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Open licensing is built within the existing framework of intellectual property rights as defined by relevant international conventions and respects the authorship of the work". Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge. The new definition explicitly states that OER can include both digital and non-digital resources. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD defines OER as: "digitised materials offered freely and openly for educators, students, and self-learners to use and reuse for teaching, learning, and research. OER includes learning content, software tools to develop, use, and distribute content, and implementation resources such as open licences". By way of comparison, the Commonwealth of Learning "has adopted the widest definition of Open Educational Resources OER as 'materials offered freely and openly to use and adapt for teaching, learning, development and research'".
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Notre Dame Events gathers and disseminates events that are happening on the Notre Dame campus. Find Secondhand Furniture in Halstead, Sevenoaks,. Facebook gives people the power to share and makes. Notre Dame hosts annual Old2Gold sale;. One of the largest community colleges in the nation, NOVA serves around 75, students across six campuses.
During the planning phase, the team was careful to select core, high-enrollment courses that could impact as many students as possible, regardless of specific course of study. At the same time, the team looked beyond individual courses to create depth and quality around full pathways for students to earn an entire degree.
From Fall to Fall , more than 15, students had enrolled in NOVA OER courses yielding textbook cost savings of over 2 million dollars over the three-year period . Nordic OER is a Nordic network to promote open education and collaboration amongst stakeholders in all educational sectors. The network has members from all Nordic countries and facilitates discourse and dialogue on open education but also participates in projects and development programs.
In addition to being a compilation of open educational resources, NDLA provides a range of other online tools for sharing and cooperation. At project startup in , increased volume and diversity were seen as significant conditions for the introduction of free learning material in upper secondary education.
There are many questions to be dealt with in this area; for universities, academic management and teaching staff. Teachers in all educational sectors require support and guidance to be able to use OER pedagogically and with quality in focus. Valuable teacher time should be used for contextual work and not simply for the creation of content. The aim of the project OER for learning OERSweden is to stimulate an open discussion about collaboration in infrastructural questions regarding open online knowledge sharing.
A network of ten universities led by Karlstad University will arrange a series of open webinars during the project period focusing on the use and production of open educational resources.
A virtual platform for Swedish OER initiatives and resources will also be developed.
The project intends to focus in particular on how OER affects teacher trainers and decision makers. The objectives of the project are: To increase the level of national collaboration between universities and educational organisations in the use and production of OER, To find effective online methods to support teachers and students, in terms of quality, technology and retrievability of OER, To raise awareness for the potential of webinars as a tool for open online learning, To increase the level of collaboration between universities' support functions and foster national resource sharing, with a base in modern library and educational technology units, and To contribute to the creation of a national university structure for tagging, distribution and storage of OER.
Founded in , the CK Foundation is a California-based non-profit organization whose stated mission is to reduce the cost of, and increase access to, K education in the United States and worldwide.
The foundation's tools are used by 38, schools in the US, and additional international schools. This initiative encourages and supports local professors and authors to contribute with individual sections or chapters that could be assembled into customized books by the whole community.
The created books are freely available to the students in an electronic format or could be legally printed at low cost because there is no license or fees to be paid for their distribution, since all they are released as OER with a Creative Commons CC-BY-SA license. This solution also contributes to the creation of customized textbooks where each professor could select the sections appropriate for their courses or could freely adapt existing sections to their needs.
Also, the local professors will be the sink and source of the knowledge, contextualized to the Latin American Higher Education system. The first version of the website was launched in March  and the website is continuously developing. In March , Eliademy. The platform expects to collect courses during the first year that can be reused by teachers worldwide.
Results of these projects have been used to inform research into how to support K educator OER adoption literacies and the diffusion of open practices. With the idea that many college level courses rely on more than a single textbook to deliver information to students, the OACR is inspired by library courses reserves in that it supplies entire reading lists for typical courses. Faculty can find, create, and share reading lists of open access materials. Today, OER initiatives across the United States rely on individual college and university librarians to curate resources into lists on library content management systems called LibGuides.
International programs[ edit ] High hopes have been voiced for OERs to alleviate the digital divide between the global North and the global South , and to make a contribution to the development of less advanced economies. Currently, more than , learning resources are searchable in one portal based on language, subject, resource type and age range. The textbooks are available online for free.
Arnold Schwarzenegger. The initial selection of OER textbooks in history, economics, geography and social studies was issued in August, There has been significant negative reaction to the materials' inaccuracies, design flaws and confusing distribution. The Shuttleworth Foundation 's Free high school science texts for South Africa  Saudi Arabia had a comprehensive project in to digitize and improve the Math and Science text books in all k grades.
The design of the Global OER logo creates a common global visual idea, representing "subtle and explicit representations of the subjects and goals of OER". Critical discourse about OER as a movement[ edit ] External discourse[ edit ] The OER movement has been accused of insularity and failure to connect globally: "OERs will not be able to help countries reach their educational goals unless awareness of their power and potential can rapidly be expanded beyond the communities of interest that they have already attracted.
The project itself was accused of imperialism because the economic, political, and cultural preferences of highly developed countries determine the creation and dissemination of knowledge that can be used by less-developed countries and may be a self-serving imposition. It seeks to understand in what ways, and under what circumstances can the adoption of OER address the increasing demand for accessible, relevant, high-quality and affordable post-secondary education in the Global South.
Internal discourse[ edit ] Within the open educational resources movement, the concept of OER is active. Stephen Downes has argued that, from a connectivist perspective, the production of OER is ironic because "in the final analysis, we cannot produce knowledge for people.