ALGORITHMS, FLOWCHARTS, DATA TYPES. AND PSEUDOCODE. ALGORITHMS. The term algorithm originally referred to any computation performed via. What is Pseudocode? An algorithm is a sequence of instructions to solve a well- formulated computational problem specified in terms of its input and output. Pseudocode What is pseudocode? Pseudocode is a simplified, half-English, half-code outline of a com- puter program. Why use it? • Because it can help.
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PDF | On Aug 1, , Nicholas Bennett and others published Introduction to Algorithms and Pseudocode. Pseudo-code is an informal way to express the design of a computer program or an algorithm in. The aim is to get the idea quickly and also easy to read. Pseudo Code Practice Problems: Listed below is a brief explanation of Pseudo code as well as a list of examples and solutions. Pseudo code. Pseudo code can .
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Double-Selection IF 2. If condition is false, then skip statements and execute statements under ELSE 2. ELSE else if condition is not true, then do subordinate statement 2, etc. WHILE condition while condition is true, then do subordinate statements 5. Thus, statements in the structure will always be executed at least once. FOR bounds on repetition 8. Pseudocode Example Express an algorithm to get two numbers from the user dividend and divisor , testing to make sure that the divisor number is not zero, and displaying their quotient using pseudocode 1.
Declare variables: dividend, divisor, quotient 2. Prompt user to enter dividend and divisor 3. Get dividend and divisor 4.
Prompt user to enter divisor 4. Explaining a computing process to less-technical users. Computers need a very strict input syntax to run a program, but humans especially non-programmers may find it easier to understand a more fluid, subjective language that clearly states the purpose of each line of code.
Designing code in a group setting. High-level software architects will often include pseudocode into their designs to help solve a complex problem they see their programmers running into. If you are developing a program along with other coders, you may find that pseudocode helps make your intentions clear.
Remember that pseudocode is subjective and nonstandard. There is no set syntax that you absolutely must use for pseudocode, but it is a common professional courtesy to use standard pseudocode structures that other programmers can easily understand. If you are working with others on a project—whether they are your peers, junior programmers, or non-technical collaborators—it is important to use at least some standard structures so that everyone else can easily understand your intent.
If you are enrolled in a programming course at a university, a coding camp, or a company, you will likely be tested against a taught pseudocode "standard".
This standard often varies between institutions and teachers. Focus on the main purpose of pseudocode. It can be easy to revert to writing in code once you hit your stride. Remembering the purpose of your pseudocode—explaining what each line of the program should do—will keep you grounded while creating the pseudocode document.
Use a plain-text editor. It can be tempting to use a word processor e. Start by writing down the purpose of the process. Dedicating a line or two to explaining the purpose of your code will help set up the rest of the document, and it will also save you the task of explaining the program's function to each person to whom you show the pseudocode. Each statement in your pseudocode should express just one action for the computer. In most cases, if the task list is properly drawn, then each task will correspond to one line of pseudocode.
Consider writing out your task list, then translating that list into pseudocode, then gradually developing that pseudocode into actual, computer-readable code.
Use white space and indentation effectively. Using white spaces between "blocks" of text will help keep different components of your pseudocode isolated, and indenting different pieces of each block will indicate that those pieces of pseudocode go under a less-indented section.
For example, a section of pseudocode that discusses entering a number should all be in the same "block", while the next section e. Capitalize key commands if necessary. Depending on your pseudocode requirements or the environment in which you're publishing the pseudocode, you may need to capitalize commands that will remain in the actual code.
For example, if you use "if" and "then" commands in your pseudocode, you might want to change them to read "IF" and "THEN" e. Write using simple terminology. Remember, you're writing about what the project will do , not summarizing the code itself. This is especially important if you're writing pseudocode to serve as a demonstration for a customer who doesn't know coding, or as a project for a beginner programmer. Keep your pseudocode in the proper order. While the language you use to modify your pseudocode should be simple, you still need to keep each piece of your pseudocode in the order in which it needs to be executed.
Leave nothing to the imagination. Everything that is happening in the process must be described completely. Pseudocode statements are close to simple English statements.
Pseudocode does not typically use variables, but instead describes what the program should do with close-to-real-world objects such as account numbers, names, or transaction amounts. Even if there is no standard for pseudocode, it will be easier for other programmers to understand your steps if you use structures from existing sequential programming languages. Consider the following structures: Organize your pseudocode sections.
If you have large sections of pseudocode that define other pieces of pseudocode within the same block, you may want to use brackets or other identifiers to keep everything contained. Brackets—both standard e. You can use this same method when writing pseudocode to leave notes that don't fit into the coding text. Double-check your pseudocode for readability and clarity. You should be able to answer the following questions by the end of the document: Would this pseudocode be understood by someone who isn't familiar with the process?
Is the pseudocode written in such a way that it will be easy to translated it into a computing language? Does the pseudocode describe the complete process without leaving anything out?
Is every object name used in the pseudocode clearly understood by the target audience?
If you find that a section of pseudocode needs elaboration or it doesn't explicitly outline a step that someone else might forget, go back and add the necessary information. Open a plain-text editor. Define your program. The format below is recommended for expressing your solutions in our class. Each of these constructs can be embedded inside any other construct.
These constructs represent the logic, or flow of control in an algorithm. It has been proven that three basic constructs for flow of control are sufficient to implement any "proper" algorithm. WHILE is a loop repetition with a simple conditional test at its beginning.
CASE is a multiway branch decision based on the value of an expression.