The most accessible approach is to prepare a complete shadow DOM inside the can vas element. In this implementation, the script controlling the canvas also. The next-gen Web and EPUB Editor based on the rendering engine of Firefox®. Version CSS 3 including 2D and 3D Transformations, Transitions, Shadows, Columns, Font Features and more, supported DOM Explorer panel, supported. Shadow DOM serves for encapsulation. It allows a component to have its very own “shadow” DOM tree, that can't be accidentally accessed from the main.
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EPUB is an e-book file format that uses the ".epub" file extension. The term is short for .. "The ePub torture test: Starring 'Three Shadows,' a graphic novel". This EPUB specification defines a model for template-based adaptive paginated .. background-origin; background-clip; background-attachment; box-shadow do not need to be contiguous, nor does their location in the html DOM change. A set of reference stylesheets for EPUB Reading Systems, starting with Readium 2. -ibooks-stroke, -ibooks-popover-background, and -ibooks-popover-shadow This attribute is used to indicate DOM elements for which text-align must be.
Did you ever think how complex browser controls are created and styled? That DOM structure is normally hidden from us, but we can see it in developer tools. These are not regular children, but a powerful encapsulation technique. In the example above, we can see a useful attribute pseudo. Chronologically, browsers first started to experiment with internal DOM structures to implement controls, and then, after time, shadow DOM was standardized to allow us, developers, to do the similar thing. If an element has both, then the browser renders only the shadow tree. But we can setup a kind of composition between shadow and light trees as well.
There is no restriction that all partitions that accommodate a particular flow should have the same column width. Specify partitions using the -epubx-partition rule. Assign flows to partitions using the CSS Regions -epubx-flow-from property. Note: The W3C CSS Regions specification defines a more general notion of a region which could be created inside of any element or pseudo-element.
In the context of this specification, regions can only be created out of partitions.
A page master is an allocation of a page into a set of partitions. Partitions exist in the context of a particular page master. Page masters allow authors to create visually rich presentation of content by controlling the geometry of multiple partitions on a page. A stylesheet can specify any number of page masters, and a particular page master is selected for every page algorithmically.
Page masters are specified using the -epubx-page-master rule. In some cases syntax and semantics will be drawn from different versions of the modules.
See individual sections for details on whether to use current or dated drafts for such information. Values with units are always converted to pixels in the context of the document root.
When a property value is given using -epubx-expr syntax, the result of the expression evaluation is interpreted as a CSS value. In all other cases the result is converted to a string and parsed according to the parsing rules of the given property. There are three such properties today: They are unlikely to accept CSS Lengths. Two other properties are defined in this specification: If a unitless number is required as a part of the calculation, it is safer in all cases to explicitly convert the number it to a string by appending an empty string.
The default values for the following parameters are set to false i.
Letterbox function calculates transformation matrix to scale an object of dimensions objW , objH into a viewing area of dimensions viewW , viewH without cropping. Certain value combinations appear repeatedly. A stylesheet is more readable and efficient when these combinations are factored out and given descriptive names. Names defined by -epubx-define rules can be used only inside -epubx-expr values which includes other -epubx-define rules.
Wherever used, the indicated value is substituted. A given name can be defined at most once in all stylesheets referenced by a document. These definitions depend only on the current environment. That is, their values cannot be redefined, but will change to reflect changes to underlying document characteristics such as page width.
Named values may be defined in terms of other named values. Order does not matter, and a value can be used before it is defined, as long as there are no circular dependencies. If an expression contains a circular dependency, it evaluates to an empty string. Redefining predefined values is strongly discouraged, except for defining preference values in the user stylesheet. Some styling rules need to be applied only under certain conditions, such as when the viewport area is small.
Enclosed CSS rules are applied only when the given expression is calculated to true. Use the -epubx-when rule only for cases in which the condition either depends on some named values introduced in -epubx-define rules, or cannot be expressed through media queries. In other cases, use media queries. A flow is a named sequence of elements displayed in the given order, such as an article in a magazine.
Initially a document is considered to have a single flow named body that contains the document's root element. Elements can be assigned to other flows by specifying the CSS Regions -epubx-flow-into property. Flows are created as needed when content is assigned to them. A partition is an area of the page where content from a particular flow can be displayed.
In many cases it takes several partitions on a sequence of pages or on the same page to display all of the content from a particular flow. Content is said to "flow" from one partition to the next. Partitions can contain several columns. Partitions can either grow in block progression direction to accommodate content up to a certain limit or can be of fixed size. Partitions can be of different dimensions. There is no restriction that all partitions that accommodate a particular flow should have the same column width.
Specify partitions using the -epubx-partition rule.
Assign flows to partitions using the CSS Regions -epubx-flow-from property. The W3C CSS Regions specification defines a more general notion of a region which could be created inside of any element or pseudo-element. In the context of this specification, regions can only be created out of partitions.
A page master is an allocation of a page into a set of partitions. Partitions exist in the context of a particular page master.
Page masters allow authors to create visually rich presentation of content by controlling the geometry of multiple partitions on a page. A stylesheet can specify any number of page masters, and a particular page master is selected for every page algorithmically. Page masters are specified using the -epubx-page-master rule. In some cases syntax and semantics will be drawn from different versions of the modules.
See individual sections for details on whether to use current or dated drafts for such information. The latest version of this module is used, with no prefixes applied to the properties defined therein. The following properties are taken from the CSS 2D Transform module with an -epub- prefix with syntax as defined in the Working Draft 15 December and semantics defined in the latest version of the spacification:. Flows represent a logical grouping of one or more elements in the source document into a single stream of content.
A flow is created when an element is first associated with a named flow via the -epubx-flow-into property. The elements added to a flow do not need to be contiguous, nor does their location in the html DOM change. That is, adding elements to a flow does not alter the structure of the document, and all cascaded style rules applied to the elements remain in effect.
When you assign elements to multiple flows, a single sequence of content in the document is split into multiple sequences, one for each flow. For each flow, content is then placed one by one into available partitions. These partitions are marked to consume content from that flow with flow-from property. When content in one element is exhausted, the next element is laid out, as if these elements were siblings in the document tree. When the space in the partition box is exhausted, the remaining content is overflown to the next partition.
When an element fits in a partition box only partially, it is broken up in the same way that elements are broken across columns and pages: The default processing can be altered by setting additional properties to the elements that were assigned to the flow. Content that is not explicitly assigned to a particular flow is considered to belong to the flow named body.
Here is an example of -epubx-flow-into and -epubx-flow-from usage:. The -epubx-flow-options property affects how an element is processed in its flow. Several options can be specified at once:.
The ' -epubx-flow-linger ' property determines how many pages an element is eligible for on a page. None means it stays eligible until consumed. The ' -epubx-flow-priority ' property defines the priority of selection among elements in a flow with -epubx-flow-options exclusive. The active unused element with highest priority is selected next. Sometimes it is necessary to keep several pieces of content together in the same column or partition or on the same page.
You can use these properties on flow content whether or not that content is within a multi-column partition. In particular, these are -epubx-page-master , -epubx-partition-group , and -epubx-partition rules. You can assign these rules class names similar to elements to facilitate reuse of styles, establishing them as targets for CSS class selectors. The -epubx-page-master rule defines a separate page master. The page master rule can contain property declarations as well as -epubx-partition and -epubx-partition-group rules:.
Property declarations are optional, but at least one -epubx-partition or -epubx-partition-group must be defined. The following Adaptive Layout properties apply:. In addition, the page master can include opacity and background properties. However, background-attachment , background-clip , and background-origin are ignored.
The page master selection algorithm is simple. For each page, the first defined page master which is enabled is used. Thus, all the complexities of page master selection consist of determining whether a page master is enabled or not. The most common conditions that affect page master selection are geometric -epubx-min-page-width and -epubx-min-page-height properties , page position in page sequence -epubx-page property , and content availability -epubx-required property.
The -epubx-partition rule defines a partition inside a page master. It simply contains property declarations:.
The following standard CSS2. For partitions in horizontal writing mode, the height property of a partition, if not given or set to auto , is calculated automatically based on the content. First, the maximum possible height that can be used without overflowing the page is determined. Next, content is laid out using the maximum height as a partition height.
After the layout is set, partition height is calculated as a minimal possible height of the partition that would still fit all the content that was laid out. In vertical writing mode as determined by -epub-writing-mode property , width property is treated in the similar fashion. It also contains metadata. EPUB 3 is the latest version. By using HTML5 , publications can contain video, audio, and interactivity, just like websites in web browsers. An ePub publication is delivered as a single file.
This file is an unencrypted zipped archive containing a set of interrelated resources. The file system model uses a single common root directory for all contents in the container. All non-remote resources for publications are in the directory tree headed by the container's root directory, though EPUB mandates no specific file system structure for this. The first file in the archive must be the mimetype file. It must be unencrypted and uncompressed so that non-ZIP utilities can read the mimetype.
This file points to the file defining the contents of the book, the OPF file, though additional alternative rootfile elements are allowed. An example container.
The ePUB container must contain: Content documents include: Books with synchronized audio narration are created in EPUB 3 by using media overlay documents to describe the timing for the pre-recorded audio narration and how it relates to the EPUB Content Document markup. Many editors exist including calibre and Sigil , both of which are open source. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. E-book file format. For publications that are accessed electronically, see Electronic article.
Retrieved January 12, Oct 15, Book Industry Study Group. Retrieved 18 September Retrieved Starring 'Three Shadows,' a graphic novel". Bring the E-Books Home. September 4, Retrieved February 21, April 21, Retrieved 10 July Retrieved 11 October How should. March 29, Time for an IDPF annotation standard for books and other e-pubs!
International Digital Publishing Forum. Retrieved 11 September Retrieved 12 September November 20, Archived from the original on The Financial Times.
Archived from the original on October 14, Apple ebook DRM exclusive to Apple hardware". JK On The Run.