The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research by Norman K. Denzin, , As with earlier editions, the Fourth Edition is virtually a new volume. For information: SAGE Publications, Inc. Teller Road. Thousand Oaks, California E-Mail: [email protected] SAGE Publications Ltd. 1 Oliver's . Uwe Flick This fourth edition first published SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd 6 Theoretical Positions Underlying Qualitative Research.
|Language:||English, Spanish, German|
|Genre:||Politics & Laws|
|ePub File Size:||23.74 MB|
|PDF File Size:||20.30 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
Editorial Reviews. Review. "Like previous editions, this offers the most comprehensive analysis The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research (Sage Handbooks) 4th Edition, Kindle Edition. by Norman K. Denzin (Editor), Yvonna S. Lincoln. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods Research: Theories and Issues (Handbook of Qualitative Research Paperback Edition, Vol 1). The SAGE handbook of qualitative research. [Norman K Denzin Edition/Format : Print book: English: 4th editionView all editions and formats. Summary.
Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln Chapter 1. Lincoln, Susan A. Lynham, and Egon G. Guba Chapter 7. Feminist Qualitative Research in the Millenium? Dillard and Chinwe Okpalaoka Chapter 9.
The name field is required. Please enter your name. The E-mail message field is required. Please enter the message. Please verify that you are not a robot. Would you also like to submit a review for this item? You already recently rated this item. Your rating has been recorded. Write a review Rate this item: Preview this item Preview this item. Thousand Oaks: Print book: The editors and contributors address issues of social justice and examine how people's struggles can inform public issues and in turn be transformed into social policy.
Their writings are underpinned by a critical framework, and they are committed to addressing issues of inequality. As with previous editions, their aim is to show how the practices of qualitative research can effect change in the world in positive ways.
Read more Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private.
Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item Handbook Handbooks Material Type: Internet resource Document Type: Reviews Editorial reviews. Publisher Synopsis The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research is my go-to book on methodologies, critical approaches to qualitative inquiry, in-depth treatment of core topics, and creative challenges and developments in various fields.
User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Be the first. Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. View most popular tags as: Similar Items Related Subjects: Qualitative research. Qualitative Methode Forschungsmethode Sozialwissenschaften. Qualitative Methode. Kvalitativ metod.
Qualitative Research -- Handbook. Social Sciences -- methods -- Handbooks. User lists with this item 15 Nalini Chitanand 13 items by Kemrajh updated Linked Data More info about Linked Data.
Denzin, Yvonna S. Lincoln -- Locating the field -- Revitalizing universities by reinventing the social sciences: Hence, the identification of a or often explicable if not immediately sensible. That would case as most or least likely is linked to the design of the study, as frequently seem to be the case with the selection of paradigmatic well as to the specific properties of the actual case. We may select such a case on the basis of taken-for- A final strategy for the selection of cases is choice of the granted, intuitive procedures but are often called upon to paradigmatic case.
Thomas Kuhn has shown that the basic account for that selection. This may even be argued to be a general characteristic of by historians of science.
Similarly, scholars like Clifford Geertz scholarship, scientific or otherwise, and not unique to the and Michel Foucault have often organized their research selection of paradigmatic social scientific case studies. For around specific cultural paradigms: A research council examples.
Kuhn has shown that scientific para- choice, even though intuition may be the real, or most important, digms cannot be expressed as rules or theories. There exists no reason why the researcher wants to execute the project. Besides the prototypes of good scientific work.
A paradigmatic case of how strategic choice of case, the execution of the case study will scientists do science is precisely such a prototype. It operates certainly play a role, as will the reactions to the study by the as a reference point and may function as a focus for the found- research community, the group studied, and, possibly, a ing of schools of thought.
These questions claims in the discourse to which the study is a contribution. No standard exists for the paradigmatic case given case is interesting in a paradigmatic context, and because it sets the standard. Hubert and Stuart Dreyfus see whether they can provide collectively acceptable reasons for paradigmatic cases and case studies as central to human learn- the choice of case.
Dreyfus replied, tion are not necessarily mutually exclusive. For example, a case can be simultaneously extreme, critical, and paradigmatic. You just have to be intuitive. If rationality in urban policy and planning were weak in the face of power in Aalborg, then, most likely, they would be weak anywhere, at least in Denmark, because in Aalborg the rational paradigm of policy and planning stood stronger than anywhere else. This had not been clear at the outset because much less research existed on local power relations than research on local planning.
Therefore, instead of a critical case, unwittingly I ended up with an extreme case in the sense that both rationality and power were unusually strong in Aalborg. My study thus became one of what happens when strong rationality meets strong power in the arena of urban policy and planning. But this selection of Aalborg as an extreme case happened to me; I did not deliberately choose it.
It was a frustrating experience, especially during those several months after I realized I did not have a critical case until it became clear that all was not lost because I had something else. As a case researcher charting new terrain, one must be prepared for such incidents, I believe. Owing to this habit, very few objections were raised against my views, which I had not at least noticed and attempted to answer. Jared Diamond , p.
They are often this view. Donald Francis Bacon , p. Bacon no less strict than the rigor of quantitative methods. The advan- expressed it like this: When any proposition has been laid down, the human understand- According to Campbell, Ragin, Geertz, Wieviorka, Flyvbjerg, ing forces everything else to add fresh support and confirmation. It and others, researchers who have conducted intensive, in-depth is the peculiar and perpetual error of the human understanding to case studies, typically report that their preconceived views, be more moved and excited by affirmatives than negatives.
The case study forces upon the researcher the problem that all researchers must deal with in some way. Ragin , p. According to dence may be linked in many different ways.
Geertz , p. That he is delimitation of a case]. At the start of the analysis, cases are decom- posed into variables, and almost the entire dialogue of ideas and speaking of a general phenomenon can be seen by simply evidence occurs through variables. One implication of this discus- examining case studies, such as those by Eckstein , sion is that to the extent that large-N research can be sensitized to Campbell , and Wieviorka Campbell , the diversity and potential heterogeneity of the cases included in pp.
In a case study done by an alert social scientist who has thorough Here, too, this difference between large samples and single cases local acquaintance, the theory he uses to explain the focal differ- ence also generates prediction or expectations on dozens of other can be understood in terms of the phenomenology for human aspects of the culture, and he does not retain the theory unless learning discussed above.
If one thus assumes that the goal of most of these are also confirmed. Even in a single qualitative case study, the con- phenomena being studied, then research is simply a form of scientious social scientist often finds no explanation that seems learning. If one assumes that research, like other learning satisfactory. Such an outcome would be impossible if the caricature processes, can be described by the phenomenology for human of the single case study.
Only in this way can researchers According to the experiences cited above, it is falsification and understand the viewpoints and the behavior that characterizes not verification that characterizes the case study. Moreover, the social actors.
Relevant to this point, Giddens states that valid question of subjectivism and bias toward verification applies to descriptions of social activities presume that researchers all methods, not just to the case study and other qualitative possess those skills necessary to participate in the activities methods.
For example, the element of arbitrary subjectivism described: And the ing descriptions of social activity is being able in principle to par- probability is high that 1 this subjectivism survives without ticipate in it. With the point of departure in the variable, she may have a new variable demanding to be heard. Such activity is quite simply a central new hypotheses, but in isolation these methods lack any clear element in learning and in the achievement of new insight. More means of actually identifying new hypotheses.
This is true of all simple forms of understanding must yield to more complex studies that use existing databases or that collect survey data ones as one moves from beginner to expert.
On of the storyteller, but seems also to be an expression of innate the contrary, experience indicates that the case study contains a relationships in the human mind, which we use to make sense of greater bias toward falsification of preconceived notions than toward the world by constructing it as narrative. The human propensity for narrative involves a danger, how- ever, of what has been called the narrative fallacy.
Thus, we propositions and theories on the basis of specific read meaning into data and make up stories, even where this is case studies. Such stories are easy to understand inquiry, see Chapter 25 in this volume by Susan Chase; Todd and act on—for citizens, policy makers, and scholars—but they Landman, in press. After certain strands of discourse theory are fallacies and as such they are treacherous. In social science, have defined any text as narrative and everything as text, it seems the means to avoid the narrative fallacy is no different from the that narrative is everything.
But if something is everything, means to avoid other error: It is difficult validity and reliability in how data are collected and used. In my own work, some protection against the narrative fallacy. Such narratives when I think about narrative, I do not think of discourse theory typically approach the complexities and contradictions of real but of Miles Davis, the jazz icon.
When asked how he kept writing life. This tends to be seen by critics of the and how they are related, and Davis set out the naked minimum. To the case study researcher, however, Obviously, plots and narratives may be hatched in many ways. Rather, it is often a sign that the study has uncovered a with a beginning, a middle, and an end, you typically first try to particularly rich problematic. The question, therefore, is whether get the attention of the reader, often by means of a hook, that is, a the summarizing and generalization, which the critics see as particularly captivating event or problematic that leads into the an ideal, is always desirable.
Friedrich Nietzsche , p. You then present the issues and who are involved, para. At this stage, typically, study, the contextual and interpenetrating nature of forces, is lost there is conflict and the conflict escalates. Finally, harmony is when one tries to sum up in large and mutually exclusive con- restored by the conflict being resolved, or at least explained, as cepts. Other observ- keep it open.
Two strategies work particularly well in ensuring ers have noted that narrative seems to exist in all human societies, openness. First, when writing up their case studies, authors may modern and ancient, and that it is perhaps our most fundamen- demur from the role of omniscient narrator and summarizer. Second, authors of case studies may avoid link- that makes case researchers cautious about summarizing their ing their study with the theories of any one academic specializa- studies.
Case researchers thus tend to be skeptical about erasing tion. Instead, they may choose to relate the case to broader phenomenological detail in favor of conceptual closure.
In this Ludwig Wittgenstein shared this skepticism. According to way, authors leave scope for readers of different backgrounds to Gasking and Jackson, Wittgenstein used the following meta- make different interpretations and draw diverse conclusions phor when he described his use of the case study approach in regarding the question of what the case is a case of. The goal is philosophy: The goal is to allow the study to be different things to different people.
I have to take you through the city itself—that different readers may be attracted, or repelled, by from north to south, from east to west, from Euston to the embank- different things in the case.
Readers are not pointed down any ment and from Piccadilly to the Marble Arch. After I have taken you many journeys through the city, in all sorts of directions, we shall one theoretical path or given the impression that truth might lie have passed through any given street a number of times—each at the end of such a path.
Readers will have to discover their own time traversing the street as part of a different journey. At the end path and truth inside the case. Thus, in addition to the interpre- of this you will know London; you will be able to find your way tations of case actors and case narrators, readers are invited to about like a born Londoner.
In philosophy question of any case study: The case story is itself the This approach implies exploring phenomena firsthand instead of result. For the reader willing to reading maps of them. Actual practices are studied before their enter this reality and explore it inside and out, the payback is meant rules, and one is not satisfied by learning only about those parts of to be a sensitivity to the issues at hand that cannot be obtained practices that are open to public scrutiny; what Erving Goffman from theory.
With respect to intervention in social and political affairs, If we return again briefly to the phenomenology for human Andrew Abbott , p.
The problem is analogous to the we have already lived through, they also provide us a forward inability of heuristic, computer-based expert systems to glance, helping us to anticipate situations even before we encoun- approach the level of virtuoso human experts, even when the ter them, allowing us to envision alternative futures.
Narrative systems are compared with the experts who have conceived inquiries do not—indeed, cannot—start from explicit theoretical the rules upon which these systems operate. This is because the assumptions. Instead, they begin with an interest in a particular experts do not use rules but operate on the basis of detailed case phenomenon that is best understood narratively. Narrative inqui- experience. This is real expertise. The rules for expert systems ries then develop descriptions and interpretations of the phenom- are formulated only because the systems require it; rules are enon from the perspective of participants, researchers, and others.
William Labov and Joshua Waletzky , pp. A narrative that lacks a moral that can theoretical activity, but such rules are not necessarily part of the be independently and briefly stated, is not necessarily pointless. A successful narrative does not allow the question to be ing—namely the possibility to understand virtuoso social acting, raised at all. The narrative has already supplied the answer which, as Bourdieu has shown, cannot be distilled into theoretical before the question is asked.
The old and often antagonistic division general propositions and theories, thus reads as follows: For these scholars, research is problem- as concerns case process.
It is less correct as regards case outcomes. The driven and not methodology-driven, meaning that those meth- problems in summarizing case studies, however, are due more often to ods are employed that for a given problematic best help answer the properties of the reality studied than to the case study as a research the research questions at hand.
More often than not, a combi- method. Often it is not desirable to summarize and generalize case nation of qualitative and quantitative methods will do the task studies.
Good studies should be read as narratives in their entirety. Finally, some of the most ambitious claims regarding how the quantitative revolution would make possible a social sci- It must again be emphasized that despite the difficulty or ence on a par with natural science in its ability to explain and undesirability in summarizing certain case studies, the case predict have been scaled back, making room for the emergence study as such can certainly contribute to the cumulative devel- of a more realistic and balanced attitude to what social science opment of knowledge, for example, in using the principles to can and cannot do.
The chapters in this volume on mixed test propositions described above under the second and third methods, by John Creswell Chapter 15 , and Charles Teddlie misunderstandings. And this is what the new social dominant parts of the academy. This state of affairs has proved science is: It is common sense to give up wars remarkably long-lived. It is also common sense to finally place. A more collaborative approach is gaining ground, where acknowledge that case studies and statistical methods are not scholars begin to see that different methodological approaches conflicting but complementary see Box These are the two longest underwater rail tunnels in Europe, each costing several billion dollars.
Soon after construction of the Channel tunnel began, costs started escalating, and at the opening of the tunnel, in , costs had doubled in real terms leaving the project in serious financial trouble. But maybe the British and French had just been unlucky? Perhaps the Danes would do better on the Great Belt tunnel? Not so. The study raised the inevitable question of whether the Channel and Great Belt tunnels were outliers regarding cost overrun and viability or whether such extreme lack of ability to build on budget was common for large-scale infrastructure projects.
I therefore decided to do such a study and my group and I now turned from case studies to statistical methods. To our amazement, our studies showed, with a very high level of statistical significance, that the Channel and Great Belt projects were not outliers, they were normal; nine out of ten projects have cost overrun.
The same apparent error of cost underestimation and overrun was being repeated decade after decade. We now began debating among ourselves whether an error that is being repeated over and over by highly trained professionals is really an error, or whether something else was going on.
To answer this question, we went back to case studies and process tracing see Box We found that cost overrun and lack of viability were not best explained by simple error but by something more sinister and Machiavellian, namely strategic misrepresentation of costs and benefits by promoters during appraisal in order to get projects funded and built.
From my initial case-based curiosity with the outcomes at the Channel and Great Belt tunnels—and by going from case studies to statistical methods and back—my group and I had uncovered a deep-rooted culture of deception in the planning and management of large-scale infrastructure projects Flyvbjerg, As a recent spin-off from this research, my group and I are now investigating whether the success of one in ten projects in staying on budget—documented in our statistical studies—may be replicated or is due to luck.
Here, again, we are back to case study research, now studying success as a deviant case. The complementarity between case studies and statistical statistical analyses. The complementarity of the two methods is methods may be summarized as in Table The main that simple, and that beautiful. If you want to understand a phenomenon in seen in the literature, and in university departments, have lasted any degree of thoroughness—say, child neglect in the family or as long as they have.
This is what happens when tribalism and cost overrun in urban regeneration—what causes it, how to power, instead of reason, rules the halls of academia.
As such, it is prevent it, and so on, you need to do case studies. If you want to testimony to the fact that academics, too, are all too human, and understand how widespread the phenomenon is, how it corre- not testimony to much else. The separation is not a logical conse- lates with other phenomena and varies across different popula- quence of what graduates and scholars need to know in order to tions, and at what level of statistical significance, then you have do their studies and do them well; quite the opposite.
Good social to do statistical studies. Time, narrative, and history. Teaching and the case This being said, it should nevertheless be added that the bal- method. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Harvard Alumni Bulletin,1—6. The roots of radicalism.
The New York case studies at a disadvantage within most disciplines. For the Review of Books, pp. Mind over clarifying methodologically the case study and its relations to machine: The power of human intuition and expertise in the era of other social science methods in order to dispel the method- the computer. New York: Free Press.
Eckstein, H. Case study and theory in political science. In This chapter is intended as such clarification.
Polsby Eds. Reading, MA: Eysenck, H. Eysenck Ed. Routledge and Kegan Paul. Neverending stories: Toward a critical narratology.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Making social science matter: Why social inquiry improving an earlier version of this chapter. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Flyvbjerg, B. A perestroikan straw man answers back: Caterino Eds. Debating knowledge, Abbott, A. What do cases do? Some notes on activity in socio- research, and method pp. New York and London: New York logical analysis.
Becker Eds. Exploring the foundations of social inquiry pp. Policy and planning for large-infrastructure Cambridge, UK: Problems, causes, cures. Environment and Planning B: Abercrombie, N. Dictionary of sociology. Planning and Design, 34 4 , — Harmondsworth, UK: Megaprojects Arendt, H. The human condition. University of Chicago and risk: An anatomy of ambition. Cambridge Press. University Press. Bacon, F. Novum organum. In Physical and metaphysical works Flyvbjerg, B.
Underestimating of Lord Bacon Vol. Error or lie?
Journal of the Ameri- Bailey, M. Do physicists use case studies? Thoughts on public can Planning Association, 68 3 , — Public Administration Review, 52 1 , Gasking, D. Wittgenstein as a teacher.
In 47— Fann Ed. The man and his philosophy Bal, M. Introduction to the theory of narrative pp. Sussex, UK: Harvester Press. University of Toronto Press.
Geertz, C. After the fact: Two countries, four decades, one anthro- Barlow, N. The autobiography of Charles Darwin.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. George, A. Case studies and theory develop- Barzelay, M. The single case study as intellectually ambitious ment in the social sciences. MIT Press. What is a case study and what is it good for? The 3 3 , — American Political Science Review, 98 2 , — Bates, R.
Giddens, A. Profiles and critiques in social theory. Analytic narratives. University of California Press. Benhabib, S. Hannah Arendt and the redemptive power of nar- Giddens, A.
The constitution of society: Outline of the theory of rative. Social Research, 57 1 , — Polity Press. Beveridge, W. The art of scientific investigation. Goffman, E. Behavior in public places: Notes on the social orga- Heinemann. Blaug, M. The methodology of economics: Or how economists Goldthorpe, J. The affluent worker Vols. Cambridge Bourdieu, P. Outline of a theory of practice.