The book Jalaluddin Akbar is a biography of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar. . Zaheer-ud-Din Babar in Urdu By Herald Liam Pdf Free Download History Books . Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar popularly known as Akbar I also as Akbar the Great Urdu, Persian, Greek, Latin, Arabic and Kashmiri, staffed by many scholars, translators, artists, calligraphers, scribes, bookbinders and readers. The Akbarnāma (Persian: اکبر نامہ ), which literally means Book of Akbar. Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar (–), also known as Akbar the Great, was a Mughal emperor who ruled India from to The manuscript was.
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A ruler since his teens, Jalal-ud-Din Muhammad Akbar had brought two-thirds of the Indian sub-continent into an empire which included Afghanistan, Kashmir and all of present-day India and Pakistan. Akbar was not an Indian. His ancestors were Mongol chieftains in Central Asia and his mother was Persian. A direct descendant of Tamerlane, he had a frightening temper and could be merciless. No man, Akbar said, should be penalized for his religion or prevented from changing it if he chose. Stocky and not more than 5ft 7in tall, with a lucky wart on the left side of his nose, Akbar was masterful, physically tough and energetic.
His ancestors were Mongol chieftains in Central Asia and his mother was Persian. A direct descendant of Tamerlane, he had a frightening temper and could be merciless.
No man, Akbar said, should be penalized for his religion or prevented from changing it if he chose. Stocky and not more than 5ft 7in tall, with a lucky wart on the left side of his nose, Akbar was masterful, physically tough and energetic.
He could not read or write — which he always claimed was a great advantage in life — but he delighted in art, poetry, music and philosophy, and he presided over a golden age of Indian art and architecture. He loved to stage discussions between proponents of rival faiths and his Muslim theologians accepted his judgement on knotty points of Islamic law.
He invited Jesuit missionaries to his court and showed such an interest in their teachings that they mistakenly thought him a potential convert. He loved to fly his pigeons, and wild deer would eat out of his hand. In his later years he became a vegetarian on the principle that a man ought not to make his stomach the grave of animals.
In Akbar had suspected his son of trying to poison him and in Salim had attempted an armed rebellion. There was a court plot to bypass him when the time came and install his son Khusrau on the throne, and the rumour was that Akbar did not frown on it.
The fascination with these two periods stayed with him, and decades later, it resurfaced as an idea for a novel. Even as he was finishing work on The Ground Beneath Her Feet , he started toying with the idea of "finding a fictional device that would In the novel, a Mughal princess is bartered away by her brother and, after changing several hands, becomes the famed enchantress of Florence. Despite her title role, however, it is Akbar who is the moral centre of the book, and who provides its strongest link to the issues that have concerned Rushdie in his works and his life.
He is a marvellous spokesman for his author, of which the reader is left in no doubt when told that Akbar's chief objection to God was that "his existence deprived human beings of the right to form ethical structures by themselves.
If there had never been a God, it might have been easier to work out what goodness was. He broods long and deeply on his self-identity - what it really was, what it was constituted of.
Being a despot, he had always referred to himself as "we", as the incarnation of all his subjects, but he was now beginning to wonder about the "disturbing possibilities of the first person singular. He is drawn to the charming Florentine raconteur and his tales, but his mind is always heavy with philosophical thoughts. Though they weigh him down, they prove fascinating for the reader.
In fact, no adventure or excitement in the tale s we are told, can match the mind of Akbar.
It is one of the many ironies of the novel. Another is Jodha. Enchantresses and seductresses This novel is a hymn to the erotic power of women. It abounds in enchantresses and seductresses of all kinds, but the most interesting of them all is the imaginary Jodha - a being created by Akbar's all-powerful fancy, khayal. Making her character imaginary serves two purposes in the novel. In The Enchantress of Florence, Rushdie celebrates, among other things, a time when "the real and the unreal were [not] segregated forever and doomed to live apart under different monarchs and separate legal systems" - and the best attestation of that fact in the novel is the character of Jodha Bai, Akbar's fantasy come alive.
The other purpose she serves is technical. There has always been a lot of controversy surrounding the historical character of Jodha Bai - who she actually was and whether she existed at all.
By making her imaginary, in one brilliant stroke, Rushdie solves the problem of the controversy over her identity. Akbar has numerous wives and mistresses, but none can satisfy him.
So he creates his fantasy woman and gives her a name. He dreams her up, we are told, "in the way that lonely children dream up imaginary friends", to the obvious chagrin of his other consorts. They are full of malice and envy as they can never hope to compete with Jodha: "No real woman was ever like that, so perfectly attentive, so undemanding, so endlessly available.
She was an impossibility, a fantasy of perfection. They feared her, knowing that, being impossible, she was irresistible, and that was why the king loved her best. Jodha is no different. But even within this parameter, she is unique - for, while the other women in the novel are full of envy and intrigue, preoccupied with how best to get on in life using their sexual powers, Jodha is given existential anxieties. She thinks of her identity and self in relation to Akbar, in the same way as he thinks of his in relation to God.
And in a way, they echo each other's thoughts: "The question of her independent existence, of whether she had one, insisted on being asked, over and over, whether she willed it or not. If God turned his face away from his creation, Man, would Man simply cease to be? That was the large-scale version of the question, but it was the selfish, small-scale versions that bothered her. Was her will free of the man who had willed her into being? Did she exist only because of his suspension of disbelief in the possibility of her existence?
If he died, could she go on living? She loses out to the Mughal princess - but even the enchanted Emperor admits that the hidden Mughal princess' power over him was at best regressive, as it drew him "backwards in every way, in his ideas, his beliefs, his hopes. It is she he returns to after the wars; she who informs him about the condition of his subjects; she who satisfies him physically; and she again, with whom he has mental communion - who is a part of his most profound thoughts, and with whom he can share his impossibly beautiful visions: "Imagine, Jodha What if the whole world became a single waking dream?
In Ashutosh Gowariker's film, Jodha plays an even more crucial role in the young Akbar's life - she shows him the way. Jodhaa-Akbar Jodhaa-Akbar is Gowariker's fifth film, but most know it as his third, as his first two films Pehla Nasha, Baazi , sank into oblivion without a trace.
First came Lagaan, which depicts how, in the year , a group of villagers in the heart of British India protests against unfair taxation and, led by a spirited farmer, eventually gets it waived by, incredibly, beating the British in a game of cricket. Though his subject-matter, admittedly, has been refreshingly new every time, a careful perusal of his films reveals that he has actually kept well within the set formats and traditions of Bollywood.
Following the Bollywood norm, Gowariker ropes in big names for the lead roles in his films. Like most mainstream Hindi films, music is a very important part of his films. Unlike most of them, however, the songand- dance routines are integrated into the body of the narrative and carry the story forward; and his films are also unique in their effective use of a background score a relatively new concept in Bollywood that adds to their overall atmosphere. Even when it comes to the most indispensable element of Bollywood's signature style - romance - Gowariker has not hesitated to follow tradition.
The love story is absolutely central to Jodhaa-Akbar. But here again, his treatment has been different. Until now, all the Hindi films that dealt with Mughal history from a romantic angle Mughal-e-Azam, Anarkali, Taj Mahal, to name but a few either chose to depict the doomed love of Akbar's eldest son, Salim later the Emperor Jehangir for the dancing-girl Anarkali who was buried alive by Akbar ; or else, Shah Jahan's undying passion for Mumtaz Mahal the wife who died too young, and in whose memory, the mourning emperor built the mausoleum Taj Mahal.
A broadening of vision Gowariker does not follow this well-trodden track, but his film is a paean to love, nevertheless.
That it undoubtedly is, but after seeing the film, one realises that the whole of it moves towards a certain ideal.
It is not only a journey of love that the director shows us here, but also an individual's broadening of vision. What starts out as just a political strategy for the young Mughal emperor, goes on to become an ideal.