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One of the tools categorized in this method and is often a concern for the purpose stated is cloze test. The early founder of the cloze test is Ebbinghaus from Germany in Zamri et al, It was later used extensively by W. L Taylor for study purpose about the measurement of the level of text readability Jenkins, It is done by removing a few words in passages according to the specific ratio with the aim to provide opportunities for students to make guesses to fill up the blank space based on signals that can be obtained through the context Jenkins, ; Bullock, in Rye, This test is considered to be an effective way and objective for the purpose of measuring the level of text readability Harison, ; Moyle, In addition, it is able to determine the background of the reader Chen et al.
Cloze test built based on a principle in the theory of information processing and Gestalt psychology named closures.
In the language context, this principle is translated in the form of actions committed by a person to complete an incomplete sentence by guessing the words needed to produce an intended meaning Taylor, ; Gilliland, ; Nuraina, ; De Santi, In the Arabic language context, the use of this test has been reported to often get the attention due to the absence of other methods that are built specifically for those purposes. This test is not perfect, but it's very useful in the field in measurement of the mastery level of words, syntax, morphology and phonology Jenkins, Specific research in determination of the level of Arabic readability starts around the end of the s Tu'aymah, Until these days, no standard tools were determined for this purpose.
However, studies that have been carried out provide information that is essential for the development of the cloze test that is able to evaluate the level of text readability, especially for Arabic text. From the point of reading materials, two important factors to be given attention are the linguistic factors conceptual and design factors.
Linguistic factor involves a number of sub topics such as the selection of words, syntax, the depth the content and concept Zamri et al, , the length of the text, the cut word ratio, the target group and the answers form Tu'aymah, While in terms of design, important things that need to be given attention is the organization of the text, colour, illustration, graphics and so on Zamri et al, Aspects of linguistic and programme design should be taken into account in the development of cloze test.
From the point of linguistics, text size, separation and sentence filtration, item test construction and scoring should also be given attention. Generally, the more the length of the text, the higher the reliability and validity of the cloze test.
However, in the context of language learning for non-native speakers of Arabic, text size should not be too long Tu'aymah, Some research carried out suggests to words Oller in Jenkins, , to words Tu'aymah, and this gives a signal that the text should not be less than words Klare et. Logically, the more the length of the text, the more the distance between an item with another item.
Generally, words deletion as testing item can be done in several ways such as deletion based of the fixed ratio and deletion based on rational Jenkins, Deletion method in a fixed ratio is also very closely related to the length of the text. Generally, for text size more than words, the ratio of 1: The aim is so that total 50 cloze items which blank spaces can be produced by the teachers as proposed. Tu'aymah recommended minimum amount of 30 items that are relevant in particular to secondary students.
The ratio of 1: Another method of word deletion is based on the unfixed ratio. The unfixed ratio means that the selection of cloze item is based on the discretion of the teachers. It can also be associated with rational ratio.
This method demands a legislator to explain justification of words deletion as test items Jenkins, It allows the legislators to control the test item for its content validity Bachman, in Jenkins, and usually, preparation of the cloze test through this method is for the use in the classroom Yahya Othman, However, fixed ratio method have a high level of consistency and it should be a priority in the construction of cloze test Tu'aymah, thus making both of these methods have their own advantages.
This process is implemented to ensure each word selected as test items can really guarantee the validity of the content to be tested because not all the words in the text is suitable. To enable this thing implemented, sentence filtration must be done in order to get the best results Kurtasov, Among the considerations that should be given attention in the filtration is the title exception, first sentence, last sentence, and quotes or verses of Quran, Hadith, poetry and so on.
The title, first and last sentences, normally exempt from deletion. It is done to enable understanding of the text as a whole is not disturbed Marohaini, The verses of the Qur'an, Hadith and poetry are also exempted from deletion because it should not be done al- Naji, URt. This procedure can help formulators reduce item that has less impact in measurements Kurtasov, - Item Construction After filtering and deleting is performed, the next process is the item construction.
Item construction; test and answers that need to consider some form, such as cloze test by filling in the blank and multiple choice questions with distractors. Cloze question is more convinient because its easy to set up Kurtasov, Moreover, it does not require a long period of time to be developed. Test answer form should also be given attention.
Generally there are two forms of answers that can be used in the cloze test which are independent answers and multiple choice answers Tu'aymah, Independent answers requires students to provide their own answers, while multiple choice answer refers to cloze test that provide answers to be filled in the blank space. For multiple choice answers, 3 distractors are proposed by Kamarulzaman while Guthrie said 2 distractors are also suitable and already sufficient.
But Tu'aymah said that the first method is more practical because it easier to review and able to preserve the objectivity of the test. Cloze test score is calculated using percentage.
The number of the correct answer from the whole item is translated in the form of percentages. Determination of text readability level will then be done by collecting all the answers given by respondents and average score can be obtained from it.
The average can be interpreted based on the table of text readability level as follows: Table 1: This level is a condition in which a text is classified as too complicated and students are not able to comprehend text that is read even with the help of a third party such as teachers and other adults Muhammad Haron, et. Text which has this level is classified as appropriate and relevant to be presented in teaching and learning process.
A text in this level indicates that the text is suitable for the use of tested students Tu'aymah, It is carried out to study the needs of designing a system for Arabic text readability level measurement.
The construction of this measurement system design involves the application of some aspects of Linguistics such as text length, separation and sentence filtration, item construction and scoring. The process of cloze test construction is based on procedures and then have to go through the process of preparation and submission of input text , cloze formation, provides a selection of answers, store and display output cloze test.
However, the study could not find any procedure to measure the difficulty level of Arabic reading materials, particularly in the context of Malaysia Zamri et al.
Thus, the study proposes a design of Arabic text readability level measurement tool based on the cloze test elements. The developed system suggests the construction procedures of cloze test starting from the selection of cloze test, ratio of words deletion, item construction, text size and text difficulty level. The study also suggests the size text is minimum words.
This system is able to process any sizes of reading materials, calculate words, and determine the ratio for words deletion automatically. However, separation and sentence filtration must be done manually. Users need to make an exception for sentences or phrases that want to be exempted from the assessment or construction items manually. Method of words deletion used in the system is based on a fixed ratio and rationality.
Determination of the ratio will be done automatically by the system but the users have the authority to change items, especially when the words chosen are not suitable for cloze test. For the answer form, this study focused on the construction of cloze test items with multiple choice answers.
However, users have the authority to retain or change the words proposed by the system because in the context of the item preparation, this is an important matters that should be given attention to ensure the validity of the instrument. The selection of words is made randomly and grouped based on the class to avoid any hint of answers for each item was formed Read, This system will also provide three options of answers for each item as recommended Guthrie Firstly, it can shorten the time taken for the preparation of cloze test.
Next, it can develop the cloze test item systematically based on elements of linguistics.
Not to forget, it is a semi-automatic text exclude identification. While the disadvantages are unsuitable choices of answers and text evaluation is not functioning automatically. Sign up Figure 5: Log in Figure 6: Insert text Figure 8: Identify text size Figure 8: This gives the signal that the determination of the text readability level have priority and benefits in guaranteeing the smooth process of teaching and learning of Arabic language.
The use of cloze test is identified as one of the tools that can be beneficial to determine the text readability level.
It has a high level of validity and reliability for the stated purpose. Several elements that need to be emphasized in the construction of cloze test is the text size, words ratio, target groups and the answer forms.
Ia secara umum digambarkan sebagai gerakan puritan, fanatik, anti-modern, berorientasi ke masa lalu, literal dan skriptural, dengan indoktrinasi dan intoleransi sebagai cirinya yang menonjol. Paham ini mewakili sekte Islam paling puritan dari ekspansi gerakan dakwah Salafi kontemporer di seluruh dunia. Pada abad 20, dan diuntungkan berkat melambungnya harga minyak dunia, Arab Saudi mendukung penyebaran Wahabisme di seluruh dunia Islam.
LIPIA juga menyediakan asrama yang diprioritaskan bagi mahasiswa asal luar negeri dan mahasiswa baru. Untuk mahasiswa laki-laki, letaknya di lantai 2. Sementara asrama mahasiswi di belakang Pejaten Village, salah satu mal di Jakarta Selatan. Manajemen kampus juga memberi uang saku pada mahasiswa yang disebut mukafa'ah bulanan. Jumlahnya disesuaikan kurs mata uang riyal. Sedangkan para pelajar jenjang pra-universitas atau Takmily yang ditempuh setahun dan tingkat syariah 4 tahun, mereka diberi uang saku riyal Rp ribu.
Namun judul dan daftar isinya disiapkan oleh para dosen pembimbing. Kedua sayap gedung dipisahkan untuk ruang kuliah khusus laki-laki dan perempuan. Sejak pintu gerbang, sudah ada jalur pemisah bagi laki-laki dan perempuan. Begitu juga perpustakaan, diatur pemisahan akses mengikuti hari.
Hari Senin, Rabu, Jumat, dan Sabtu khusus untuk pelajar laki-laki. Namun hingga kini belum dibangun. Untuk tingkat lanjut, mereka tetap harus studi ke Jakarta. Tak seperti Yuda yang pasif secara politik, Irfan menilai dalam Islam, wajib hukumnya memilih pemimpin. Sebab hal ini bisa berdampak pada kebutuhan umat muslim sebagai mayoritas di Indonesia. Karena itu ia tak segan beberapa kali ikut demonstrasi termasuk serangkaian aksi di Jakarta dalam kontestasi Pilkada.
Tetapi, sejak tahun lalu, ada pelajaran dakwah Wahhab. Itu sebenarnya seru, menarik cara dakwah beliau yang sampai menyebar.
Pondok ini didirikan oleh Sahal Suhana, politikus dari Partai Keadilan Sejahtera yang jadi anggota parlemen daerah periode Para pendirinya bisa dilacak dari gerakan dakwah kampus yang menyebar sejak an lewat peran penting Dewan Dewan Dakwah Islamiyah Indonesia DDII , organisasi dakwah yang didirikan oleh Mohammad Natsir dan mantan pemimpin Masyumi pada Ini bisa dilihat dari contoh kecil pada tipe mahasiswa seperti Irfan Faqih dan Yuda Prayoga.
Dalam tulisannya di Jurnal Holistik Vol. Din Wahid mengklasifikan Salafi di Indonesia ke dalam tiga kategori. Meski keduanya sepakat bahwa seorang pemimpin haruslah muslim, tapi mereka lebih mengedepankan jalan edukasi. Upaya itu diretas untuk mengedukasi pemahaman Islam ke masyarakat. Jemaah jadi ramai dan ngisi ceramah. Lebih pada amalan utama keseharian, misalnya zikir. Dalam hal memerangi, kita lebih pada pencerdasan keislaman di masyarakat. Supaya tidak terjebak dalam kelompok yang berkedok Islam.
Tugasnya, antara lain, menerjemahkan para ulama dari Palestina yang disebar ke beberapa daerah di Indonesia. Irfan sempat ke Bengkulu, Sulawesi, dan Kalimantan Utara. Irfan dan Yuda menganggap dalam fikih, atau ilmu tentang hukum Islam, setiap muslim bolehlah berbeda dan tak patut diperdebatkan panjang lebar. Namun soal akidah, mereka tak bisa menoleransi. Karena itu sentimen mereka begitu berapi-api terhadap Syiah dan Ahmadiyah. Sikap Irfan serupa dengan Yuda.
Syiah lebih bahaya lagi. Bahayanya mereka menisbatkan agamanya pada Islam tapi banyak ajarannya menentang agama Islam yang lurus.