březen Velký GatsbyVypravěčem románu je Nick Carraway, který přijíždí do Resources portal7.info You currently viewing: About-us >> webpage >> webpage >> webpage > > portal7.info The Great Gatsby. Home · The Great Gatsby Author: Fitzgerald F Scott. 14 downloads The great Gatsby: notes · Read more · The Great Gatsby. Read more.
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The Great Gatsby. Then wear the gold hat, if that will move her;. If you can bounce high, bounce for her too,. Till she cry 'Lover, gold-hatted, high-bouncing lover. My acquaintance with the fashionable white palaces of East Egg began one summer evening when I drove there to have dinner with my distant cousin Daisy . famous American novel written by Francis Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby. The .. The Great Gatsby (published as Velký Gatsby in , in collaboration with Rudolf. Červenka) pdf>.
The abnormal mind is quick to detect and attach itself to this quality when it appears in a normal person, and so it came about that in college I was unjustly accused of being a politician, because I was privy to the secret griefs of wild, unknown men. Most of the confidences were unsought — frequently I have feigned sleep, preoccupation, or a hostile levity when I realized by some unmistakable sign that an intimate revelation was quivering on the horizon; for the intimate revelations of young men, or at least the terms in which they express them, are usually plagiaristic and marred by obvious suppressions. Reserving judgments is a matter of infinite hope. I am still a little afraid of missing something if I forget that, as my father snobbishly suggested, and I snobbishly repeat, a sense of the fundamental decencies is parcelled out unequally at birth. And, after boasting this way of my tolerance, I come to the admission that it has a limit.
Hence, the term 'masculinities' and the concept of an array of several 'masculinities' will be used and applied throughout this thesis. The first point that should be discussed in terms of masculinity is the differentiation between biology and culture.
If we draw on the general part on gender again, it is self-evident that masculinity is also not a 'presocial category' or a 'biological fact' cf.
Masculinity is rather to be seen as something that originates in a particular society at a particular point in time. These sets of ideas and demands can originate from different sources, as mentioned in the introduction, when Beynon's key factors of what constitutes masculinity in a culture were indicated.
The next point that suggests itself is the historical variability of masculinity.
As Beynon notes, what have attained the status of 'facts' underpinning the 'true' nature of masculinity and, of course, femininity are really sociohistorical and cultural constructions. For example, as a result of the division of labour occasioned by the Industrial Revolution that is, men into the factories, most women consigned to the home and the resulting patriarchy based on men's economic superiority , the idea that men were innately practical, rational and competitive, unlike women, was 'naturalized'.
On the one hand, masculinity changes around an individual cf. So, whereas typical masculine characteristics in the 19th century would have been, for example, righteous behavior, physical prowess, strength, fitness, lack of laziness, courage, attitude of saving, wisdom, being reserved, and not showing emotions, a change could be witnessed as to, for example, typical forms of masculinity in the s.
Those tended to be, for instance, being a house-husband, showing traits that could be subsumed under the term hippy-masculinity, as well as adolescence styles, and hyper-masculinity. These two eras definitely show a change in masculinity over time. On the other hand, Beynon continues, masculinity changes for a respective individual as they age cf. So individuals could be seen as availing themselves of different forms of masculinity when they are in elementary school age, as opposed to when they reach puberty, or retire.
As Roper and Tosh argue, and as these examples show, masculinity cannot be treated ahistorically, but rather has to be contextualized historically.
It has to be studied and looked at in view of political, cultural, economic, and social circumstances cited in Morgan If one considers the positioning of masculinity in time not in the sense of a 'change over the course of many years', but in the sense of a 'change of masculinity on a general timeline', then in fact, even a third level of masculinity in time can be added. If one recognizes the changing of masculinity 'around an individual' and 'as they age' as variation on a macro level, then the contextual changing of masculinity from situation to situation can be considered as variation on a micro level.
This point will be the subject matter of the next paragraph. When it comes to understanding masculinity, the question seems to be fairly often what men are. The question, according to Morgan, should, however, be posed differently. So, as mentioned in the general subchapter on gender already, performance also plays a vital role when it comes to masculinity. Consequently, while Butler lays her focus on female gender performance, performativity theories can also be applied to masculinity and allow us to theorize how men perform 'masculinity'.
Herrmann and Erhart see masculinity, just as femininity, as 'masquerade', 'permanently enacted', and 'staged' cf. Here the phrase 'doing gender' also comes into play.
As mentioned in the introduction, masculinity can also be part of the construction of femininity.
Masculinity is not always and necessarily about men cf. Sedgwick in Beynon 8. It can be argued that women, even to the same degree as men, are consumers of masculinities, and are also producers and performers of masculinities cf.
Sedgwick in Gardiner It is therefore useful to view masculinities as, what Beynon calls, 'cultural space'.
This space can then be inhabited by or assigned to men and women, no matter if permanently or temporarily cf. Beynon 7. However, women can not only produce their own forms of masculinity, they also play a vital part in constructing and shaping masculinities for other individuals, in this case, men.
This becomes clear in Pyke's statement in which she sees literature on masculinities as rather focusing on the construction of subordinated or hegemonic masculinities specifically among men.
She argues that masculinities are not only constructed among men but also in relation with women cf. Pyke Even though women performing masculinities will not be part of the upcoming analysis, women's role in shaping masculinities regarding the male protagonists in The Great Gatsby will play quite a significant role.
Another cornerstone of masculinities studies is the 'male body'. Bodies in general are seen as central when it comes to achieving social recognition and being or rather performing as appropriately gendered beings cf. Gerschick Gerschick also notes that one's body can also be seen as 'social currency'.
This currency signifies a particular individual's worth, which makes people with less-normative bodies vulnerable. The consequence can be the rejection on a level of social recognition and validation cf. In addition to less-normative bodies being a physical condition, they can also become a social and a stigmatized condition, and even become an individual's 'primary identity' cf. Like notions regarding the composition of and performances of gender, bodies, too, are not fixed but fluid and influenced by 'context-specific gender expectations' cf.
Consequently, a threat is posed to masculinities if the body or certain gender-specific performances are counter the hegemonic expectations cf. Examples would be having a less- normative body as in being excessively small, tall, obese, or skinny in the 'wrong' environment, or being transsexual in a predominantly heterosexual culture.
How these hegemonic expectations come about, as well as how hegemonic masculinity works and is established will be dealt with in the following subchapter. This might be due to the terms' vague nature. Hence, Connell developed the concept she coined 'hegemonic masculinity'.
Her concept, too, is based on the assumption that there is not only one but a vast range of different masculinities. Consequently, in addition to the most honored, dominant form s of masculinity, there are also subordinated and marginalized forms. These differently valued masculinities are in constant interaction cf. So, again, it can be established that hegemonic masculinity is produced in connection with factors such as 'geographical location', 'time period', and 'cultural surroundings' cf.
At this point it also needs to be mentioned that the concept of 'hegemonic masculinity' is not based on social reproduction. It rather needs to be perceived as a social struggles in which dominant forms of masculinity are influenced by subordinated ones cf. Connell and Messerschmidt So in order for a certain form of masculinity to become and stay hegemonic, various hegemonic representations have to win ideological consent.
It then follows that alternative constructions of masculinity are either 'absorbed', 'beaten down', or 'ridiculed' cf. Beynon Thereby, ascendency of a certain group of individuals can either happen forcefully for example by physical force or threatening to lay off workers , which would not be hegemonic.
Or it can happen beyond coercive means, by way of 'mass media', 'wage structure', 'religion', 'housing design', 'taxation policies', etc. In terms of hegemonic masculinity, then, people of a certain society are able to successfully live up to the dominant form, or rather successfully enact it, to the degree by which they approximate the current cultural ideal.
Exalted masculine attributes, according to sociologists, and regarding Western culture or society, can be 'activeness', 'career orientation', 'sexual desirability and virility', 'athleticism', 'self-reliance', and 'independence' cf. With 'physical force and control', 'occupational achievement', 'familial patriarchy', 'frontiersmanship', and 'heterosexuality', Foss introduces five features of hegemonic masculinity in American culture cf.
These features will also be scrutinized in connection with the characters of The Great Gatsby as part of the analysis. The attributes listed already suggest that there are not many individuals who actually conform to these ideals.
However, a vital fact, which will be further elaborated on later, is that the majority still benefits from hegemonic forms of masculinity, since they reinforce the patriarchal divide cf. Hobbs 3. Even though the concept of 'hegemonic masculinity' seems to be widely accepted and applied, it has in fact been criticized. For example, the 'trait approach' masculinity as an assemblage of traits was criticized and thus rejected cf. Among others, their view of the 'dynamics of masculinities' was critiqued and consequently reformulated from then on: masculinities as 'configurations of practice', constructed, unfolding, and changing through time cf.
Although, while Connell and Messerschmidt reacted to the criticism voiced regarding some points, which resulted in rejections and changes, they also defended some of the concept's features.
In the end, they are still convinced that 'hegemonic masculinity', until it is not replaced by a different concept, continues to be a useful tool when it comes to understanding gender relations cf. Hobbs 4. This is also the reason why its application will make for a reasonable and effective choice in the upcoming analysis.
The next chapter will deal with several definitions and understandings of class. Furthermore, examples of how class works will be given and elaborated on. The last part of the chapter will address and explain the basic class-structure which will be implemented in the analysis chapter.
Class In order to be able to connect class and masculinity, or even see masculinity through class glasses, the concept 'class' has to be defined first.
A historical overview can be provided by starting with the definition of class by Marx, Engels, and Weber. For them, classes were defined in terms of ownership and productive wealth.
Most of all, I simply enjoy the book because it does not portend a greater significance eighty years later. It is a classic tale that provides vibrancy and texture to a bygone era. It is well worth re-reading, especially at such a bargain price.
Scott Fitzgerald, a monumental talent who only occasionally got things working right, made Gatsby great by the extraordinary invention of Nick Carraway.
Carraway as narrator provided the exact perfect pitch: more awestruck than he would admit, more moral than it was fashionable to reveal -- always objective and distanced and subtle and charming, genuinely decent and impeccably well mannered, a little dangerously smitten himself by the lovely but corrupt Jordan Baker. Alexander Scourby, one of the greatest reading voices of his era overlapping Fitzgerald's enough to know and feel it all here does Carraway in a way that cannot, therefore, again be quite equalled.
Imagine having a recording of a great contemporary actor reading Ahab's speeches in Moby Dick, and one begins to appreciate the gift that we only now have in recorded sound, something we are already quite casual about. But there is much more here than historical accuracy. Scourby's voice wraps around every phrase of Fitzgeral's text with both an actor's professionalism and a good reader's care, making it not only uncannily his own monument but also a monument in audio book history.
It sets the bar, and anyone interested in the recorded voice as an art form should own this for repeated learning. I listened to this book over a few nights with my wife, after having read it first some sixteen years ago. It is a masterpiece, and known widely as such, but what surprised me on hearing it was how the book I'd remembered as terribly romantic was actually rather clear-eyed and dark.
My wife, who had never read it, listened spell-bound, and at the end burst into tears at the sadness of it. A word about Scourby as reader - he is restrained but emotional, captures the personality of each character with a slightly different tone, and - most importantly for me - brings out the fact that the closing pages, which are often quoted out of context as deeply romantic, are in fact painfully cynical, a voice of disenchantment about the cost of America, not its promise.
A masterpiece on the page and on tape. Can't recommend it too highly. The first time I encountered "The Great Gatsby" it was as an assignment in a high school English class. My recent re-read occurred after my son had read it in his high school English class. The reread brought back memories of a form of academic study from which I have been separated for many years.
In this short book the reader can detect a collection of symbolic details which make the story much more than the tale which appears on the surface: the ash heap, as a symbol of the waste of American society; the green light on Daisy's dock, which means so much to Gatsby as a symbol, until he again meets Daisy, when it again becomes, for Gatsby, as for everyone else, just a light.
The characters all play their roles in the development of the story. Shallow figures fill Gatsby's parties, but show their true level of concern for him when they all absent themselves from his funeral.
The class distinctions between Daisy, a true upper class maiden, who can never lower herself to accept Gatsby, the aspirant to a class rank which wealth and parties cannot download. Gatsby's source of wealth is hinted at by his association with Meyer Wolfsheim, the gambler who fixed the World Series. Like others, he will associate with Gatsby in life, but has no time for him in death.
The unnatural core of Gatsby's world is illustrated by his act of moving east, rather than the traditional westward migration, in order to achieve freedom and advancement. Tom and Daisy Buchanan represent old money, which will not accept Gatsby and, in the end, destroys him.
Nick Carraway is the one character in the book who develops his own moral sense. His role as narrator permits us to see Gatsby's world through his eyes. It is he who sees, and is repelled by, the rotten cores of Gatsby and the worlds in which lives and into which he aspires.
He sees the corruption deep inside Tom and Daisy Buchanan. Most of all, we see the innate goodness in Tom. Observing, but not entering Gatsby's world, he is able to understand and judge it.
His final evaluation of Gatsby's world is seen when he abandons it all to return to his native Midwest. The causal acceptance of infidelity seems at odds with what I have always viewed as the ideal as well as the reality.
As one studies the commentaries of this book, with all of its symbolisms, I often wonder if the symbols were really in F. Scott Fitzgerald's mind as he wrote the book, or whether they are constructs of later commentators. Either way, they give the book a depth which so many others lack.
When my son speaks of other books he reads in English class, he always says "It's no Great Gatsby. I have always looked forward to reading the classic book The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald. When I finally had time to read it, I wasn't disappointed.
The Great Gatsby, written in , is a fictional tale that takes place during the American Jazz Age. The story is set in the eastern U. Nick becomes involved in the social scene is West Egg, which is mainly centered on the weekly extravagant parties thrown by the incredibly wealthy and strangely mysterious Jay Gatsby.
As the book progresses, Gatsby's past is slowly unraveled. Nick witnesses Gatsby's gradual admittance of his significant secret. He discovers that Gatsby is deeply in love with Daisy Buchanan, a beautiful socialite, trapped in a miserable marriage to an unfaithful husband.
Though Nick does not want to be involved in any way with the illicit love affair between Daisy and Gatsby, he is gradually takes a larger part in Gatsby and Daisy's dangerous romance. When Jay and Daisy decide to declare their love to one another, it leaves Gatsby in an unforgettable and risky situation that changes the lives of all involved. The Great Gatsby was one of the most interesting books that I have ever read. It included a beautiful love story, danger, suspense, tales of true devotion and friendship, and a wonderful, thought-provoking commentary on the society in post-World War I America, a time of excess and confusion.
I have learned several lessons from the novel, whether they are about loyalty or remaining true to oneself. I would recommend this book to anyone above the age of thirteen because of some parts of the novel that might be difficult to grasp.
The Great Gatsby is a truly wonderful book, and sure to be enjoyed by many for many years to come. This is a marvelous look into the green-eyed monster of sexual jealousy.
It's ripe with symbolic imagery from Fitzgerald's personal agony over his wife adulterous affair. Everyone knows the superficial lit class interpretation of the novel; idealistic Gatsby pursues fortune in vain attempt to dazzle and win golden girl, only to have her reject him.
Conclusion: classic condemnation of the hollowness of upper class materialism. The story is not political. It is personal pure and simple! It would have taken place anytime, any place those two particular personalities came together.
In real life Fitzgerald won his Zelda. But he then promptly and insouciantly cheated on her. She got him back by cheating on him. In his journals Fitzgerald wrote that something died at this time. Shortly afterward the couple moved to Paris. Yes, Wilson is also Fitzgerald, the tortured, jealous part of Fitzgerald who mourns the loss of his wife even as he realizes her for what she is.
Myrtle is the low class floozy that Zelda has become in Fitzgerald's eyes by cuckolding him. Wilson tries to hold on to his wife by locking her up until he can transact a business deal downloading the coupe and thereby have the money to take her "west", something they had long talked about but which he is now going to make her do. Analogously, Fitzgerald sold short stories seeing himself as stooping to low class laborer by writing for commerce instead of art's sake?
Who actually kills Gatsby? The symbol of idealism and optimism Gatsby is killed by the symbol of grief and jealousy Wilson. Fitzgerald was disillusioned by Zelda's adultery not class materialism. Tom, the lout, the woman beater, the snob.