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Social Learning Theory. How People Learn. Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Samolubny gen. Farroni, T. Eye contact in human from birth.
Johnson, M. Biology and Cognitive Development: The case of face recognition. Oxford: Blackwell. Karmiloff-Smith, A. Abnormal behavioral phenotypes and the challenges they pose to Connectionist models of development. Carnegie Mellon University. Kelly, D. Three-month-olds, but not newborns, prefer own-race faces.
Developmental Science, 8 6 , Mayer, R. Aids to computer-based multimedia learning. Moore, C.
Joint attention: Origins and role in development. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale. Morton, J. Psychological Review, vol. Homo imitants or homo provocans? Human imprinting model of neonatal imitation.
Infant behavior and Development, no. Paivio, A. Is face processing species specific during the first year of life. Science, , no. Siemieniecki, B. Introduksjon til kognitiv pedagogikk. Introduzione alla pedagogia cognitiva. Roma: Armando Editore. In: B. Siemieniecki Ed. Warszawa: PWN. Singh, L. Infancy, no. Slater, A. Spelke, E. Physical knowledge in infancy : Reflections on Piaget's Theory. Carey, R. Petzold, Krammer Verlag, Wien , pp. Fahrenberg, Menschenbilder [in:] Dorsch — Lexikon der Psychologie, ed.
Fahrenberg, Die Funktion…; A. One of those typologies12, presented in Figure 1 encompass most com- mon dimensions. Figure 1 Concepts of human nature Source: D. The first dimension nature-nurture13 refers to the question of whether hu- mans are shaped by their genes nature , or by outside factors in the process of learning nurture.
The second dimension refers to the problem of whether people are egoistic or altruistic discussed by social psychology. Evolutionary psycholo- gy delivers many well supported arguments for the altruistic orientation which, in consequence, serves the individual, because it maintains the group as a whole, which is the closest environment of individual.
Moreover it can protect the passing 10 M. Fahrenberg is concerned about the necessity to merge philosophical and psychological anthropology. Band 2. Konversation und Resonanz in der Psychotherapie, eds. Cheet- ham, Assumptions…, pp. Goal-oriented rationality can be compared to economic rationality, and when taken as a basis for human reasoning, it could have negative consequence We can assume that the rationality characterizing economic man is a rationality oriented on goals, while humanistic man is rationality oriented on values.
Business ethics context of concepts of human nature What is the setting of concepts of human nature in the organization when we per- ceive it from business ethics perspective? And what factors contribute to the ethi- cal orientation of the organization and how can concepts of human nature influ- ence them?
The first aspect is to check whether the decision process in the organization is an ethical one. Ethical decisions are based on ratio, norms a deontological ap- proach , virtues virtue ethic and consider the consequences for all participators consequential ethic. Considering all participators means that we need to base our decisions on the stake-holder approach.
According to Sullivan 18, decision-making practices may emerge in part out of embedded human nature models of organiza- tional members. Therefore, an ethical concept of human nature is one which makes ethical reasoning possible, enforcing the concept of man who values rationality, especially value-oriented rationality only the humanistic model of man fulfils this criteria. Of course there is the question of whether we assume that people are social-made animals.
On the one hand, it means that people are socially created, because of their social con- formity — conforming to the norms respected in the society — and they can apply those norms in their life. But on the other hand, it does not necessary mean that they base their decisions on ethical reasoning.
Kahneman, op. Horodecka, K. Tomer, Economic Man vs. It is a culture whose origins lie in values and norms, enforcing justice, and a virtuous life leading to happiness. Con- cepts of human nature could be perceived, therefore, as a part of the knowledge and culture of the organization, and a part of the social and human capital.
Build- ing up this capital additionally enables all participators to be part of the national culture social trust, social capital. People from different cultures conceptualize similar structures of understand- ing human nature at different levels of complexity: those coming from eastern cultures stress a more collective and interdependent identity and perceive interde- pendency as crucial for human nature, whereas people coming from the US em- phasize aspects of individuality and independence Codes of conduct ethics with enforcement rules, accompanied by institu- tions, which implement them, give insight into the ethical attitude of the organiza- tion.
The analysis of some content of ethical codices, corporate codices, and world-ethos provides some insight into what the central values 21 and concept of human nature implicit or explicit are. Central values are for instance the respect of other persons in their diversity and for the nature, justice, fairness.
In order that these values are respected and followed in the organization, they should be a part of the concepts of human nature we have. Code effectiveness depends on the way codes are created, implemented and administered Theoretical and empirical evidence for the meaning of con- cepts of human nature for organizational life Theories of human nature characterize the deeply embedded belief structures of organizational life and guide the behaviour of managers and influence the structur- ing of the organization and the way organizational members respond to the cul- ture24, organizational control25 and the process of determining the actions of oth- 19 W.
Ouchi, op. Oerter, R. Oerter, H. Agostiani, H. Kim, S. Sullivan, op. Embedded human nature models of organizational members can influence decision-making practices. The democratic man model can be responsible for participative decision-making, incorporating expanded goals focusing on organi- zational and individual needs.
The modern man model influences rational decision making, while the totalitarian man perspective impacts on authoritarian decision styles, and the hermeneutical man theory may be associated with highly interac- tive and seemingly formless decision making. Stronger moral competence26 helps people to take ethical decisions, and has a model role for organizations It is dependent on the concept of human nature positively correlated with the humanistic and social model of man 28 , which en- compasses expectations about the self and others, and consequently about passible response patterns to the behaviour of others and builds up a stable social worldview that activates certain motivational goals.
If someone perceives the social world as dangerous and threatening, it may 25 Classical, in which control is fixed, based on structure and authority, unilateral, and vertical; and contemporary, in which it is variable, based on interpersonal interactions and mutual understanding, and flows in all directions, see: J.
McMahon, J. Phalet, E.
Pinker, Tabula rasa. Zupancic, M. Turek, A. Zanna, Academic Press, San Diego , pp. Radkiewicz, K. Skarzynska, K. Hamer, The Influence of the Big Two. Adorno, E. Frenkiel-Brunswik, D. Levinson, N. Pinker, op. Wojciszke, W. Szkice z psychologii politycznej, eds. Jakubowska, K. Zarys psychologii politycznej, Scholar, Warsaw Having a competitive-jungle worldview may lead to the power motive and, consequently, to an enhanced social dominance orientation.
Concepts of human nature can influence the emotional intelligence of people — people with a humanistic concept of human nature, or who are at least social altruistic — engaged in pro-social activities , are more likely to have higher emo- tional intelligence than people with materialistic, or an egoistic concept of human nature The com- munication style depends on many variables, which can be influenced by the model of man we have, for instance, emotional intelligence and sense of coher- ence People with a concept of human nature which is close to humanistic man for instance enlightened man have higher social emotional intelligence and high- er SOC, which in turn makes them more efficient in communicating with other people.
By contrast, models of man close to economic man aggressive- competitive man, materialistic, selfish man have lower emotional intelligence and sense of coherence, which makes them less efficient in communicating with oth- ers Pro-social engagement is based on the assumption that it is worth engaging oneself for others.
It means that people act not only for their own good, but for the good of other people, which is again an ethical attitude. Acting for others, and collaboration, improve not only commitment and communication, but the econom- ic results.