The Philippine Constitution By Hector De Leon Pdf Download by Fernanis, released 09 March The Philippine Constitution By Hector De Leon Pdf. Textbook on the Philippine Constitution [Hector S De Leon] (portal7.infoK 0~ THE PHII. U-'PlNE Download PDF. Share. Related 1 Under portal7.infostrativf: eode of thf'~ are a ppoi ~ t.: d '::• ~: .e Prtsident for a term. Textbook on the Philippine Constitution [Hector S De Leon] ( TEXTBOOK ON THE PHILIPPINE CONSTITUTION Download PDF The Constitu tion. however, alth ough it. eli minated the two-party provision of th e.
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Textbook on the Philippine Constitution Hector S. De Leon No preview.. philippine constitution by hector de leon pdf free download go kiss the world free . Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd DE LEON LL.B., UniverRity of the Philippines Member, Integrat ed Bar of the Philippines HECTOR S. DE LEON cation and effectivity of tht> new Constitution on February 2, (Art. Read story Philippine Constitution By Hector De Leon Pdf Free by hydmoranse with reads. download. Philippine Constitution.
Law books. Our free online law books provide students with a unique view on the subject of evidence, proof and justice.. The law on obligations and contracts by Hector S. Note: Citations are based on reference standards. However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study..
It is part of the electo ral process that enables! Political parties which obtain a sufticie nt percentage of votes cast will be allowed to name th eir r epresentatives to th e House of Representa- tives.
The number of representatives depends on th e total votes obtained by such pa rt ies. The scheme will give more chances to different parties to be represented in Congress in line with the constit utional policy to promote a multi- party system. The party-list system institution alizes for the first time sectoral or functional representa tion in the lawmaking body in addition to territorial r epresentation by congressional districts. VI, Sec. The rul e, th er efore, is "no vote cast- no vote count" except on ly votes cast under th e party-list system.
In the former. The n ames of the nominees shall not be included in the certified list of regis- tered participating parties. The variance of pE. Political parties, or organizations or coalitions regis- t e re d under the party-list system, shall not be represented in the voters' registration boards, boardsofelection inspectors, boards of canvassers, or othe r similar bodies. However, they shall be entitled to appoint poll watch ers in accordance with law.
Membership of political parties, etc. Political part ies regis- tered under the party-list'system have no individu al candidates. In view of the constitutional prohibition, such right ' lJnder R. They a re, however, entit led to appoint poll watchers in accordance with law to protect t heir political interests. All political parties have thus equal protection. The law shall defi ne t he prerogatives of the watchers. Unless o therwise fixed by the Commission in s pe cial cases.
This section prescribes the election period. It does n ot, h. The limitation is designed t o ' minimize partis an political activities and expensive election contest.
The former inclu des the 30 days a fte r the e lection while the latter can only be for a maximum of 9 0 da ys part of which is intended for t. Bona fide candidates for a ny public office s h all be tree from an y form of harassment and dis crimination. Protection against harassment The Cons ti tution recognizes the right of bona fide candida tes for any public office to be protected fr om a ny form ofharassment or d iscrimination. The provision is in li ne with the g uarantee in the Bill of Righ ts that n o person sh a ll "be denied the equal protection of t he laws.
III, Sec. It is deemed n eceRsary in order to protect th e inter e st of candidates who do 10cceila vs. The campa ign periods do not include the day before th.
If the State guarantees equal protection to groupR ofindividuals such as political parties, it is but logical and a matter of elementary justice that the same protection be made available to individuals separately, without discrimina tion in any form. It is the duty, particularly, of the executive branch and the Commission on Elections, to see to it that the above right is implemented.
Funds certified by the Commission as necessary to defray the expenses for holding regular and special elections, plebiscites, initiatives, referenda, and recalls, sha ll be provided in the regular or special a ppropriations and, once approved, shall be released automatically upon certification by the Chair- man of the Commission.
Automatic release of appropriations. The rule laid down in the above provision enhances the independence of t he Commission on Election s.
It is obligator y on the pa r t of Congress to provide in the regular or special appropriations the fun ds cer tified by the Commission as necessary to defray the expenses for holding an election, plebiscite, recall, initiative, or referendum.
Once approved. At no time shall all Members of the Commission belong to the same profession. Appointment to 1Report No. I any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired portion of the term of the predecessor.
In no case shall any Membe r be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity. Composition of the Commission on Audit. It is composed of a Chairman a nd two Commissioners. The Constitution provided for the General Auditing Office under the direction and control of the Auditor Genera l. The book includes an introduction to law to provide readers a background on obligations and contracts and other business law courses A study guide is provided at the end of every chapter or.
Contracts take effect only between the parties, their assigns and heirs, except in case where the rights and obligations arising from the contract are not transmissible by their nature, or. Endosymbiosis simple english wikipedia, the free , endosymbiosis occurs when a.. Philippine Constitution Preamble We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, in order to build a just and humane society.
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Contracts PDF. Law on Obligations and Contracts in the Philippines. Engineering Economy 7th Edition. Most of the former Soviet republics kilometers20 which covers a surface nearly as large as Europe.
It has an area of about 6,, square The Philippines has a total land area of about , square miles or about miles or about 17,, making it the largest country in the world. The word is sometimes used to refer to the person or aggregate of those persons in whose hands are placed for the time being the function of political control.
The ordinary citizens of a country are a part of the state. It has, therefore, two manifestations: a Internal or the power of the state to rule within its territory; and b External or the freedom of the state to carry out its activities without subjection to or control by other states.
External sovereignty is often referred to as independence. These internal and external aspects of sovereignty are not absolutely true in practice because of the development of international relations and consequently, of international law. Origin of states.
There are several theories concerning the origin of states, among which are: 1 Divine right theory. Reference has been made by advocates of this theory to the laws which Moses received at Mount Sinai; 2 Necessity or force theory.
By natural stages, the family grew into a clan, then developed into a tribe which broadened into a nation, and the nation became a state; and 4 Social contract theory. This theory justifies the right of the people to revolt against a bad ruler. History, however, has shown that the elements of all the theories have played an important part in the formation and development of states.
States distinguished from nation.
Nation should not also be confused with state as they are not the same. A nation is a group of people bound together by certain characteristics such as common social origin, language, customs, and traditions, and who believe that they are one and distinct from others.
The United States is a melting pot of several nationalities. On the other hand, the Arab nation is divided politically into several sovereign states. The Philippines is a state composed of one nation. The Constitution uses them interchangeably. State distinguished from government.
In common speech, they are usually regarded as identical. As ordinarily, the acts of the government within the limits of the delegation of powers are the acts of the state, the former is meant when the latter is mentioned, and vice versa.
The government is only the agency through which the states articulate its will. The former is the agent, the latter is the principal. A state cannot exist without a government, but it is possible to have a government without a state.
Thus, we had various governments at different periods of our history, from pre-Spanish times to the present. There was no Philippine state during those periods when we were under foreign domination. A government may change, its form may change, but the state, as long as its elements are present, remains the same. Purpose and necessity of government. It is necessary for a the protection of society and its members, the security of persons and property, the administration of justice, the preservation of the state from external danger, dealings of the state with foreign powers constituent functions and b the advancement of the physical, economic, social, and cultural well0being of the people.
It is obvious that without an organized structure of government, anarchy and disorder, and a general feeling of fear and insecurity will prevail in society, progress and development will not be possible, and values taken for granted in a free modern society such as truth, freedom, justice, equality, rule of law, and human dignity can never be enjoyed. The need for government is so apparent that even the most primitive societies, history shows, had some form of it.
Forms of government. The principal forms are the following: 1 As to number of persons exercising sovereign powers: a Monarchy or one in which the supreme and final authority is in the hands of a single person without regard to the source of his election of the nature or duration of his tenure.