Intonation in English and Telugu Proverbs - Free download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. In this paper, an analysis of. Telugu Proverbs - Great application with a comprehensive list of commonly used Telugu Proverbs for any occasion. Data is categorized by starting letters for. A Collection of Telugu Proverbs translated, illustrated and , Volume 1. By M. W. Carr. About this book. Terms of Service · Plain text · PDF.
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Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the public and we . HE collection of Telugu Proverbs contained in this volume was. commenced several years ago, at the request of the translator, by. Ravipati Guruvayya Garu, the. Sametalu (Proverbs in Telugu). Managing Editor: GRK Murty. Senior Consultant: M Hanumantha Rao. Consulting Editor: SS Prabhakar Rao. Associate Editor: G.
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In this paper, an attempt will be made to show with a few examples how the mood of the speaker and not the form of the utterance is responsible for the choice of the intonation pattern and further how an intonation pattern might have been formed from the svabhavam of the speakers in the formative stages of the concerned language.
In it, there is an extensive treatment of the anatomy of English intonation that consists of seven basic tunes and ten tone groups. In addition, a detailed examination of how different moods are expressed by different tone groups is also made in this important work on English intonation.
However, proverbs are not treated in this book. In Telugu, Lisker is the only extensive work available on Telugu intonation even though it is not mood-oriented in its treatment. A formal analysis of the Telugu intonation patterns is offered in the section on intonation ibid. Furthermore, many examples of spoken Telugu are offered in 30 lessons. Sastry, Murthy, is another work on conversational Telugu dealing with conversation in Telugu.
Venkateswarlu is another major work on Telugu grammar in which intonation is discussed in some length. However, in all these works intonation in proverbs is not taken up for discussion. A formal Linguistic Analysis of Intonational Structure. A dispositional Linguistic Analysis of Attitude in Intonation. In the analysis of intonational structure, we will know how intonation is patterned in a language. For example, in English, we can identity ten tone groups giving us: 1.
The Low Drop; 2. The High Drop; 3. The Take-off; 4. The Low Bounce; 5. The Switch Back; 6. The Long Jump; 7. The High Bounce; 8. The Jack Knife; 9. The High Dive and In a similar way, in the case of Telugu, we can identify 5 tone groups giving us: 1. The Period Pattern; 2. The Steeply Rising Pitch Pattern; 4. The Comma Pattern as described by Lisker XX: XXVI In the analysis of attitude, we will know how each intonation pattern a language has in its system will embody an attitude and convey the same in a context of its usage.
For example, the Low Drop Intonation Pattern with no head conveys different shades of attitude. In statements, it conveys a detached, cool, dispassionate, reserved, dull, possibly grim or surly attitude; in wh — question who, what, why, where etc.
Again, the same low drop Intonation Pattern with a high head carries a different set of attitudes. Let us now see how intonation—attitude pattern is related to the grammatical structure of the utterance with next section. But it is not so in English. The Take-off; 4. The Low Bounce; 5. The Switch Back; 6.
The Long Jump; 7.
The High Bounce; 8. The Jack Knife; 9. The High Dive and In a similar way, in the case of Telugu, we can identify 5 tone groups giving us: The Period Pattern; 2. The Steeply Rising Pitch Pattern; 4. The Comma Pattern as described by Lisker In the analysis of attitude, we will know how each intonation pattern a language has in its system will embody an attitude and convey the same in a context of its usage. In statements, it conveys a detached, cool, dispassionate, reserved, dull, possibly grim or surly attitude; in wh — question who, what, why, where etc.
Again, the same low drop Intonation Pattern with a high head carries a different set of attitudes. Let us now see how intonation—attitude pattern is related to the grammatical structure of the utterance with next section. But it is not so in English. For example, the same syntactic unit can be said in any of the 10 tone groups conveying different attitudes. There is a serious implication in this pattern of organization of English intonation — it is an implication which points out to the supremacy of attitude disposition.
Therefore, there is already concrete evidence in the manner in which attitude is conveyed — by a relationship of intonation — attitude with the grammatical structure of the utterance — for a dispositional linguistic view of intonation and so language.
Therefore, a formal linguistic interpretation of language without incorporating the component of disposition is incomplete. In the case of proverbs and proverbial conversation, the same thing also applies.
For example, in the following real life conversation, a proverb is used in a Low Drop Intonation Pattern: It is good that we have come this way. Every cloud has a silver living. Oh, you used a proverb. Because of you.
The auto rickshaw driver missed the way for the Golconda Fort and took another way which passes along the famous Kutub Shahi tombs. B is a tourist and he did not visit the Kutub Shahi tombs and therefore A was prompted to say that sentence even though he was a bit apologetic. Had the speaker felt otherwise, he might have used another intonation pattern to express another attitude. For example, The High Drop Intonation Pattern to convey a sense of lightness, or airiness; or The Take-off Intonation Pattern to express resentfulness or deprecation for not taking him properly and wasting his money for the transport.
Incidentally, this conversation offers another piece of concrete evidence in black and white to show how the structure of conversation is also impacted by disposition. In Telugu also, a similar process is observed.
People use proverbs in conversation according to their attitude, at the moment of speaking, to the situation in which he is placed.
The following example from real illustrates the same point of view in Telugu also. Varanasi is Banaras, a holy city in India which is far from Andhra Pradesh, more than kilometers.
The proverb means that: In the olden days, people used to go on a pilgrimage to Banaras. It used to be a very long and tedious journey.
So, when someone, who has just started the journey, asked this question, he was ridiculed. Such instances were observed and that social praxis eventually became encapsulated into a proverb.
B could have co-operated and given the date of the festival since she has an idea about it. I pronounce it as follows:.
The stress on lining is optional. Sometimes, the High Full can be placed on lining instead of silver and silver can be given a stress. So far we have seen how disposition plays a crucial role in the choice of an intonation pattern. But that is not enough to say that disposition is the cause of intonation. We must also be in a position to motivate the structuration of an intonation system in a language and its systematic contextualization or embodiment with a corresponding attitude or emotion.
If we carefully observe these seven tunes, we see that they are actually only three with modifications. If we draw a horizontal line and consider it as the mid — level, then the pitch above the line becomes high and the one below as follows:. In our discussion of phonotactic changes in Bhuvaneswar a and phonological figures of speech in Bhuvaneswar b , we have considered all expansion as due to rajasik disposition and contraction as due to tamasik disposition and the equilibrium level as due to sattvik disposition.
Applying the same criteria, we get the Mid—Level Tune as due to sattvik disposition; all tunes accompanied by a rising voice as due to rajasik disposition; and all other tunes accompanied by a falling voice as due to tamasik disposition. Furthermore, a Rise — Fall will be a rajasik — tamasik tune and a Fall — Rise will be a tamasik — rajasik tune. Surprisingly English intonation fits in very neatly into the dispositional spectrum or framework.
Further more simple tunes can be considered sattvik and compound ones rajasik and they can be further divided according to the dominant dispositional quality. Applying this framework, the ten tone groups can be divided as follows;.
This is how we can account for the formation of English tone groups as they are formed according to the principles of creativity, dispositionality and productive principality. Let us now see how these tone groups embody the attitudes that the speakers express. Taking all the ten tone groups into consideration; we can make a general review of the attitudes embodied in them and see how svabhavam is embodied in the tone groups.
A summery of the attitudes and emotions conveyed by each tone group leads to interesting observations about the tone groups embodied the attitudes. Group 1: As we have already noted tamas is contraction and all of them can be neatly fitted into this aspect of disposition.
With a High Head, the low drop acquires more intensity and both approval and disapproval and enthusiasm and impatience as shown in the following attitudes:. Categoric, considered, judicial, searching 2: Weighty, intense, serious 3: However, urgency and pondering are more of rajasik nature than tamasik nature. Therefore, in these two cases there is a slight variation.
Probably, the urgency meant here is not related to speed but to hastiness or quickly doing things without proper consideration. In a similar way also about pondering with a tendency towards dullness.
So these attitudes can be grouped into tamasik — rajasik disposition. In a similar way, interjections with a head can be tamasik — rajasik since the power of interjection is at its highest. On the other hand, interjections without head express genuine, though unexcited gratitude and can be tamasik — sattvik. The evaluation made above is only a first approximation and a detailed classification can be made considering all the tone groups together and arriving at generalizations.
The interesting thing about such an analysis is that we can motivate the choices qualitatively, if not quantitatively as discussed in Bhuvaneswar a — owing to the non-linear dynamics of human behaviour. It is not surprising to see a systematic correspondence between the tamasik quality of the tone group and the attitude.
It need not be so systematic as obtained in the case of the Low Drop. Such variations when they come about are not a problem to Karmik Linguistic Theory because language is a product of human beings and human beings according to their own dispositional quality perform action. As the workman, so is the work!
A muddled man can only produce muddled actions as long as he is in that muddled state! In the case of Telugu intonation patterns, no such detailed studies of the correspondence between intonation and attitude and intonation—syntactic structure—attitude are available so far, to my knowledge. Unless such detailed studies are available, it is premature to make generalizations.
A few examples for unmarked intonation patterns in English and Telugu are given below. In Bhuvaneswar c, d, e, f, g, h, i the syntax of English and Telugu proverbs has been extensively studied.
Representative samples which are formed in British and American English can be taken from them for mapping intonation-attitude patterns on to them. Such an analysis is beyond the scope of the present work in view of the constraints of space and time.
The High Drop a. The Take-Off a. The Low Bounce a.
The Switchback. Period Pattern. Lisker XXI calls it Period Pattern which he indicates by a full stop. Falling or Abruptly Terminated Pitch or Wall Sliding Pattern In this pattern, the pitch starts from the high level and falls to the lowest level like a boy sliding down the wall.
I call it the Wall sliding Pattern for easy understanding. It is represented by a straight line in the following figure:. Both the Wave Pattern and Wall sliding pattern are represented in the following proverbs: Where is Nagalokam the land of the celestial Nagas? In this intonation pattern, the pitch starts from below or at the middle level and gradually rises as in plateau.
Vighneswaradu on devotion? It starts at the mid-level or slightly below that and reaches the high level. Hanuman before hopping? The rise may be slight and accompanied by prolongation of the syllable just before the pause; the rise may be sharp with no observable pause following it; the rise may be sharp and followed by a fall in pitch and a relatively long pause. It is a level pattern in which there is no rise or fall. I call it the plain pattern for mnemonicity. The pitch is slightly above the mid level and is maintained till the end without any variation.
If these word groups as lexis and syntax and semantics are also fashioned out of svabhavam and dispositional functionally embody svabhavam in their respective domains, then we can say that the formal structuration of language is used as a resource for the construction of dispositional reality. So also in Bhuvaneswar e , it is shown that syntax also is fashioned out and dispositional functionally used to embody meaning as knowledge of action.
Finally, the same process is observed in Bhuvaneswar f, g, h, i , in semantics also].