György Ligeti: Piano Works Suggestions for performing Musica ricercata No. Aimard gives some advice on studying and performing Musica ricercata No. 'A “new music” from nothing': György Ligeti's Musica ricercata Márton Sallis's book on Ligeti's early works does not include a detailed analysis of the set, Sallis . One can feel similarly embarrassed listening to, or reading the score of the. Download free sheet music and scores: Ligeti Musica Ricercata. Sheet music ( PDF). Original: Ligeti, György. musica ricercata. Ligeti - Musica ricercata.
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Kostas Grigoreas - Guitar in the Greek Mode - (solo Classical Guitar - score).pdf. Uploaded by. Hassan Bin Sober · Apuntes armonia portal7.info Uploaded by. Musica Ricercata by György Ligeti - Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File Stockhausen - Stimmung (Full Score, Original Version - ' Work No 24') Harmony and Counterpoint in the Ligeti Etudes Book I- An Analysis. György Sándor Ligeti ( 28, – June 12, ) was a composer, born in The second of Ligeti's Musica ricercata is used extensively in Eyes Wide Shut.
Following are brief descriptions with some analysis of each movement of Musica ricercata. Sostenuto — Misurato — Prestissimo[ edit ] This movement uses the pitch class A almost exclusively D is introduced as the final note, thereby providing an impetus to the rest of the movements. Ligeti develops this single pitch class by exploiting the dimensions of rhythm and timbre an example of timbral counterpoint. A thunderous beginning leads into a gradual crescendo and accelerando consisting of layered polyrhythms in various registers. The coda, a metered accelerando, pounds out several more octaves of A before we finally hear D. The relationship between D and A is reinforced by the holding of both subharmonics and overtones of D, which contain A a result of the harmonic series.
Following are brief descriptions with some analysis of each movement of Musica ricercata. Sostenuto — Misurato — Prestissimo[ edit ] This movement uses the pitch class A almost exclusively D is introduced as the final note, thereby providing an impetus to the rest of the movements.
Ligeti develops this single pitch class by exploiting the dimensions of rhythm and timbre an example of timbral counterpoint. A thunderous beginning leads into a gradual crescendo and accelerando consisting of layered polyrhythms in various registers. The coda, a metered accelerando, pounds out several more octaves of A before we finally hear D.
The relationship between D and A is reinforced by the holding of both subharmonics and overtones of D, which contain A a result of the harmonic series.
Mesto, rigido e cerimoniale[ edit ] Both the material and mood of this movement differ markedly from the first. This theme is heard both solo i. The entrance of G near the middle of the piece is particularly stark, being vigorously attacked in an accelerando similar to that in the first movement.
The G continues to sound in an unmetered tremolo as the main theme returns in a more "menacing" context. The movement gradually dissolves, with both the main theme and repeated G's fading into silence.
Allegro con spirito[ edit ] The jaunty, almost bluesy, quality of this movement represents yet another contrast to what's come before.
The dynamics and register also freely and abruptly jump about, contributing further to the skittish nature of this movement. This movement is actually a reworking of ideas from the first movement of the composer's Sonatina for Piano, Four Hands. Further complicating matters rhythmically is Ligeti's indication in the score that "The metronome value refers to the maximum tempo. The piece may be interpreted freely—as well as being slower—with rubati, ritenuti, accelerandi, just as the organ grinder would play his barrel organ ["l'orgue de Barbarie"].
The piece is formally structured like a standard waltz tune, roughly akin to AABA.
The A theme consists of a running scale with a short turn at the end of the phrase. The B section is generally louder, with a greater dynamic and pitch range, with chords in the melody not heard in the A-section. Soviet authorities had prohibited performances of the work, its compositional technique and experimental sound considered too subversive. The system of the piece is as such: The first movement contains only one note A played in different octaves and patterns, ending on a singular D.
Each subsequent movement contains one more note than the last until all twelve tones are present in the eleventh movement. It was a novel compositional plan, and the piece is significant because it was not meant to be anything more than that.
Rigidly formulaic, Ricercata was not written to be a concert hit, but as an item of musical pedagogy. It represented a sharp turn away from the Romantic music of Debussy and other impressionists just a couple of generations before. During this time in his career, Ligeti, like his contemporaries, took a scientific approach to writing music, dissecting tonal harmony to examine how notes progress from one to the next, and questioning why for hundreds of years Western composers mostly confined themselves to major and minor key centers.
The resulting product not only changed the way music sounded, but how it was discussed. He is out at evoking a specific world, and in that world there is no room for the whole array of expressions, let alone for a succession totally determined by a serial principle. It would immediately become apparent that it cannot become complete as long as we restrict ourselves to pure auditory expressions.
To begin with, the purely auditory expressions of love are rather limited: the sound of a kiss, mmm, panting and the screams of the orgasm, and thats it. Already broader is the spectrum of verbal expressions: lovers address each other with short, gently whispered phrases, and they love to echo each other.
But only in singing is fully unfolded the whole array of loving feelings as the old Darwinist philosophers of art, who regarded the calls of rutting animals as the primeval song, already knew. In the song, the verbal expression of love is not only elevated and brought to full bloom through extending echoing with singing together, it is also enriched because only music knows to convey all the tenderness and passion that real lovers express through facial expressions, gestures and postures.
Further, in contrast with love, which is rather inaudible by nature, aggression and dominance are rather noisy affairs, which hence would tend to be over-represented in a scale of pure auditory expressions. But also here it applies that anger and rage do not so much express themselves in yelling, stamping, kicking and throwing, as in the way of speaking.
And it is only music that succeeds in elevating and enriching those expressions by equally evoking the concomitant facial expressions, gestures and postures through sound: think only of the impressive tones with which Mozarts Commendatore drives don Giovanni into hell.
For the mystery is precisely that those sustained tones are conjuring up the imposing posture of an impressive appearance: such a posture is not precisely audible in the real world! It is, on the contrary, rather its motionless silence that petrifies us. This is music at its best: it is able to conjure up not only movement, but also motionless standstill through nonmoving sound.
Thus, the spectrum of emotion cannot become complete unless it comes to encompass also verbal, but foremost musical expressions. The reverse is equally true: when we take the spectrum of emotions as a point of departure, it immediately becomes apparent that Aventures does not encompass the whole spectrum of auditory expressions. We miss the battle cry, the alarm, the crying for help, the yelling in panic, the burst of anger and above all the primeval scream: weeping.
A veritable scale of the emotions, then, would consist of a progression from the most elementary expressions to their musically most unfolded forms.
And on a second axis would figure the whole array of emotions. Only on such a chessboard of combined parameters could be properly played a genuine serial game. Such double shortcoming of Ligetis scale of emotions is not only inspired by mimetic considerations.
It uncovers the deeper resistance that lies at the roots of the unease in music, that in its turns lies at the roots of the unease in language. The unease in music itself has its roots in the unease in love in all its forms: the taboo on music is merely the expression of an underlying taboo on love not otherwise than the mimetic taboo see: The erotic eye, in preparation.
No opera, hence, with a linear story divided in separate numbers, but a sequence of various combinations of emotions determined by a serial logic. Also here language in the sense of a story is refused. We spare the reader the trouble to further analyse this structure.
For we stumble here on another discrepancy between intention and deed. The disconcerting simplicity of Ligetis construction is rather a farewell if not a parody on the serial procedure, than an extension to the new parameter of emotions.
For everything seems to indicate that Ligetis serial logic has been no more than an occasion, if not an alibi to unabashedly set foot on the mimetic domain that came into view through serial music. To understand this, we have to look through the trees of the structural to see the wood of what is conjured up through it no differently than Ligeti, who used to point out that serial music sounds otherwise than it was thought out.
Let us, then, in his very own Aventures listen to what there is to be heard with the naked ear. Every episode is centred around the appearance of a kind of supervisor. That threatening tone is not the announcement of the impressive appearance of a respectable figure such as Mozarts Commendatore calling don Giovanni to account. Rather is it the prelude to the indecent, if not obscene sounds with which the supervisor indicates that he is stirring himself: measure 6 in episode I and measure 11in episode II.
When also the subordinates are stirring themselves ever more audaciously, the supervisor bursts out in an ostentative display of power: the heated oration in and the loud slams in 50 and 57 of episode V, the catching Ahaa! Until he is somewhat reassured and retires in the swelling threatening tone in measures of episode VII. The sustained tone just like the motives creeping around the sustained tone of the Commendatore in the finale scene of Mozarts don Giovanni is equally the expression of the way in which the terrorised subordinates are shirking out of fear for the supervisors all-seeing eye that is resting upon them.
But when the supervisor happens to turn his back, or to content himself with producing obscene sounds, the subordinates seize their chance to indulge in some forbidden activity. According to the horny laughter and the consequent giggling of the girls, the greedy panting in episode I is released in some transgression or other.
To judge from the sounds in measure 15 and 16, the subordinates have done something that makes them disperse.
In episode III they seem to seize their opportunity without catching the supervisors eye: they hastily whisper or eagerly proceed to action, scattering now and then, until the threatening presence of the supervisor makes them calm down.
But in IV there is no stopping them any longer. They lash out at one another. Which provokes the heated oration of the supervisor. Whereupon they burst out again and are called to order by the supervisor wreaking havoc. So that they behave well again and eventually sink in the hypnosis of terror.
In VI they renew their provocations of the supervisor, but, after some self-restricting admonitions, they subdue to terror again. When they seem to plan another forbidden undertaking in VII, the supervisor, only pretending to look the other way, catches them red-handed.
On his Ahaaa! In VIII they clash with each other. Whereupon the supervisor reaps the fruits of his divide and conquer in episode IX.
All this cannot fail to remind of the proceedings in boarding schools, classes, play-grounds, work-floors, offices, barracks, not to mention all kinds of hierarchies. Or also: of a troop of baboons where the alpha-males are anxiously trying to defend their dominant position.
Or more striking still: of Freuds primeval father trying to monopolise all the women in the horde, facing the constant attack of the excluded sons trying to make a deal behind his back, until the primeval father chases, castrates or kills them. Also herein do Ligetis Aventures have something in common with Mozarts don Giovanni, where throughout the whole opera the scoundrel is trying to escape the growing horde of deceived husbands, to finally be called to account by the Commendatore even when there is worlds apart between the struggle of the champion of monogamy and the sympathetic libertine on the one hand, and the terror of an obscene power-mad person against a revolting mob, that, as a way of resistance, only knows to bring forth the grimace of pure transgression.
The nearly strophic structure of Aventures, then, is not only a parody on serial composition. The serial unpredictability - and here again Ligetis eminent musical-mimetic instinct is popping up is transformed into the striking rendering of the way in which life under terror is structured. In a world where everything has to be done in the dark and where behind every corner lurks betrayal Ligeti was born in , is a Jew and a Hungarian - there is no place for any organic flow. Thus, unpredictability becomes the red thread that binds all the strophes internally and among themselves.
Ligetis reinterpretation of formal procedures is all the more masterly because there is a perfect match between the world conjured up and the means used. No better way to render the breakthrough of the repressed than to let the auditory expressions in which it is embodied break loose from the order of language and music.
And no better way to render the chaos unleashed through the terror of the primeval father than to parody the terror of serial overstructuring and to let it loose on a material that thoroughly resists structuring as such. That is why this work could only have been written at the moment when the hegemony of the serial principle was contested from all quarters. By confronting serial music with its true face, Ligeti delivers it a final blow while at the same time laying bare the truth of human relations in our era.
Up to now, we completely passed over the fact that Aventures' is not at all absolute music: there is a libretto written by the master himself. Hence, the above is merely a rendering of the way in which I have been approaching the work for a long time.
For, by reason of circumstances beyond my control, only much later could I lay hands on the libretto and still later could I witness a real performance of the piece. That is the fate of most of the music in my collection.
For I can only blame the circumstances for the fact that in the case of Aventures the transition to the second and third phase took so long. As a matter of fact, I have always to overcome a certain resistance when reading the text to vocal music. And such hesitating develops into straight unwillingness when it comes to assist at a real performance of an opera.
For, even though some works think of madrigals, songs of Schubert, the Tristan only gain when the text is taken into consideration, as a rule I cannot but experience a confrontation with the visual dimension as a straightforward disenchantment.
All too often does the introduction of the visual element spoil the music, because the world conjured up in music is totally different from the world as it appears in the visual dimension. From a musical point of view, the love-duet of Tristan and Isolde is completely convincing. But, on the scene, you have to witness how the poor singers are desperately trying to pretend that they love each other. The problem is related to that of the relation of program-music to its program. The 'Fantasia quasi Sonate' "Aprs une lecture de Dante" a work of that other great kindred spirit and fellow countryman of Ligetis may be considered as the continuation of Beethovens endeavour to merge the sonata and the sonata-form, as in the Grosse Fuge.
When reading the program, one cannot escape the feeling that the richness of the music has been given a narrowing interpretation: it loses more than it gains. All these considerations justify a first approach of vocal music as if it were pure music. And that goes especially for Ligetis Aventures. For, great was my surprise when I laid eyes upon the libretto!
I could not possibly link the scenes described in it with the music, unless I had meticulously transferred the indications from the libretto to the score, measure for measure. And then it became fully apparent that the libretto - as if it were a greedy polyp takes control of the music and disturbs its coherence by placing all the elements in a new context. Thus, in the beginning we hear several voices the whole group of subordinates heavily pant, but only the baritone appears through a cut in the curtain.
Here, there are less actors than suggested in the music. The reverse is true in measure , where, on the hysterical outcry of the baritone, first a first double and then a second one appears, until they are finally joined by the real baritone.
The baritone is split not only simultaneously, but also successively: he lends his voice - as far as it does not merge in the background music as such - successively to a cavalier-poet, an Olympic runner, a North-Pole traveller with looking glasses and a professor teased by his female pupils.
And, finally, the coherence is utterly destroyed in that the libretto introduces lots of events that are merely visible. Think of the Golem in the first place.
He does not make any noise, and his movements are nowhere represented in the score: he appears some measures before the end of the scene i. At best, you could consider the sustained tone as his musical appearance, were it not that it is to be heard throughout the entire mimodrama as the embodiment of the terror of primeval father, of which the Golem is merely the faint shadow in folk-lore.
Is it not rather surprising that the only figure on the scene that could pass for a primeval father has completely detached itself from the very music wherein he has so convincingly been embodied in flesh and blood? And the same goes also for the three sculptures of Laokoon, the series of slides, the steam-engine and the anatomic wax-model. It looks as if Ligeti has attempted to combine an existing musical logic with a superposed visual logic into an encompassing whole.
But the visual logic cannot possibly be reconciled with the compelling musical and mimetic logic of this marvellous music. It reminds me of the way in which Stockhausen transformed his 'Kontakte' in 'Originale' in ! Hence, rather than with a mise-en-scne of music, we are dealing here with a visualising away of the music, a veritable mise-hors-musique.