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The 'Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana', an ambitious financial inclusion scheme under which the government intends to provide every household with a bank account and insurance cover, was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Thursday. The scheme, about which Modi made the announcement in his Independence Day speech, was launched across the country simultaneously amid his emphasis that it lies at the core of "our development philosophy of 'Sabka Sath Sabka Vikas'". As a first step, under the scheme, every account holder will get a 'RuPay' debit card with Rs 30, life insurance besides accidental insurance of up to Rs 1 lakh. Speaking at the launch, Modi said, "This is a record breaking occasion for both insurance companies and banks, to have got 1. Modi went on to say that a bank account for every household will help boost growth and fight poverty effectively. Earlier, Modi, who has sent an email to all bank officers, said bank account for each household is a "national priority" and they should try their best to ensure that no one is left without a bank account.
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Most meditation programs aimed to enhance athletic performance have a one-size-fits-all design and assume that athletes benefit from the intervention more or less the same way and to more or less the same degree irrespective of the skills type of the sport they are practicing. We propose that the efficiency of meditation-enhancing interventions will depend on the technical demands of the perpetrated sport.
Accordingly, only enhancing programs that are tailored to skills, individual abilities, and needs are more likely to succeed.
Indeed, applying meditation effectively to sports necessitates an understanding of their technical demands.
A broad range of sports are classified according to the skills and technical competencies they require e. In closed-skills sports i. The object to be acted on does not change during the performance of the skill. In this kind of sports, performance is self-paced, that is, a responsive movement behavior is not needed. Time pressure is not interfering with performance.
These sports typically are based on serial processing which requires sustained attention and where the sport performance takes place in a pre-determined sequence. Interestingly, it has been recently shown that the stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the same area impacted by FAM Hasenkamp et al. In contrast to closed-skills sports, in open-skills sports e.
Here, the performer must act according to the action of the object or the changing characteristics of the environment. Time pressure may perturb performance.
These sports typically are based on parallel processing which requires flexible attention and the ability to perform multiple actions at the same time. Notably, it has been found that theta activity to be increased during meditation, primarily during OMM for review, see Travis and Shear The same theta oscillation is involved in motor control.
Recently, it was revealed that event-related synchronization in the theta band takes place in the contralateral motor area during the onset of fast ballistic movements Ofori et al.
Furthermore, theta oscillation was phase-locked with the onset of the movement and the theta power correlated with movement acceleration Ofori et al. In sum, because FAM and OMM support serial and parallel processing respectively, we expect them to be applied successfully in sports that mirror the kind of mental processes sustained by them. Relation to Previous Models Within the default-interventionist framework, Evans and Stanovich introduced the idea of two distinct types of processing: automatic vs.
Type 1 processes are autonomous both started and finished in the presence of relevant triggering conditions and they do not involve working memory. On the other hand, type 2 processes are controlled and necessitate working memory because they entail hypothetical thinking and mental simulation Evans and Stanovich The validity of default-interventionist framework applied to the field of sport has been recently presented by Furley et al.
For example, the movement behavior of archers or shooters depends on type 1, but not type 2 processing. In contrast, executing open skills in game sports or combat sports could be prototypical examples for type 2 processing. Conclusion We conclude that successful meditation-based intervention on athletic performance requires a theoretically guided selection of the best-suited exercises and techniques specific to certain types of sports. Such theoretically guided selection will allow for the development of personalized, individually tailored meditation training programs.
Not only will these meditation programs be more effective but they also will be much more motivating for athletes as unnecessary failures due to sport-skills mismatches can be avoided and more cost-efficient. This in turn will make the implementation of such interventions more likely even in times of sparse budgets. Even though it seems plausible that different meditation types will be a future way to enhance mental performance in sport, it is important to acknowledge that extensive research is needed to verify our claims that FAM might enhance performance in closed-skills sports, whereas OMM might promote performance in open-skills sports.
Although more research is needed to fully understand the direct effects of different types of meditation on enhancing athletic performance, we propose that only taking into account the technical demands of the different kind of sports will allow us to design individualized meditation interventions.
References Bernier, M. Mindfulness and acceptance approaches in sport performance. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 25 4 , — Proficient brain for optimal performance: the MAP model perspective.
PeerJ, 4, e Mindfulness to enhance athletic performance: theoretical considerations and possible impact mechanisms.
Mindfulness, 3 3 , — Striving for excellence: a multi-action plan intervention model for shooters. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13 5 , — Neural correlates of attentional expertise in long-term meditation practitioners. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 27 , — Meditation alters perceptual rivalry in Tibetan Buddhist monks. Current Biology, 15 11 , R—R Effects of level of meditation experience on attentional focus: is the efficiency of executive or orientation networks improved?
The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 13, — Meditate to create: the impact of focused-attention and open-monitoring training on convergent and divergent thinking.
Frontiers in Psychology, 3 , 1—5. Google Scholar Colzato, L. Meditation-induced states predict attentional control over time.
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