You can use this calendar to keep a record of important dates and events during your pregnancy – you may like to keep it as a memento of your pregnancy to be. This booklet contains information on pregnancy, birth and parenting. portal7.info ). The need for iron multiplies during pregnancy. Iron is needed for making red. by trimester. Labor Day. What you need to know. AND mOrE 7. 3. B Plus . Former Spice Girl mel B sings the joys of baby No. 3 Pregnancy edition.
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A healthy pregnancy The Pregnancy Book, including the mothers and fathers, medical and health .. on the internet as well as in magazines and books. 2 Pregnancy and Birth | Healthy Parents, Healthy Children. Prenatal care and portal7.info portal7.info Childcare. Beginnings. My Pregnancy & Baby Journal My Pregnancy Records. Date. Week. Weight. Blood. Pressure Music / books / magazines. Baby shampoo.
Health Program The U. Despite these positive trends, rates are still high compared to similar countries and dramatic disparities remain. Even with the recent decline, about 45 percent of all pregnancies in the U. The story is similar for teens. Despite plummeting rates in recent years, approximately one in four teens will become pregnant at least once by age
Drinking alcohol. There is no known amount of alcohol that is safe for a woman to drink during pregnancy.
If you drink alcohol when you are pregnant, your child could be born with lifelong fetal alcohol syndrome disorders FASD. Children with FASD can have a mix of physical, behavioral, and learning problems. Illegal drugs. Using illegal drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamines may cause underweight babies, birth defects, or withdrawal symptoms after birth.
Misusing prescription drugs. Outcomes of some studies that did directly measure child development include a link between prenatal stress or anxiety and slower maturation in infancy or early childhood and reduced attention levels. Studies that purport a link between maternal stress and subsequent psychiatric disorders should be equally interpreted with caution due to the inability to ascertain the roles of shared genetic contribution and the postnatal rearing environment.
The same may be likely for prenatal stress exposure. Research Gaps The most apparent research gap is the paucity of empirical studies on the topic that: measure features of child developmental outcomes, as opposed to relying on maternal reports about child difficulties which are directly contaminated by maternal psychological functioning, and adequately control for maternal stress in the postnatal period.
In addition, there is a lack of large-scale studies that include exposed and non-exposed siblings to allow appropriate evaluation of the role of inheritance and rearing in significant findings. Conclusions While there is some evidence that negative prenatal maternal emotions or experiences result in smaller or earlier delivered infants, results across studies are neither uniform nor compelling.
Of those that detect associations, there is some evidence suggesting that earlier, as opposed to later exposures, may be more influential. However, the magnitude of effects, when detected, is small and unlikely to independently contribute to negative child developmental outcomes.
There is not nearly enough quality data to determine that prenatal maternal stress either benefits or damages child development and as such, it should not be regarded as a developmental teratogen. Perhaps the most promising and newer line of research is to reduce the emphasis on the construct of maternal psychological stress during pregnancy and instead focus on examining associations between neuroendocrine and physiological parameters during pregnancy in relation to child outcomes.
Contrary to expectations, there is little to no correspondence between cortisol and maternal stress or other negative emotional states during pregnancy. There is some existing evidence that variation in maternal cortisol levels, independent of psychological stress, has consequences for child development, although again, some studies find facilitative effects while others find negative ones.
Public policy issues in this area of research would include maternal employment and maternity leave. In point of fact, it is not uncommon for pregnant women to work until the time of birth. We hardly need research on the role of prenatal maternal stress in child development to deduce that this may not be an optimal societal expectation.
Women who work at demanding, stressful jobs throughout pregnancy may enter labour, delivery, and the ensuing years of child dependency with depleted energy reserves.
Furthermore, the implications of maternal stress on the postnatal environment that is created for the infant are likely to be of far greater consequence than potential biological effects of prenatal exposures.
Nonetheless, because it is up to each woman to subjectively appraise whether an event or circumstance is stressful, public policy to govern the behaviour or activities of pregnant women in the interest of improving child developmental outcomes should not be established.
Stress and reproduction: Introduction to the special section. Psychosocial factors and pregnancy outcome: a review with emphasis on methodological issues. Antenatal maternal anxiety and stress and the neurobehavioral development of the fetus and child: links and possible mechanisms.
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