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Download All VU Subjects Complete Handouts in PDF Files By Clicking on Subjects Names. How to download CS VU-Computer Proficiency License Complete Handouts Lecture no.1 to 45 MCM - Mass Media in Pakistan. STA – Statistics and Probability. Virtual University of Pakistan iii. Box and Whisker Plot. Pearson's Coefficient of Skewness. LECTURE NO. Bowley's. Welcome to Virtual University of Pakistan”. The thing between the double quotes (“ ”) is known as character string. In C programming character strings are written.
Assessment Management However, there was an even larger problem looming in the background. This was the negative perception associated with distance education DE , in general. The feasibility study had indicated that the public, in general, and even many academics did not consider education delivered at a distance to be comparable to conventional face-to-face education in terms of quality. The virtual nature of the proposed university compounded this negative perception by raising additional questions. The historical approach to DE had been the correspondence model with study materials being mailed out to students, with assessment based on one or more assignments, and a final exam at the end of the term. This meant that teams developed the courses rather than individual professors. Furthermore, there were serious questions Akhtar, being raised about the assessment methodology at AIOU, which gave a very large weightage to the term assignments.
By the mid-nineties the OU was using the internet. As of , more than , students were interacting with OU online from home. The idea of a virtual university as an institution that used computers and telecommunications instead of buildings and transport to bring students and teachers together for university courses was first published in works like "De-Schooling Society" by Ivan Illich that introduced the concept of the use of computer networks as switchboards for learning, in By George Kasey established "Media Free Times - periodical Multimedia Random Sampling of Anarchic Communications Art" a prototype for remote learning with the use of "multi-media periodicals," that are now commonly referred to as "web pages".
It was based on a joint research project at Victoria University of Wellington that ran from Called the virtual class laboratory it used dedicated telecommunication systems to make it possible for students to attend class virtually or physically and was at first supported by a number of telecommunication organisations. Its purpose was to seek the critical factors in using ICT for university level education.
In the virtual class lab moved onto the Internet. A number of other universities were involved in the late eighties in pioneering initiatives and experiments were conducted between Victoria University in New Zealand, the University of Hawaii, Ohio State University and Waseda University to try and conduct classes and courses at an international level via telecommunications.
This led to the concept of a Global Virtual University. Studying in a virtual university has essential differences from studying in a brick and mortar university. There are no buildings and no campus to go to because students receive learning materials over the Internet. In most cases, only a personal computer and an Internet connection is needed—even for learning laboratory experiments and technical materials, such as robotics,  that traditionally required physical presence of students in the classroom.
Support is offered to learners from the professor or a tutor online through e-mails if they are having problems with the course. Taking courses on-line means that students will be learning in their own time by reading course material, working on course activities, writing assignments and perhaps working with other students through interactive teleconferences. Online learning can be an isolating experience since the student spends the majority of their time working by themselves.
Some learners do not mind this kind of solo learning, but others find it a major stumbling block to successful completion of courses. Because of the potential difficulty of maintaining the schedule needed to be successful when learning online, some virtual universities apply the same type of time management as traditional schools.
Many courses operate to a timetable, which the student receives with the course materials. These may include the planned activities for each week of the course and due dates for the assignments.
If the course has an exam, the students will be informed where they have to go to write it. VGU offers a graduate program "International Master of Business Informatics" MBI —a master program in information technology and management that takes an average of four semesters to complete for full-time students.
Each course has a lecture or a virtual class meeting every week.
Afterwards, students get a homework assignment; for example, they have to solve an exercise, elaborate on some problem, discuss a case study, or take a test.
Lecturers give them immediate feedback, and one week later, the same happens again. Coursework can be same for a Virtual University as the On-campus University in certain cases. This decision had other implications as well. Students as well as tutors would have to be proficient at typing, since they would have to pose their questions and answers by accessing the discussion boards of the LMS.
Of course, the reality was that students and tutors were not keyboard experts and had a steep learning curve ahead of them, both in terms of typing as well as in mastering the various features of the LMS.
The challenge to have academic credentials acquired through distance education accepted as equal to those obtained from conventional institutions required that the assessment process be as transparent as possible.
In other words, paraphrasing from the legal counterpart of the statement, "assessment must not only be done, it must also be seen to be done. The first was the semester system, which was practiced on campus by many universities. There was also the system of large public examinations conducted annually by several older universities that were taken by students from colleges affiliated with these universities as well as "private" students who studied on their own.
For these large public examinations, students registered with the university, either through their college or directly, and were then required to sit for their exams at designated exam centers, where the invigilation and conducting staff was appointed by the university.
Since the Virtual University was to have a nationwide footprint, it was decided that the model of the large public examinations would be followed. Students would be required to appear physically at designated examination centers.
Their identity would be verified by the conducting staff, who would then mark their attendance by obtaining signatures and only then would the candidates be allowed to sit for the examinations. It had been decided at the course-development stage that the university would follow the semester system, and this implied that all semester examinations would have to be conducted in these exam centers.
To simplify operations, it was decided that assessment in all undergraduate courses would comprise a midterm and a final examination.
Assignments, quizzes, and other semester work would be duly assigned through the LMS, but the major part of the grade would be awarded based on these examinations.
This design decision went a long way in overcoming the negative perceptions associated with online learning. As such, it was decided that the university would be managed through properly designed IT-based systems and paper records, and that snail-speed processes would be kept to a minimum, if not eliminated altogether.
Some financial records would still need to be paper-based for audit purposes, but this was a small, doable task. An ambitious start-of-classes date was set for March , and all efforts were made to meet the target date. On the basis of the design decisions, several initiatives were started in parallel.
It had been decided that the very first program to be launched would be a Bachelors program in computer science. The national curriculum had already been published by the young Higher Education Commission another outcome of the educational reforms and was adopted by the university. An effort was immediately started to identify the available gurus of the field and woo them into developing the required courses.
Because there was no course template available, the process was bootstrapped through long dialog sessions with these highly qualified individuals who threw quite a few experiential factors into the discussion. A very experienced television producer was also part of the initial team, and he brought all of his expertise to the table. For example, the precise format of the video lectures came under intense discussion. Many of the professors, who were known for their classroom competency, believed that body language was an important component of the lecturing process.
Some professors preferred to deliver lectures while standing and moving around the "stage," whereas others wanted to speak while seated. To enrich the lecture videos, extensive use of diagrams, slides, and even video clips was indicated, which were to be inserted in postproduction.
Another important factor that was extensively debated was the language to be used for lecture delivery. Pakistan was a bilingual nation at its birth in In addition to several regional languages, the official language was English, whereas the national language was Urdu. The medium of instruction at the school level was primarily Urdu, but English was taught very effectively and high school graduates were expected to have a reasonable command over the language.
The medium of instruction in colleges and universities was English. Over a period of time, however, English language skills deteriorated, and when the Virtual University was being launched, it was no longer clear that students would be able to properly assimilate lectures delivered purely in English.
However, the common tongue used by the population was a mixture of English and Urdu, and after extensive discussions, it was decided that lectures would be delivered in bilingual mode using both languages, the primary objective being the effective transfer of knowledge. By December , a production house had been selected through a public tendering process for recording the video lectures. Professors were engaged and course development began in earnest. As part of the development requirements, professors were required to provide lecture notes or handouts, a full set of assignments, and three to four sets of midterm and final examinations along with grading rubrics.
The assignments and exams were to be used for startup purposes in the first semester, and it was expected that full-time university staff would then take over these aspects for subsequent semesters. Selection of the LMS was the next major milestone.
There were a few established international offerings at the time, but none of them had any support structure in Pakistan.
Finally, a product was acquired, again through a public tendering process, from a company in Singapore that could provide support through its local partner. The LMS met all rudimentary requirements for content delivery and featured a threaded discussion board that was to be used for student-teacher interaction.
The fledgling university had acquired some office space for its project office in Lahore, and since the Pakistan Software Export Board PSEB had its Internet node in the same building, the office obtained access to the required bandwidth and set up its servers to host the university's website and the LMS. Staff was selected and hired to cover the basic requirements of the university and the project office; accounting staff, IT professionals, and junior level academic staff were all engaged and housed in this office.
University staff, such as the Registrar, Treasurer, and Controller of Examinations were also hired. The provision of television airtime was negotiated with Pakistan Television, the national broadcaster, and they agreed to provide one hour daily for the Virtual University's lectures.
Because the channel was a terrestrial channel and broadcast nationwide, the visibility of the Virtual University's courses was ensured, except for a very small time period, in every corner of the country.
The last piece of the puzzle was the establishment of campuses for students. As described earlier, these virtual campuses were simply to be computer labs connected to the Internet with some adult management available. No teaching staff was required because this aspect would be handled online by full-time university staff.
The question was who would establish these labs and under what terms and conditions. It was right about this time that the "dot com" bubble burst Wikipedia, Many IT training centers had been providing trained manpower for the "body shops" feeding that web explosion.
These centers suddenly found themselves without clients and, hence, no one to train. The large number of computer labs established by these centers suddenly became empty. Therefore, when the Virtual University invited applications from the private sector for the provision of computer labs to act as its virtual campuses, there were many applicants for this new opportunity.
With all the pieces in place, the Virtual University of Pakistan was formally inaugurated by the President of Pakistan on Pakistan Day, March 23, , a national holiday. Within a period of only six months, courses had been developed, centers established, staff hired, and the LMS installed and populated with course content. The first cohort of students began their classes in March , from 28 virtual campuses established in 18 different cities of the country.
The university was granted a Federal Charter in September that authorized it to deliver tertiary education anywhere within the geographical boundaries of Pakistan and even establish its campuses overseas. The Virtual University of Pakistan had become a reality.
Students were expected to follow the prescribed schedule of classes, although the schedule was kept flexible within a hour time window. All activities of a conventional face-to-face university such as assignments, quizzes, etc. Given the low bandwidth available in the early days, the role of television broadcasts was very important, but one hour of daily airtime was certainly insufficient for the needs of even a single program.
It was decided that the university would establish its own dedicated television channels, and a separate project was developed and submitted to the government for funding. Four channels along with state-of-the-art studios for course development were planned. The project was approved by the government and the university's first two channels went on the air in An additional two channels were commissioned in , and the university became a licensed broadcaster.
The special license obtained by the university limited its broadcasts for educational content only, and no commercial activity was permitted. This was done intentionally. Earlier experiments by the national broadcaster in trying to launch an educational TV channel with commercial content had ended in disaster, with commercial interests completely overwhelming the educational component.
The four channels initially operated from to am, but eventually started broadcasting around the clock. The university finally had enough airtime for all its courses, but this luxury was short lived.
The apprehensions regarding students' IT literacy and typing skills proved not to be an issue. The excitement associated with the new technology and the completely different pedagogy motivated students enough to overcome the challenge. The queries received via email—a new communication method students were experiencing—were more about the content and LMS methodology rather than about any IT-related hurdles. Students adapted to the LMS very quickly, but from the university's perspective, the limitations of the system started becoming apparent at a very early stage.
The LMS did not provide for a gradebook or an account book, which were essential requirements for students registered in a four-year degree program. Similarly, there was no mechanism for handing out or receiving assignments; everything had to be done by email. The discussion boards provided by the system proved to be poorly suited to the task. The "threaded" discussion boards provided by the system were fine-grained and associated a discussion session with each lesson or lecture.
However, there was no limitation on where a student could post his or her questions because no locking mechanism was provided. As a result, students usually posted their queries on the very first discussion board available for each course, which always turned out to be the board for the first lecture.
All other discussion boards remained empty or sparsely populated. Tutors had a very hard time trying to identify new questions that needed addressing; students with better connectivity were always able to post quicker; and queries from students coming over slow dial-up connections were usually lost in the noise. The logistics involved in establishing exam centers in 18 different cities, appointing the invigilation staff, distributing question papers, conducting examinations, and then retrieving student answer sheets for grading in a manner that maintained the sanctity of the assessment process were quite complex, but did not prove overwhelming.
The initial few examinations were distributed electronically via email but conducted on paper at the various centers.