of the key challenges that social networks, our society and businesses http:// portal7.info 2. Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship danah m. boyd http ://portal7.info~dwyer/research/DwyerAMCISpdf. Ellison, N., Steinfield. social networking, we will describe some of the fundamental capabilities The following chapters focus on how we enable social networking.
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The study of social networks was indeed initiated by sociologists more than a century A network is an abstract object that models these social interactions. PDF | The rapid adoption of social networking sites (SNSs) raises important questions about the social implications of such usage. Drawing on. 2. Agenda. ▫ Introduction & terminology. ▫ Market overview. ▫ Applications. ▫ The business of social networking. ▫ Where do I fit in? ▫ Future direction. ▫ Q&A .
La vivencia del apoyo de la red social por las personas en cuidado domiciliario. To build a theoretical model to configure the network social support experience of people involved in home care. A quantitative approach research, utilizing the Grounded Theory method. The simultaneous data collection and analysis allowed the interpretation of the phenomenon meaning The network social support of people involved in home care. The population passive posture in building their well-being was highlighted. The need of a shared responsibility between the involved parts, population and State is recognized. It is suggested for nurses to be stimulated to amplify home care to attend the demands of caregivers; and to elaborate new studies with different populations, to validate or complement the proposed theoretical model.
The same can happen with members of any identified networks.
As it is perceived in the following speech about the social network created or modified from the need of home care:. More were the people who appeared after, that ended up getting closer to me and becoming my friends Interview 3. This way, the existence of a covariance relationship is perceived within the two categories mentioned above, as the alteration in one of them interfere linearly on the other.
If he calls, it is for one of my sisters and does not ask about me Interview 2. The relationship between the categories Characterizing the social networks that provide support in home care and Understanding it as part of the social network that provides support in home care is a mutual trajectory. In the measure, which the network characteristics are known, the role for those involved in the HC can be understood.
Another relationship linking those categories is the reciprocity. The subject perception about his role in the social network is modified by the network characteristics, and this new perception can alter diverse types of characteristics.
For example, the existence of higher support availability with access function to new contacts or cognitive and advice guidance, in a way to transmit information about the available social networks, including by the electronic resources, the higher search for available support or even the importance amplification of having a wide and affective social network as consequence.
Consequently, this can increase the connection size, or the frequency of the social network contacts of the subject in HC. In the popular pharmacy has, because we download there. I hear here on the radio them talking about this government program Interview 5. Within the categories Understanding it as part of the social network that provides support in home care and Perceiving changes coming from health care there is an interdependence relationship.
Because only when one is aware of your role as a social network in HC is when he perceives which changes this fact will result for different people involved and for the HC itself. Similarly, to comprehend oneself in this process, necessarily one has to perceive how his change his life, the social relationships and the support.
The neighbors say: Then I say: Identifying the social support in home care and Perceiving changes coming from health care are categories that establish sequential relationship, that is, effects interaction; as the patient perceive changes in his life as consequence of the HC, with the dependence increase, consequently the lack of support from the social network is perceived.
What she used to do now I do, almost everything in the beginning. When it is only us at home, is hard. Interview 8. Now I stopped a little because she is better and her kids gained more practice in the job. But when she was bad, I saw that she was really not good, I ran, left everything here Interview 7.
Those categories also have a mutual effect relationship, as the alteration of one category by the other will not always be unidirectional. There are situations where there are no standards within them. Although the influence of one category on the other is perceived, it is not possible to measure how this influence will happen. For example, in a HC situation the patient can perceive to receive more support from the closer people.
Thus, the creation of expectations that the same will happen with other social networks in which this individual is part of can happen, but the no intensification of pre-existing situations ends up generating unhappiness or disappointment, leading the patient to have negative feelings.
They sisters help financially, in the tasks, in everything. As my son says: Interview 2. The mutual trajectory and reciprocity are the relationships developed by the categories Identifying the social support in home care and Understanding it as part of the social network that provides support in home care.
There are many things that I familiar caregiver learned with her patient while teaching, now in the way she is. If not, there was no way. Until today, there is no way to say that I am not depending on her Interview 8.
The mutual trajectory is related with the search for new available sources. As the search for new contacts for social support broadens the existing sources of assistance that are underused, starts to be utilized. This still happens when perceiving that the comprehension of the support importance for the involved people in the NC is in accordance to the recognized support. The social networks are certainly important in all aspects.
I think there are people surviving through this. If someone does a service and collaborate with what I do, ends up helping me too Interview There are still, the relationship between the categories Characterizing the social networks that provide support in home care and Perceiving changes coming from health care with a mutual effect. This relationship can be perceived by the alterations that the network and support characteristics provoke in the patient as well as in other people involved in the HC.
Alternatively, in opposition, by the way those changes from the HC interfere in the support characteristic. From the type of function from the received support, the patient will perceive higher or lower significant alterations in relation to be in HC; the same happens with the variation on the size of the network and its functionality.
In counterpart, the changes passed by the subjects in HC alter those characteristics in an unpredictable manner. People who perceive their social relationships as reduced can develop strict social networks, but intense and high density, causing positive emotional changes and facility to adapt.
However, this may not happen and this size reduction in the network can result in a support with little types of function and consequently negative changes. I even started to think one day that I was depressed, with fear.
Because I think this is not possible! I wanted to talk to someone, right? Never, it is hard to have. It is that I have been always active Interview 5. Other people involved in HC are also affected by the described mutual effect relationship. One chance in the offered support over HC time alters different characteristics, as the size, the connection or simply the type of support function.
On the other hand, the characteristics of social assistance cause personal changes in caregivers, for example, reducing or amplifying their personal social network. Regarding the category Identifying the social support in home care the national literature corroborate 12 - 14 the present study findings, that the social network composition is mainly formed by family members and neighbors in the primary networks and by USESF professionals in the secondary networks.
Studies that investigated 12 - 14 different contexts and health care subjects pointed to the importance of the social networks for health; this way, it is believed those subjects as well as the patients should be part of the action plan of health professionals. It is necessary to think about it, in special when dealing with HC, an environment where those subjects, more than an option in care, should be seen as subjects, who also need assistance by being modified by the reality that they help to change.
In opposition, international studies points to friends as the most significant social network, even more than family member, propitiating improve in the social isolation and decrease of the possibility to develop depression, even when the family role is highlighted in the social network 15 - Different authors 14 ; 17 - 19 approach the use of electronic resources radio, television and telephone as source of support, but as an incipient way.
Regarding the types of support function mentioned in the present study in the category Characterizing the social networks that provide support in home care , there is no consensus in the literature about the main types. However, this might not be the only reason, considering that in different studies 12 , 20 with elderly as subjects, it was also possible to note the disparity in the types of function of the cited support.
Thus, cultural, economic, geographical, educational, within other factors can influence this characterization However, in the present study, the analysis of those factors was not conducted; a reason to suggest new similar studies, but with populations with different characteristics, to verify the presented phenomenon and rectify or complement the proposed theoretical model.
The motivations to be social support in HC presented in the category Understanding it as part of the social network that provides support in home care are frequently discussed in the literature 20 - The obligation can be perceived as a motivation, people give support because of an obedience condition to norms and social values 20 - There are also positive motivations, as love, affection, devotion or acknowledgement 21 - Independently of the motivation, especially for that person who assume more caring load at home, the generation of overload is recognized 21 , In this study, this ambiguity is perceived beyond the members of the informal social networks, afflicting specially members of secondary networks, as the health professionals.
This happen because those subjects, besides acting in the HC, they suffer interference by the caring they provide.
The small search for social support demonstrated a passivity of the population in the search for ways to promote wellbeing. The participation of people in the search for available social resources is believed to influence directly the reach of supports Similarly to this study, authors 29 observed the population deficit in searching for assistance, identifying within the reasons for it, the illness stigma, problems with alcoholism and tobacco, but ended recognizing the difficulty to understand the reason for the small search.
About the category Perceiving changes coming from health care it is important to consider the changes from the need of HC affects the entire social network. However, the primary influence is highlighted more specifically, the responsible caregiver 21 , 23 , This influence is related to diverse factors and reaches varied dimensions of the caregiver life, which gives exposure to physical, emotional, personal and social risks 21 , 23 , 26 - Thus, the caregiver can have the sensation of lacking autonomy upon his life and prioritize the care for the other in detriment of himself 21 , 23 , In this context, it becomes imperious that nurses direct their sight to caregivers, understanding them as subjects that specially in HC, need support Those professionals need to recognize the home complexity as caring environment and the influences brought to the lives of all involved people.
Social networks are believed to be able to minimize the difficulties of those caregivers and even stop the physical and mental illness of being support in HC 26 , besides the representation of those as a factor of influence for the satisfaction of needs from the home cared patients Thus, nurses are expected to recognize the influence and possibilities that social networks support can offer to perform HC and for the reach and maintenance of patients health and from other involved people. The presented findings reinforce the understanding of social networks as potential for HC, as attending the necessity of support for subjects involved in this context.
With the theoretical model construction, it was possible to recognize how the relationships happen within the social network that gives support to HC and consequently, it is expected to give instruments for nurses to act in this care environment, using the social network support as facilitator. More research is suggested in the same topic, with similar methodology, in regions with diverse population characteristics, to complement or rectify the proposed theoretical model.
It is also considered that with the proposal it would be viable to verify the direct influence of factors that characterize the population, as geographical, economic, educational, within others, in the experience of social network support of those involved in HC. The reflection about how the citizen conscience is being built is needed. In most diverse situations, people seek too little the options of available support in the society, presenting a passive posture in front of found barriers.
It is perceived that populations wait for solution of their health and social problems to be solved by formal bodies, without committing to solve them. The responsibility for the population needs should be shared.
The government and formal bodies cannot be relieved from their responsibility of existing social needs. However, each one, individually and collectively should have a citizen conscience and adequate attitudes to reach their rights.
At last, it is important to note especially in HC, the caregiver should be understood and attended as subject of nursing actions, considering this environment presenting more than one work object for nurses, due to alterations coming from HC, which affect different involved people in the home context. This way, it is recommended for this professional to be stimulated to amplify the care given at home, trying to understand the nuances of this environment, guiding the ones involved to activate their social network, to participate in support groups and to find material resources and social company to support them.
Rehabilitation in home care is associated with functional improvement and preferred discharge. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. The kinds of home health care and the practice of health professionals: However, while these more formal, technical approaches at improving education are important and have been well documented, what appears to be missing in the change equation, and much of the literature, is attention to the relational linkages between actors through which reform flows.
Social resources such as knowledge, information, and expertise are exchanged through informal networks of relations between actors in a system.
Change, therefore, does not result solely through technical plans and blueprints, but through the interaction of participants as these change processes emerge and are maintained through interpersonal relationships.
It is the interdependence of relational ties that may ultimately moderate, influence, and even determine the direction, speed, and depth of a change. Therefore, examining the quality of relationships between and among actors is important in understanding how the flow of resources within a system may support or constrain efforts at change.
This unique volume provides theoretical, methodological, empirical, and applied studies from across the globe foregrounding the examination of relationships within, among, and between educational actors. Through a collection of chapters by leading international scholars, readers will be provided with a diverse set of studies grounded in social capital and social network theory that examine and explore social networks in education from a number of vantage points. Empirical Grounding In this section the empirical basis upon which the book is grounded is presented.
One of the basic conceptual foundations in understanding social networks is the concept of social capital. A number of theorists have written on social capital; each foregrounding a different aspect of the concept and offering nuanced understanding of the idea see, for example, Bourdieu, ; Burt, ; Coleman, ; Lin, ; Putnam, Lin notes that the common denominator between all major theorists includes the understanding that social capital consists of: Social capital can be operationalized as the resources embedded in social systems, as well as accessed and used by actors for action Lin, It is the quality of those ties between individuals in a social system that creates a structure that ultimately determines opportunities for social capital transactions and access to resources Burt, ; Coleman, , ; Granovetter, , ; Lin, ; Putnam, ; The balance of scholarship suggests the necessity to better understand of the interconnected networks of relations that may facilitate or inhibit the exchange of resources.
Recent social network inquiries in the field of education have covered a wide range of topics including: These scholars, many of whom are represented in this text, are conducting leading edge research in social network methods and application in education and provide insight into how social ties may support or constrain efforts at change in a variety of contexts at different systemic levels.
Content Overview The book begins with a prologue that includes two introductory chapters. The first chapter provides the development and evolution of social network theory and its connection to the social sciences. The second chapter in the prologue connects the larger field of social capital and social network theory to education and suggests the importance of foregrounding relational linkages in the examination of educational systems.
In addition, a brief overview of the main sections is offered as an orientation to the text and upcoming chapters. Part one focuses on the relationship between policy, reform and social networks and teachers.
Within these chapters the authors explore how policy and reform are understood, negotiated, and enacted within the social networks of educators.
The first chapter examines how school district policy is taken up, modified, and in some cases discarded through the social networks within eight urban elementary schools in the US.
The second chapter analyzes how a series of systemic reform efforts targeting high schools is diffused through the informal social networks upon which the change is layered. These chapters are particularly important given the number of reforms and efforts at change that are underway in most schools and districts across the globe.
These chapters examine the critical area of teacher learning and knowledge exchange between and among teachers in a variety of settings including urban schools in the United States, a school district in the Netherlands, and a longitudinal study of multiple schools. Issues of support, trust, and innovation are explored as teachers engage in the complex task of educating students and working together. In addition, these chapters examine how the informal social networks of teachers and coaches can both support and constrain the development of instructional strategies, assessment, and articulation of curriculum.
Better understanding the interactions of teachers within school and district settings is critical in improving educational outcomes and the empirical work in this section provides both insights and recommendations to improve the networks of teachers. Part two provides an examination of leadership and social networks.