan nisf-i-jahan" Isfahan is half the world , but the city's history stretches back more than years. Located in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains, Isfahan is a city formed at a major crossroads of trans-Asia trade and military routes.
As such, the city emerged gradually over the course of the Elamite civilization - BCE , though artifacts found at Isfahan date back to the Paleolithic period.
Once Cyrus the Great r.
The Parthians BCE - CE continued this tradition after the fall of the Achaemenids, fostering the Hellenistic dimension within Iranian culture and political organization introduced by Alexander's invading armies.
Under the Parthians, Arsacid governors administered a large province from Isfahan, and the city's urban development accelerated to accommodate the needs of a capital city. The next empire to rule Iran, the Sassanians - , presided over massive changes in their realm, instituting sweeping agricultural reform and reviving Iranian culture and the Zoroastrian religion.
Extant foundations of some Sassanian-era bridges in Isfahan suggest that the kings were also fond of ambitious urban planning projects.
While Isfahan's political importance declined during the period, many Sassanian princes would study statecraft in the city, and its military role developed rapidly. Its strategic location at the intersection of the ancient roads to Susa and Persepolis made it an ideal candidate to house a standing army, ready to march against Constantinople at any moment. One etymological theory argues that the name 'Aspahan' derives from the Pahlavi for 'place of the army.
As the Muslim empire expanded eastward, Islamic polity absorbed, in large part, the great cultural developments of the Sassanian era, but the importance of cities like Isfahan waned.
Under the downloadids - , however, Isfahan would receive some more attention: The subsequent rise of the Seljuks, whose sultan Malik Shah I - made Isfahan his capital, led to increasing growth and prosperity in the city. Under the Seljuks, Isfahan experienced its first 'Golden Age. Along with most major Islamic cities of the era, the Mongols sacked Isfahan in the thirteenth century, and Timur Tamerlane followed suit with a similar massacre in The city would remain in ruins for two hundred years.
Safavid Period - When Shah Abbas I - decided to move the Safavid capital from Qazvin to Isfahan in , he found only vestiges of a once-grand capital, consisting of a walled, oval city, cut into quadrants by axial bazaar routes that intersected on the derelict Maidan-i Qadim. He remade this central square into the new Maidan-i Shah and moved it to the south, but he maintained the vaulted, circuitous bazaar flowing between the maidan and the continually updated Friday Mosque and the old city.
The monumental entrance to the bazaar is one of four regular portal interruptions to the arcade that lines the maidan. On the east lies the entrance to the octagonal palace chapel, the Mosque of Shaykh Lutfallah - Directly opposite Shaykh Lutfallah Mosque on the west is the early seventeenth century Ali Qapu palace complex , which was originally conceived as an architectural transition between the palace gardens and the maidan.
The Shah Mosque - completes the pattern on the southern side of the square. In many cases, the city's development respected the urban fabric of earlier eras, often renovating buildings rather than razing them: The existing quadripartite organization of the city became a guiding principle of future planning, although Abbas re-oriented it such that the Zayendehrud River formed one of the axes, and the royal avenue Khiaban-i Chahar Bagh formed the other.
The central city's cruciform design evokes the traditional design of a chahar bagh literally "four gardens" expanded to the urban scale. The vast literature the city has inspired testifies to the allegorical significance of this geometry, in both political and religious terms. Indeed, the then-recently realized territorial reach of Shia Islam - to which most of Iran converted under the zealous rule of Abbas' great grandfather Shah Ismail - - served to inspire the rapid development of this imperial capital.
Architecturally, the Timurid style of Herat in contemporary Afghanistan , Abbas' birthplace, exerted a powerful influence over his design choices for Isfahan. The Shah undertook several new master-planning projects outside the old city as well. The new neighborhoods of Abbas-Abad and Gabrian were built to accommodate the growing urban population, which reached up to one million people at its height.
He forcibly moved the entire Armenian community of northwest Iran into a new quarter of Isfahan, which he named New Julfa, ostensibly to protect them from Ottoman persecution. Impressive infrastructure accompanied other types of interventions: Within a few generations, Safavid rulers proved unable to continue Abbas' legacy of prosperity and good governance. A legalistic and less tolerant interpretation of the theocratic state ascended while military and political control diminished.
In , dissatisfied Safavid vassals from the Afghan territories captured Isfahan after a six-month siege of the city. The vulnerability of the empire also attracted Ottoman incursions from the West, and the dominion of Iran disintegrated.
The city again fell into disrepair, accelerated by the increasing preference for maritime trade with Europe over the traditional land routes that led directly through Isfahan. The internecine conflicts during the subsequent Zand and Afsharid periods precluded either dynasty from leaving any significant architectural legacy at Isfahan. Recent discoveries archaeologists have found artifacts dating back to the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic , Neolithic , Bronze and Iron ages. Zoroastrian era[ edit ] What was to become the city of Isfahan in later historical periods probably emerged as a locality and settlement that gradually developed over the course of the Elamite civilisation — BCE.
Now it seems that some of these freed Jews settled in Isfahan instead of returning to their homeland. The 10th-century Persian historian Ibn al-Faqih wrote: "When the Jews emigrated from Jerusalem, fleeing from Nebuchadnezzar, they carried with them a sample of the water and soil of Jerusalem.
They did not settle down anywhere or in any city without examining the water and the soil of each place. They did all along until they reached the city of Isfahan. There they rested, examined the water and soil and found that both resembled Jerusalem.
Thereupon they settled there, cultivated the soil, raised children and grandchildren, and today the name of this settlement is Yahudia. Under the Parthians, Arsacid governors administered the provinces of the nation from Isfahan, and the city's urban development accelerated to accommodate the needs of a capital city. Isfahan at the end of the 6th century top , consisting of two separate areas of Sassanid Jay and Jewish Yahudia.
At 11th century bottom , these two areas are completely merged. The next empire to rule Persia, the Sassanids — CE , presided over massive changes in their realm, instituting sweeping agricultural reform and reviving Iranian culture and the Zoroastrian religion. Both the city and region were then called by the name Aspahan or Spahan.
The city was governed by a group called the Espoohrans, who came from seven noble and important Iranian royal families. Extant foundations of some Sassanid-era bridges in Isfahan suggest that the Sasanian kings were fond of ambitious urban planning projects. While Isfahan's political importance declined during the period, many Sassanid princes would study statecraft in the city, and its military role developed rapidly. Its strategic location at the intersection of the ancient roads to Susa and Persepolis made it an ideal candidate to house a standing army, ready to march against Constantinople at any moment.
The words 'Aspahan' and 'Spahan' are derived from the Pahlavi or Middle Persian meaning 'the place of the army'. The gradual population decrease of Gay Jay and the simultaneous population increase of Yahudiyyeh and its suburbs after the Islamic conquest of Iran resulted in the formation of the nucleus of what was to become the city of Isfahan.
The words "Aspadana", "Ispadana", "Spahan" and "Sepahan", all from which the word Isfahan is derived, referred to the region in which the city was located.
Isfahan and Gay were both circular in design, a characteristic of Parthian and Sasanian cities. Isfahan grew prosperous under the Persian downloadid Buwayhid dynasty, which rose to power and ruled much of Iran when the temporal authority of the Abbasid caliphs waned in the 10th century. The Turkish conqueror and founder of the Seljuq dynasty , Toghril Beg , made Isfahan the capital of his domains in the midth century; but it was under his grandson Malik-Shah I r.