June, He married Jenny von Westphalen, and they moved to Paris.5 1 Karl Marx Biography. portal7.info?page=3. Marx's Das Kapital: A Biography Reviewed by Ben Trott Somewhere along the line, any self-‐respecting review of an introduction to Marx's Capital needs to say . Karl Marx: A Biography Das Kapital" ist das Hauptwerk von Karl Marx, an dem er vier Jahrzehnte seines Lenin Karl Marx ile Friedrich Engels tarafından.
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Karl Marx was born on May 5, in Trier, where he received a classical education. He studied jurisprudence at Bonn and later in Berlin, where, however, his. Karl Marx (–) was the most important of all theorists of socialism. He Hegel's philosophy, Marx now argued, embodies two main kinds of mistake. It. Karl Marx was a Prussian-German philosopher, revolutionary, historian and socialist whose communist ideologies and works laid the foundation for 'Marxism' .
Karl Marx was a philosopher, author, social theorist, and an economist. He is famous for his theories about capitalism and communism. Ironically, Marx was eloquent in describing the exploitation of the working class while personally failing to maintain a job for a significant period of time. Marx's Inspiration Marx was inspired by classical political economists such as Adam Smith and David Ricardo , while his own branch of economics, Marxian economics, is not favored among modern mainstream thought. Nevertheless, Marx's ideas have had a huge impact on societies, most prominently in communist projects such as those in the USSR, China, and Cuba.
This was the intent of the new book that Marx was planning, but to get the manuscript past the government censors he called the book The Poverty of Philosophy No longer a secret society, the Communist League wanted to make aims and intentions clear to the general public rather than hiding its beliefs as the League of the Just had been doing.
It goes on to examine the antagonisms that Marx claimed were arising in the clashes of interest between the bourgeoisie the wealthy capitalist class and the proletariat the industrial working class. Later that year, Europe experienced a series of protests, rebellions and often violent upheavals that became known as the Revolutions of The headquarters of the Communist League also moved to London. Marx maintained that this would spell doom for the Communist League itself, arguing that changes in society are not achieved overnight through the efforts and will power of a handful of men.
They are instead brought about through a scientific analysis of economic conditions of society and by moving toward revolution through different stages of social development.
His main source of income was Engels, whose own source was his wealthy industrialist father. As was then not unusual, four of his siblings died in infancy or youth. Family background and religion Marx's parents both came from rabbinical families, which had customarily tended to intermarry.
Both his grandfather Meier Halevi Marx, the descendant of a priestly line, and his uncle Samuel became rabbis of the Jewish community in Trier, then a small but ancient country town, proud of its Roman heritage.
Meier's wife, Chaje Lwow, Karl Marx's grandmother, came from an even more distinguished rabbinical lineage descended from, as the name implies, the scholar Moses Lwow of the then Polish, and subsequently Austrian, Polish, Soviet, and Ukrainian, city.
Her father, grandfather, and great-grandfather had been rabbis of Trier and elsewhere in Franconia and Alsace since the later seventeenth century. Another line led from the Minz family which emigrated, presumably from Mainz, in the mid-fifteenth century to Padua, where its members were rabbis and heads of the Talmudic college.
On his mother's side, as the name Pressburg implies, the family came from Hungary, whence they had migrated to the Netherlands, where Henriette's grandfather became rabbi of Nijmegen. Her sister broke the rabbinical chain by marrying the banker Lion Philips, grandfather of the founder of the well-known Dutch and international industrial concern, who after Heinrich's death acted as trustee for Karl Marx's mother.
Given this family background, it seems at first surprising that Heinrich Marx decided to be baptized at the age of thirty-five—in the evangelical rather than the locally prevalent Roman Catholic faith—in or , and had Karl and all his surviving siblings baptized in , followed in by Marx's mother. The immediate reasons were almost certainly practical. After Trier became Prussian in Jews were excluded from all public posts, the practice of law being classified as a public post on 4 May Even so, the decision to abandon the religion of his forefathers can be understood only if we bear in mind the extent to which the culture of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment had penetrated the world of the educated professional strata in the Rhineland and the experience of the first generation of Jewish emancipation under the French.
His son already grew up in something close to an emancipated and assimilated German household, steeped in secular literary and philosophical culture of the ancient and modern European classics, although Marx's mother, brought up in the old ways, was never at ease either in writing or in speaking the High German language.
Nevertheless, Heinrich Marx's conversion meant a complete break with his family. There appears to have been no further contact with any other Marxes. Karl's only known relation with his Jewish kin in later life appears to have been with his mother's relatives, the Dutch Philipses, with whom he continued to be on close terms.
Lion Philips was also the only known correspondent to whom he wrote as one Jew to another—an identity he was elsewhere at pains to disclaim. Education and marriage The young Karl Marx's five years at the Friedrich-Wilhelm Gymnasium in Trier —35 were uneventful and not strikingly distinguished. Only hindsight can read more into the seventeen-year-old's essay 'Considerations of a young man on choosing his career' than the adolescent's idealist desire to serve humanity: 'If he is working only for himself, he can become a famous scholar, a sage, a distinguished writer, but never a complete, a truly great, man.
Intellectually, the major influences in his school years appear to have come from his father and his future father-in-law, privy councillor geheimer Regierungsrat Johann Ludwig von Westphalen, son of an official of the duke of Brunswick, who was distinguished in the Seven Years War, ennobled, and married into the Wishart family, kin to the earls and later dukes of Argyll, a connection which Mrs Marx did nothing to conceal during her years in England. Westphalen, who served, in turn, the Guelphs, the French kingdom of Westphalia, and Prussia, shared his enthusiasm for the Greek poets and Shakespeare with the young Marx, and, more surprisingly, introduced him to Saint-Simon; his ideas were clearly more advanced than those of his eldest son, who was to become Prussian minister of the interior in the s.
His daughter Jenny, four years older than Karl, was the beauty of Trier, and was still remembered in the town as such even in the early s, as Marx noted with satisfaction when he revisited his birthplace in That a man of this background and standing should have consented to the marriage of his daughter to a young, even if converted, Jew without visible prospects is convincing evidence that, even as a schoolboy, he must have deeply impressed at least one good judge.
That the brilliant, sarcastic, darkly handsome youth also deeply impressed both contemporaries and seniors became clear at the universities in Bonn —6 and especially Berlin —41 , where Marx gradually shifted from his original subject of law to philosophy, though also tempted by Romantic poetry, for which his surviving verses show no great aptitude.
The student was father to the man. A number of what proved to be Marx's permanent characteristics emerged during his university years, finally completed by a doctoral dissertation, 'Die Differenz der Demokritischen und Epikurischen Naturphilosophie' 'The difference between Democritus' and Epicurus' philosophy of nature' , at the philosophical faculty of Jena April : a tendency to indulge in Herculean bouts of overwork at the expense of his health ; an inability to finish his projects, except under extreme pressure; and—not least—a cavalier attitude to the problems of earning a living and to the relation between income and expenditure.
These darkened his relations with his father, a conflict which can be followed in a moving exchange of letters that ended with Heinrich Marx's premature death in , after which relations with Marx's mother also deteriorated. Perhaps the father, though complaining about Karl's extravagant debts, would have been more tolerant of the nineteen-year-old's impassioned but ill-defined struggles to reunite art, science, and philosophy single-handed had he not, by his engagement to the daughter of an established Trier family, undertaken commitments, by the standards of contemporary reason and convention, which he showed no sign of recognizing.
Indeed, for the rest of his life Marx was never to succeed by his own efforts in solving his economic problems, or acquiring any regular or predictable income.
There was no prospect of an academic career for a brilliant but philosophically though by no means yet socially subversive young intellectual inclined to activism. However, he had made a sufficiently strong impression to be asked to contribute to a new journal, the Rheinische Zeitung, financed by a group of wealthy Cologne men in business and the professions and representing the moderate but loyal liberalism of the non-clerical Rhineland bourgeoisie. After six months and a number of articles, which were almost his first excursions into real politics and his first into economic questions, he became its editorial director and remained so until the paper was closed down by the censor in early , though evidently without hard feelings, for shortly after he resigned from the editorship the Prussian government appears to have offered him a post as editor in the state service.
Indeed his posture as editor of the Rheinische Zeitung had been militant but politically moderate. It was not, he felt, based on serious thought. Proud, abrasive, and confident of his gifts, he had begun to make a name.
Nevertheless, it was clear that no serious opposition writing would be tolerated in Germany. He surrendered his Prussian citizenship in December , a fact which was later used to disqualify his application for naturalization in Britain on the grounds that he had 'behaved disloyally to his King' Collected Works, In Paris he set up his first married household—he had married on 12 June —and had his first child, Jenny Caroline — Here also the household was joined by its lifelong member Helene Lenchen Demuth, a young servant of the Westphalen family who was transferred, in a somewhat feudal manner, from Trier to Jenny Marx by her mother.
Under Prussian pressure Marx was expelled from Paris by the French government in January and moved to Brussels, which remained his base of operations until the revolutions. Two further children were born in Brussels, Jenny Laura — —all his daughters were named Jenny, after his wife—and the short-lived Henry Edgar, who died in Soho — The Karl Marx we know was born in the months between his marriage and his expulsion from Paris. In Paris he found himself in the capital of both revolution and socialism, and in the midst of an international community of the political avant-garde, most of whom were soon to become victims of his critique—Bakunin, Proudhon, Ruge and the German emigration, Leroux, Louis Blanc, and the other French socialists, but not the sceptical poet and temporary communist sympathizer Heinrich Heine, for whom, all his life, Marx retained 'a sincere affection' Prawer, He was already known as both the ablest and least tolerant of the revolutionary intellectuals.
The two young men found they had converged on the same point by different routes: the one via politics and the French Revolution, the other via the experience of Britain's industrial revolution in his family's Manchester cotton business. By the late summer of , when Engels spent ten days in Paris with Marx on his way back from Manchester, the two young men found themselves 'in agreement in all theoretical areas' and about to begin their lifelong co-operation.
The partnership with Engels, never broken on either side, was so central to the remainder of Marx's life that a brief comment on it is relevant. For Marx, Engels was to be the permanent intellectual collaborator and partner, the ever reliable source of information, notably about the actual operations of capitalist industry, the constant, unconditional if not uncritical backer, and the fount of intellectual, and especially material, support. Without Engels he could not have survived his years in Britain.
For Engels, Marx, in his own graveside words, was 'the greatest living thinker', the Darwin of the law of human historical evolution, the pathbreaker for humanity's future, a genius to whom he, a mere man of talent and intelligence, was justified in devoting his mind and money—even at the cost of continuing in the hated family cotton business to provide him with an income.
Marx and the origins of Marxism With and without Engels, Marx now launched himself into a series of writings in which he tried to elaborate his new theory, and which form the basis of what later came to be called Marxism—a term from which he took his distance when it came into use at the end of his life.
However, although he actually received in a publisher's advance for a two-volume critique of politics and national economy, his major work—or that part of it which was actually completed under the title Das Kapital: Kritik der politischen Oekonomie—was not published until As Ruge had observed: 'He never finishes anything; he is always breaking off, and then plunges again into an infinite ocean of books' Blumenberg, Major texts, such as the so-called 'Paris manuscripts' of , the 'Theses on Feuerbach' , and the enormous Die deutsche Ideologie 'German ideology' of —6, written in collaboration with Engels, in which his 'materialist conception of history' was first elaborated, were to be published posthumously between and The Communist Manifesto and the revolutions Of more immediate significance was the conversion of the most important secret German revolutionary fraternity, the League of the Just, renamed the Communist League, with whom both had had increasingly close contacts for some years, to the views of Marx and Engels.
This body, an offshoot of French secret societies of the s, was primarily composed of militant expatriate German craftsmen, but also attracted some young intellectuals, among them the future leaders of Germany's major working-class parties, Ferdinand Lassalle and Wilhelm Liebknecht.
Here he and Engels were commissioned to draw up a manifesto, which he completed—not without a deadline and ultimatum from the league—for publication at the end of February, a nose ahead of the revolutions. It presented communism as the necessary and inevitable product of the historical development of capitalism.
As the Communist Manifesto, this irresistible combination of utopian confidence, moral passion, hard-edged analysis, and—not least—a dark literary eloquence was eventually to become perhaps the best-known and certainly the most widely translated pamphlet of the nineteenth century.
Its publication went almost unnoticed. The Communist League and its network remained Marx's main political resource during the ensuing years of revolution. The revolution gave Marx a political role adequate to his talents. Expelled from Belgium shortly after the outbreak of the February revolution in France, he returned to Paris by invitation of the new republican government and prepared for the now certain German revolutions which triumphed in March.
Within weeks, and on a temporary French passport, he was back in Cologne with Engels, who raised most of the money to found the daily Neue Rheinische Zeitung: Organ der Democratie, of which Marx was editor-in-chief, assisted—for the paper was run, in Engels's words, 'simply as the dictatorship of Marx'—by Engels and a team of communists. It has been described as 'the best newspaper of that year of revolution' Blumenberg, Certainly it was the most coherent voice of the democratic left, which believed that 'the domination of the bourgeoisie cannot be reached by compromise with the feudal powers', recommended a revolutionary war against Russia, and held that 'German unity, like the German Constitution, can only emerge as the result of a movement in which both the inner conflicts and the war with the East are brought to resolution' Neue Rheinische Zeitung, 7 June Fortunately Marx's pen felt the discipline of the need for daily comment.
Marx in London Though Marx and his friends did not recognize that the defeat of the revolution was irreversible until , the increasingly radical paper closed down as Marx was expelled from Prussia at twenty-four hours' notice in May The family made its way to Paris by various routes.
In France he was, once again, a suspect subversive, offered permission to reside only if he remained far from Paris in southern Brittany. Instead, planning a revived expatriate Neue Rheinische Zeitung, he chose exile in Britain, where he arrived at the end of August, to be joined by his family on 15 September. The next few years were the hardest and most frustrating in Marx's life, although the British Museum Library, to which he obtained access in June , offered some escape from the miseries of politics and everyday troubles.
His political hopes, both general and personal, collapsed. Yet, unlike many other of the refugees crowding into London, he soon accepted that the revolutionary era was at an end. In the overheated atmosphere of inquest, rivalry, recrimination, and mutual accusation that tends to follow lost revolutions, the German Workers' League in London broke away from Marx and Engels—never the best of committee men—as did most of the London communists, leaving them politically quite isolated, while in the police succeeded in virtually destroying the Communist League in Germany.
It was formally dissolved by Marx in November Politically he was at zero point.
Intellectually few could even read him, for attempts to publish his writings in came to little, as did his hopes, excessively optimistic as usual, to complete his economic work. The enormous preparatory manuscripts of —8 became influential after their publication under the title Grundrisse in — The contrast between his talent, promise, and achievement and his political isolation visibly embittered Marx, and made him even more intolerant, both in public and in private.
Engels had already spent two years living in Manchester from November  to August In German Ideology, Marx and Engels finally completed their philosophy, which was based solely on materialism as the sole motor force in history.
Like so many other early writings of his, German Ideology would not be published in Marx's lifetime and would be published only in Whereas the utopians believed that people must be persuaded one person at a time to join the socialist movement, the way a person must be persuaded to adopt any different belief, Marx knew that people would tend on most occasions to act in accordance with their own economic interests, thus appealing to an entire class the working class in this case with a broad appeal to the class's best material interest would be the best way to mobilise the broad mass of that class to make a revolution and change society.
This was the intent of the new book that Marx was planning, but to get the manuscript past the government censors he called the book The Poverty of Philosophy  and offered it as a response to the "petty bourgeois philosophy" of the French anarchist socialist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon as expressed in his book The Philosophy of Poverty While residing in Brussels in , Marx continued his association with the secret radical organisation League of the Just.
Accordingly, in June the League was reorganised by its membership into a new open "above ground" political society that appealed directly to the working classes. No longer a secret society, the Communist League wanted to make aims and intentions clear to the general public rather than hiding its beliefs as the League of the Just had been doing. Proceeding on from this, the Manifesto presents the argument for why the Communist League, as opposed to other socialist and liberal political parties and groups at the time, was truly acting in the interests of the proletariat to overthrow capitalist society and to replace it with socialism.
Designed to put forward news from across Europe with his own Marxist interpretation of events, the newspaper featured Marx as a primary writer and the dominant editorial influence. Despite contributions by fellow members of the Communist League, according to Friedrich Engels it remained "a simple dictatorship by Marx". With his wife Jenny expecting their fourth child and not able to move back to Germany or Belgium, in August he sought refuge in London. The headquarters of the Communist League also moved to London.
However, in the winter of — a split within the ranks of the Communist League occurred when a faction within it led by August Willich and Karl Schapper began agitating for an immediate uprising. Willich and Schapper believed that once the Communist League had initiated the uprising, the entire working class from across Europe would rise "spontaneously" to join it, thus creating revolution across Europe. Marx and Engels protested that such an unplanned uprising on the part of the Communist League was "adventuristic" and would be suicide for the Communist League.
Marx maintained that this would spell doom for the Communist League itself, arguing that changes in society are not achieved overnight through the efforts and will power of a handful of men. In the present stage of development circa , following the defeat of the uprisings across Europe in he felt that the Communist League should encourage the working class to unite with progressive elements of the rising bourgeoisie to defeat the feudal aristocracy on issues involving demands for governmental reforms, such as a constitutional republic with freely elected assemblies and universal male suffrage.
In other words, the working class must join with bourgeois and democratic forces to bring about the successful conclusion of the bourgeois revolution before stressing the working class agenda and a working class revolution. In London, without finances to run a newspaper themselves, he and Engels turned to international journalism. Dana, a fourierist and an abolitionist , was Marx's contact.
The Tribune was a vehicle for Marx to reach a transatlantic public to make a "hidden war" to Henry Charles Carey.
Marx had sent his articles on Tuesdays and Fridays, but, that October, the Tribune discharged all its correspondents in Europe except Marx and B. Taylor, and reduced Marx to a weekly article. Between September and November , only five were published. After a six-month interval, Marx resumed contributions in September until March , when Dana wrote to inform him that there was no longer space in the Tribune for reports from London, due to American domestic affairs.