Read Home Recording For Musicians For Dummies PDF Ebook by Jeff Strong. Published by For Dummies, ePUB/PDF , SCRIBD. Home Recording Cheat Sheet. The Difference Between Home Demos and Pro Mixes. ○ What are the main differences? ○ Equipment. ○ Skill level. ○ Room. involved in setting up a home studio. • A CD with fully functional, uncrippled, non- expiring evaluation REAPER software (including a PDF User Guide), sample.
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Home Recording For Musicians For Dummies®, 5th Edition. Published by: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., River Street, Hoboken, NJ , portal7.info About the Author. Jeff Strong is the author of Home Recording for Musicians For Dummies as well as Pro Tools All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies and is. PDF User Guide), sample files, projects, and exercises for you to work on. □ Home Recording for Beginners is for anyone who is considering.
This beats having to pay for a mortgage on top of a lease for a separate building for my studio. This would be a question for my accountant, which is why I pay someone to handle this shit for me. The best investment you can possibly make is in yourself. The upside is that you can write off your health insurance payments. All I know is that this number is obviously higher than my total expenses for the year, which is cool. She took the time to explain everything in plain English and simple terms. She was patient with me and my stupid questions, made sure I was legit with everything on my taxes, and she made the entire process as simple as possible.
For example, I recently came in contact with someone who owns a professional studio, with some of their rooms rented for space for practice, and others for tracking and control rooms. They were inquiring about the density of the insulation they should use in these already-built isolating decks they constructed. I explained to them the problems they were going to experience, but they apparently did not believe me.
Seeing as this is a roughly 3, s. Save your money. Wall Construction Wall construction is not really all that involved, provided you pay attention to details. Your biggest challenge is to determine what level of isolation you need, the amount of mass you need to handle that, and then to make certain to put everything in the right location.
The right location. Think about that for a moment. There is actually a right location for materials. Look at Figure 4. Note that the wall assembly third from the left has an STC rating of 40dB.
It is constructed using two separate wall frames with four layers of drywall total, and with insulation installed in the cavities of both walls. The drywall is installed on both faces of each wall assembly. If we remove one inside layer, note how the STC rating raises from 40 to Remove the second layer, and it raises another 7dB of isolation to Now take those two layers and install them over the two faces of the outside wall, and you add another 6dB of isolation for a total of STC This is a 23dB increase in isolation using exactly the same materials in different locations!
However, the reason for this has nothing to do with the amount of mass and everything to do with the location of that mass. Consider that each different location of the drywall constitutes a leaf. In the case of the STC 40 wall assembly, you have two walls with one layer on each wall face, thus, a four-leaf system. You count the leafs thus: Each area of mass drywall equals one leaf.
When you remove one inner face, it becomes a three-leaf system, and then a two-leaf system when you remove the last inside face of drywall. It is at that point that the doubling of the mass becomes what I told you earlier. Note the 6dB increase from the STC 57 to 63 when the mass is doubled and put in the correct location.
So when you build, strive for two-leaf wall systems and nothing else. With MAM systems, the air between the leaf walls becomes the spring.
The compressed air becomes the spring. The transfer of sound is its vibrational energy traveling through the spring from one layer to the other.
The exterior walls are probably a long way away from being airtight. Maybe your building is in a basement and has to contend with windows, perhaps large gaps between the foundation and the plate that carries the deck framing. In all these cases, there are solutions to your problems. Just pack it well to make certain you have good density and then caulk the joint between the two with acoustic caulk.
In the case of that corridor wall, you can remove the drywall on your room side and install additional mass within the wall cavity itself, which will go a long way towards helping your isolation. We will look at the actual construction of these assemblies in the next chapter. This decouples the layer of gypsum on that face from the framing behind it. There are many different types of resilient channels on the market today, as well as materials you might mistake for resilient channels, i.
RC-1 is a single-leg channel primarily used for walls. RC-2 is a double-legged channel primarily used for ceilings. I have also included a section of hat channel.
Without them, isolation is nil. It is important that these products be installed correctly to ensure they isolate properly.
Make certain to be very careful that you do not use the hat channel or standard Z channel instead of RC, because the net effect will be no gain in isolation with a lot of added material and labor costs. Whatever you decide to download, make sure to ask for and receive the technical data as a part of the download. RISC 1 clips resilient sound isolation clips are another excellent way to decouple drywall from a structure see Figure 4.
These products use a rubber isolator to decouple the clip from the stud, and a hat channel is then mounted into the clip to attach the drywall to. Isolation with this unit is typically around 6 to 8dB greater reduction than using standard resilient channel. Once again, there are several different manufacturers of this type of product. With framing 16" oc, that would place the studs on 8"centers and 12" centers for 24" framing.
Advantages include greater isolation than the use of single frame walls and decoupling of studs from one reduces the need for RC or RISC systems. The disadvantage is that the common top and bottom plates become the weak points of this system, effectively acting as a bridge from one side to the other. This direct passage weakens an otherwise good system. True double wall assemblies use separate top and bottom plates, as well as separate studs.
This effectively completely decouples each wall from one another. Chapter 4 Figure 4. Build It Like the Pros One point I want to be sure you get is that there is no advantage to using isolating clips or resilient channel with a true double wall assembly. The only thing that should increase with a double wall system is mass see Chapter 2. The disadvantage is that it takes up more real estate by this I mean room space than the RISC, RC systems, or a simple staggered stud system with common top and bottom plates.
This is one of the great strengths of a double frame assembly.
Now, let me clarify that last statement. The sound that travels through the building structure will not decrease just because you continue to add more mass to the walls. Fastening is as simple as screwing in a couple of self-tapping framing screws.
Light gauge steel framing has an advantage over wood framing or heavy gauge steel framing because a wall constructed with it has a greater STC rating than a similar wood or heavy gauge frame. So a simple wall framed with light gauge framing and drywall applied directly to 62 Chapter 4 Floor, Wall, and Ceiling Construction Details both sides will achieve the same results as a wood frame wall with resilient channel installed.
The disadvantage of light gauge framing is that it will not carry loads that wood framing will carry with ease. Heavy gauge metal framing will carry the required loads, but it is generally more expensive than similar walls manufactured with wood. You want to make music, and some inconsiderate human being wants to quietly read a book, sleep, settle a baby down, etc.
Constructing an isolated system is only as good as the weakest link in the assembly—with the greatest challenges being spaces directly above or below you. First and foremost, keep your eyes on the basics—mass, mass, and more mass. Remember that the starting point for determining what may or may not be added to any structure begins with the existing structural capacity and weight. One of the problems with just adding mass to the bottom of the existing joists is the transfer of sound directly through the joists themselves.
Remember that mass on both leaves of an isolation assembly is important. Once again, everything begins with a structural analysis of the existing assembly to determine what it is capable of carrying.
Typical home design is mandated for a 10 psf dead load and 40 psf live load in kitchens, living rooms, family rooms, dining rooms, and game rooms. Bedrooms are typically designed for 10 psf dead loads and 30 psf live loads. The live loads are based on furniture within the space and the loads imparted by people within the room. The reason that I make this appear very important is because it really is. Overloading a deck can cause long-term stress on it—with the result being a sudden and catastrophic structural failure.
I cannot stress the importance of this enough. Perhaps the placement of your studio above the garage—with an isolating mudroom connecting the two—would make sense. Or you could make sure you had a foundation that was 9 or 10 feet in height to allow enough room for a decent ceiling height in a basement studio, while maintaining completely isolated construction of the two spaces.
See Figure 4. However, in existing construction, we begin with establishing what we can safely carry in additional dead loads before proceeding. Now, assuming that your engineer sees no problems with adding load to the structure, you can begin by installing gypsum board directly against the bottom of your existing deck assembly.
Add as many additional layers as your joist can safely carry see Figure 4. Chapter 4 Floor, Wall, and Ceiling Construction Details Generally, this will require the removal of some cross bracing members known as bridging in your deck assembly. Below this, we are now ready to install our new ceiling.
RISC-1 clips and hat sections can also be used on ceilings with the same results you get on walls. Advantages to using this system are that the drywall ceiling can run directly to the perimeter of the existing wall assembly.
The disadvantage is a lower isolation than totally isolated structural assemblies. This is generally the case where you could not install a member large enough to support the entire load with a joist spanning the width of your room.
This can be accomplished, with you still maintaining a good degree of isolation, through the use of isolation hangers carried by the structure above. Too much or too little load, and they will transfer sound energy through to the structure above. Again, the manufacturer will assist you in the calculations required for this system.
A downside to using this approach is again the load that it imposes on the existing structure, which will reduce the amount of mass you can add to the bottom of the deck above. One of the big advantages of this system is the fact that it imposes no weight to the existing structure, so you could add that much more mass to that structure to help with isolation.
This is the reason I suggest you use cross bridging rather than a solid block bridging for the existing assembly. In the case of Figure 4. In tight spaces, such as existing basements, that extra few inches can make a world of difference in a room. These partition supports provide isolation from the existing slab to minimize slab transmissions into the wall structure. Sway braces prevent buckling or overturning of tall or extremely long walls.
These products are ideal for lateral wall support where needed, while still maintaining isolation from the existing structure. When bent, shear forces pull and stretch on the damping material. Energy is lost when the damping material is sheared. This is totally different than using an adhesive to glue multiple pieces of material together.
When two pieces of drywall for example are joined together through the use of conventional construction adhesives, they bond, forming essentially one thicker piece of material.
The effective 79 Home Recording Studio: Build It Like the Pros isolation created from this type of assembly is less as a whole than the sum of the individual sheet themselves. Thus, by gluing sheets together using standard adhesives , you decrease isolation.
But with damping systems, the bonding actions that take place with conventional adhesives never occur, and the isolation is potentially greater than the sum of the two sheets themselves.
There are a large number of damping systems on the market: Is Green Glue more effective than just adding additional sheets of drywall? Well, if you remember mass law—each doubling of mass adds theoretically 6dB of additional isolation.
But mass law stops at the drywall itself in this case , so when it comes to a complete wall assembly, reality is closer to 4—5dB. So if you have two sheets on each side of a wall, the next step is four sheets each side for an averaged increase of a maximum of 5dB.
The third is a single stud wall with two layers of drywall each side, with Green Glue sandwiched between the drywall on both sides.
The fourth wall is an estimated performance for a single stud wall with four layers of drywall each side. Note as well the superior performance of that wall to the wall with four layers of drywall and no green glue. Although they are close in the to Hz range, the green glue wall is far superior over Hz, as well as around Hz.
From a cost point of view, the Green Glue with two layers of drywall is fairly close to the cost of the wall with four layers of drywall each side, but the wall performance is so much more superior as to make it actually cheaper from the perspective of isolation value per square foot.
This is a product well worth considering if weight is a consideration in your structural analysis. Reprinted with permission of Mason Industries. Steven J. You know that where air goes—sound goes. This is the case in my studio.
You also have the option, in a multi-room studio, of providing video feeds to other rooms versus windows. My preference, however, would be a window in this case. The raw materials primarily silica sand, soda ash, and limestone are weighed, mixed, and conveyed to a melting furnace.
The glass ribbon is then lifted out of the tin bath onto rollers and conveyed through an annealing lehr. A lehr is a long oven that glass moves through on a conveyor belt. This allows for gradual cooling, which slowly relieves the stresses within the glass and allows the glass to properly anneal.
The glass leaving the furnace passes between two metallic rolls that gives it the desired thickness. The glass is then slowly cooled until the glass exits the lehr, slightly above room temperature. The glass is then cut, sized, and packaged. Float glass has an advantage over tempered glass only due to its ability to be cut on-site. No, I am not referring in this case to an insulated unit—that is the thickness of a single piece of glass.
Float glass is the least effective glazing when considering acoustic isolation.
The basic principle employed in the heat treating process is to create an initial condition of surface and edge compression. As the center thickness then cools, it forces the surfaces and edges into compression. I had an insulated tempered glass unit literally explode in my face once while installing a piece of trim around a custom window opening. Build It Like the Pros Tempered glass is what you normally see installed in doors, door sidelights, sliding glass doors, etc. Its strength, which effectively resists wind pressure and impact, provides safety in most applications.
Also, when fully tempered glass does break, the glass fractures into small, relatively harmless fragments. Fully tempered glass is considered a safety glazing material if it is manufactured in accordance with ANSI Z From a safety point of view, this glass is superior to either standard annealed or tempered for this purpose.
Modern laminated glass panels are typically manufactured using a PVB interlayer. This damping effect has a major impact on the sound transmission properties of glass at high frequencies, especially near its critical frequency.
As mentioned earlier, the critical frequency is the acoustic frequency at which the wavelength of bending waves in a surface equals the wavelength of sound in air. At frequencies in the vicinity of the critical frequency, sound waves will pass through the glass much more readily than at other frequencies.
As discussed in Chapter 3, this effect reduced sound isolation in the region of the critical frequency is called the coincidence effect. Critical frequencies of glass are dependent on the glass thickness. Thicker glass will have a lower critical frequency than thinner glass. Note that each doubling of thickness cuts the critical frequency in half. Thus, laminated glass provides better sound control than regular glass of the same total thickness. However, none of those uses includes sound isolation.
This material just does not have the qualities you need. Remember that you need mass equal to the mass of the wall sheathing, stiffness to control the lowest frequencies, and a product that is going to hold up well over the lifetime of your studio hopefully a long time.
Plexiglass tends to scratch easily, and it can quickly become tiring to look through once this begins to happen. Window Frame Construction and Isolating Techniques The window is the easier of the two openings to deal with which is why I began with it. Well, maybe not quite that simple. Light-gauge steel frames such as the type you would normally see in commercial applications for doors and windows are a different story, however. So make it a point to stick with wood when building your window frames.
Some of the features of these assemblies will be identical, regardless of the wall type. I will make it a point to discuss only the differences in the assemblies, and I will try not to bore you by being redundant. Figure 5. The exterior trims are just simple 1"x 4" pine. Build It Like the Pros Figure 5. Chapter 5 Window and Door Construction I like to take the inner stop and cover it with black felt, which adds a nice touch.
These blocks help to maintain the window line in the opening, as well as allow caulking below the window to help create an airtight seal. Another piece of the seal assembly for this window is the use of glazing tape for both the inside edge of the window trim as well as the exterior.
Glazing tapes are standard products that can be downloadd from any local glass company. Black and gray are the only colors, but I have never used anything other than black. Butyl caulks are perfect for the window perimeter, and they can be downloadd at any local lumber center. However, if you build a staggered stud wall using 2x8 top and bottom plates and 2x4 studs, you can create an isolated frame by following the details in Figure 5.
This window assembly is typical for an isolated wall, but it also can be used for a staggered stud wall. Care must be taken to ensure that the two frame faces never connect with one another. This can be accomplished by simply ripping the window framing plates to a width that ensures isolation if need be.
Note how the frame for each window is totally isolated from one another through the use of a rubber seal surrounding the opening between the window frames which I use to keep dust from settling into the window opening over time and also to increase the effect of the air spring within the window panels themselves.
Another nice feature about this detail is that the seal gives you a good place to set some bags of desiccant to avoid the possibility of any moisture problems within the window cavity. Standard plate glass annealed weighs 1. Thus, the glass weights will be 6. That, plus the fact that the coincidence level for each piece of glazing is different, will help you to increase isolation.
Because of this, the wall assembly surrounding the window will be your weakest point, and the effective isolation will be as if you had never penetrated the wall at all. Finally, I want to touch base with you on the issue of splayed glass which is when the two pieces of glass are farther apart at the top then they are at the bottom versus parallel panes of glazing.
Maximum volume equals maximum isolation. So placing the glass more closely together at the bottom is decreasing the isolation value of the window.
It also helps to stop glare from lighting—both of which make it much less tiring to look through. Build It Like the Pros In my mind, the loss in isolation from the air spring is made up for in mass.
We will always have greater mass than the wall surfaces if we do this right, so what little difference there may be we just live with. In Chapter 1, we looked at the fact that in the real world sometimes there are things that we just live with. This is one of those things. Note that I have now switched from a quarter round window trim to square edge stops. This glass weights quite a bit, and the greater the window splay, the more weight is carried by the topmost window stop.
Their window line provides special steel frames with dual-glazed systems, offering acoustic ratings up to STC The cost for these units is pricey when compared to DIY windows, but if you do not feel up to constructing a window and would rather download one, then Overly would be a manufacturer you could not go wrong with. An example of their products can be seen in Figures 5.
Doors With door construction, the basics stay the same at least with the door itself and that means mass, mass, and more mass. Unlike a window where you punch a hole through a wall and then seal it up tight again , a door is built with the intent that you are going to continually violate the seal of the wall.
Here everything becomes an issue of seals. Multiple seals, a layering of seals, seals upon seals upon seals, etc. Do you remember back in Chapter 3 when we looked at that small crack at the bottom of the wall and what that equated to when compared with a hole through the wall?
Well, the door is very much like that wall— only with a very big crack at the door bottom and a smaller crack on the remaining three sides. Thus, we are forced into those seals mentioned above. Do this right, and you have it made, but screw this one up, and no matter how good the remainder of your construction is, you just lost it. The second one is through the use of two standard solid core doors in the same opening.
My preference is the super door. When it comes to carrying a door that might weight well over pounds if you build them like I do , or even standard solid core doors, you do not want your door frame attached to a stud that can move over the years. As I noted above, tests have proven that a through jamb does not effectively lessen the total isolation value of a wall assembly to any great degree. Just build the frame straight through the cavity.
Often, neither will a standard hinge. Then use a variety of special seals to make this baby airtight. Chapter 5 Window and Door Construction The door itself is improved by adding mass to the inner face. My preferred method is the use of 8 psf sheet lead, which can be downloadd at any local masonry supply store in varying widths.
The plywood and lead are held back of the door edge 1" on the two sides and the top to allow for weather-stripping the door. Order a good quality commercial closure for your door. Yes, safety. A door with this much mass could break bones, or even remove body parts, if they happened to be between the door and the jamb when it closed. Although you might never have this happen to you as an adult , the possibility of this happening with a child is greater than you might think.
A good commercial door closure has the strength to handle a door of this weight, and it has two distinct closing settings. Then the latch speed takes over, which can be adjusted to complete the closing at a very slow, gentle rate. Not only does this give you some safety as mentioned above , but it will also help your door assembly to live longer.
By this I mean that the slamming of a door like this will cause screws attaching it at the hinges to loosen up, which should be avoided. By now you understand that this is going to be an expensive piece of your studio cost. None of these items is inexpensive. But this is one place you do not want to skimp on expenditures.
Remember that your entire assemblies are as good as your weakest link. An alternative to constructing a door like this is to use two doors on opposite sides of your isolated walls, in which case you would construct in accordance with Figure 5. Note that although you save the cost of the sheet lead and cabinet grade plywood, in this case, you will have to download two times as much gasketing, drops seals, thresholds, and closures.
But this is still an option should you choose to use this technique. However, you become limited in air space and window thickness, depending on the thickness of the door assembly. If you use a double door assembly, then you would use the same glass thickness that is used on the walls. In a single super door, you can use two separate pieces of glass. A typical super door will weight around pounds, thus about I use a soft gasket, manufactured by General Motors for the trunk rubber seal on some of their automobiles, as a part of my assemblies.
I also like seals manufactured by Zero International. They manufacture the following products that I would recommend for door gasketing. Again, I have had good luck in the past with Overly. They manufacture steel and wood acoustic door assemblies with special hardware, integral gasketing, and isolated steel frames. Over the next two chapters, I want to explain enough about the subjects to help you avoid some problems, allow you to make some decent judgments, and get you ready to deal with the subjects.
If you want to learn how to wire or how to install HVAC systems, there are already some excellent books on the market to help you along, so please download one of them. Line Voltage You need to begin with understanding your electrical service and panel, along with the parts and pieces of your room and gear.
Typical home electrical service will be single phase V AC. A Comment on Power Company Service Most schematics for this would indicated the neutral feed flowing in the direction of the service; however, I indicate this as flowing out of the service back to the power company, for that is really its purpose. Build It Like the Pros Figure 6.
Most of your use will require a single pole circuit, which utilizes one of the hot legs, the return, and a ground.
Rather, power in a panel usually feeds from top to bottom and rotating. So leg 1 are the odd numbered breakers top to bottom, and leg 2 are the even breakers top to bottom. Figure 6. Build It Like the Pros One of your goals with studio wiring is to put all of your gear on one leg of the panel, and all other loads such as lighting, HVAC equipment, refrigerators, etc. This will help you avoid things like 60 Hz motor transmissions from showing up as noise in your recordings.
Although this sounds easy, it may not be the case. If the total load for your electrical service at that time were amps, you would want roughly 85 amps on one leg and the other 85 amps on the second leg.
Imagine amps of V line-to-neutral loads being connected to this phase. This setup will only allow half of the possible amperage load before the main breaker trips. This is because the load on that pole of the breaker exceeds amps.
Another reason this is desirable is due to the fact that the more balanced the load is on a service, the less current will be carried through the neutral. In a perfectly balanced panel, the current present in the neutral would be 0 amps. This is a safety feature for both the workers for the local electrical company, as well as you or anyone else who might work on your wiring in the future. Low Voltage Low voltage wiring should be kept as separate as possible from line voltage sources.
In an ideal world, the low voltage wiring runs low in the room, and line voltage wiring runs high or vice versa. Do not run them parallel to one another.
RFI transmissions can be transmitted through the air or through your electrical wiring system. Right off the bat, you can have ground loops in your existing wiring system that never show up until you begin to wire in studio quality gear. So what exactly is a ground loop? Not quite clear yet? For example, when two or more devices are connected to a common ground through different paths, ground path noise, or a ground loop, can occur. Thus, a system grounded at two different points, with a potential difference between the two grounds, can cause unwanted noise voltage in the circuit paths.
A world-class studio we constructed had hum and buzz problems with single loop guitar coils. The buzz would change as the guitar was moved—from almost totally silent to loud—real loud. A test with an oscilloscope indicated a strong 60 Hz signal on the ground of a circuit with nothing running on it.
When the building was constructed, the water service to the building was provided from the adjacent building on the property.
It was more than enough service to provide our needs for the few bathrooms we had in the new building. However, it was bonded in the original building to the earth ground, and then again to the earth ground for our new electrical service. That created the path to two grounds from one source. To solve the problem, we installed a non-metallic connector on the water service between the two buildings, thus breaking the second path to ground. Build It Like the Pros Ground loops can be eliminated in one of two ways: In my opinion, the easiest and usually a fairly cost effective method for doing this would be to use an isolation transformer.
An isolation transformer is a device that allows all the desired signals to pass freely, while interrupting ground continuity, hence breaking ground loops. There can be other sources of noise in your gear that have nothing to do with ground loops and can occur even if you install an isolated ground transformer. Creating a quiet electrical system requires careful planning of your service to the studio.
Isolated Ground Receptacles and Star Grounding Something you might want to consider when planning the wiring for your studio is the use of hospital grade, isolated ground receptacles and a star grounding system. This is the most commonly used system for technical grounding. Hospitals use this approach to power distribution as a matter of course. It helps them to ensure that their critical equipment will not fail due to dirty electrical circuits.
It has a minimum of technical compromises, meets the requirements of equipment grounding, and provides a system that is relatively practical to install, troubleshoot, and maintain. Note that the isolated ground wires have been run back to a separate ground panel. The ground buss within that panel is then tied to the earth ground for the building service. Build It Like the Pros The usual three wires for the receptacles are run normally.
Black wire hot leg to brass screw, neutral white wire to silver, bare ground to box, but then a separate jacketed ground is run back to the ground buss. Typically, this would be run within a conduit it is required to be protected by the National Electrical Code or NEC and should be run in close proximity to the cable used for the receptacle service.
Standard junction boxes can be used for this purpose to allow for multiple conductors to be run within one conduit rather than individual ones. The wires can run back to the original ground buss in the main panel, or a separate ground panel with its own ground buss can be used adjacent to the main panel. Although the lighting itself is great and is relatively inexpensive, the ballasts and yes, this includes electronic ballasts are very noisy.
If at all possible, avoid the use of dimmer systems. You can plan your lighting to achieve almost the same effect by using a greater number of lights with smaller wattage bulbs, and you can control intensity through the use of individual switches controlling the lighting symmetrically in pairs. If you really need or just want a dimmer system, stick with good quality professional systems, not the single slide bar controls that you use for your living room, and understand that you might have to add remotely mounted systems specially designed to get rid of any problems that may crop up down the road.
I have used lighting systems manufactured by Lutron Electronics, Inc. The following information comes from Lutron.
RFI is a buzzing noise, which may occur in some audio and radio equipment when solid-state dimmers are used nearby.
Typical examples of RFI-sensitive equipment are AM radios, stereo sound systems, broadcasting equipment, intercom systems, public address systems, and wireless telephones. RFI can be transmitted in two ways: The following are three possible ways to minimize radiated RFI: To minimize conducted RFI, follow these guidelines: Also, use lowimpedance balanced microphone cables, which are less susceptible to interference than high-impedance types.
Connect all shields to the ground at one point. One LDC is required for each dimmer. Select the LDC according to the connected lighting load. The LDCs may be wired in series on either the line side or the load side of the dimmer. Since the LDC itself makes an audible buzz, mount it in a location where the noise will not be objectionable e.
LDCs are designed to easily mount onto a standard 4"x4" junction box. They are UL listed and thermally protected. Why do lights make noise when dimmed? Solid-state dimmers are electronic switches that rapidly turn the current feeding a lighting circuit on and off, times per second, to produce the dimming effect. Lamps of higher wattage W and above tend to produce a louder buzz. Therefore, use a lower wattage lamp whenever possible to reduce lamp buzz.
How does a lamp debuzzing coil LDC work? When an LDC is wired in series with the dimmer, it slows down the inrush of current during the rapid switching cycle of the dimmer.
This helps to quiet not only the lamp itself, but also the amount of RFI transmitted through the wiring system. Start simple. Troubleshooting ground loops involves taking things in order and checking a few basic, common elements to see if the problem is simple or complex. Make sense? Work in the following methodical manner. Begin by taking one piece of the chain out of the loop at a time. If the noise suddenly disappears when you disconnect a compressor for example , then the problem lies there, either within the compressor itself or within its power supply.
Another example would be to check your mic or equipment cords. Quite often a bad cord will cause a hum. Begin again by checking one cord at a time. The best solution for this is to replace the cord with a new one or the outlet with an industrial version. Industrial outlets have better gripping and will hold power cables more securely. Second, check the polarity of the outlet because it may be wired backwards.
Check this even if you have a professional electrician do the wiring for you. Where do I go from here? There are, however, other uses for headphones.
Passive Speakers need an amplifier to produce sound. If a speaker is active, it means the amplifier is built-in. This makes active speakers completely self-contained—you just need to plug them into the wall and your interface.
On the other hand, passive speakers need a separate power amp to function. I would avoid them, as they add another piece of equipment to your home recording studio. Near-Field Vs. We can also choose different volumes for 1 Hi Pitch and for Low Pitch. Pretty Cool huh? Just click like in the image below to enable it. The only difference is that now we are going to create MIDI tracks.
Choose the software of your liking.
In this example I will use EZ Drummer. Click Create on the window that will pop up. Choose the little pencil tool Draw or just hit 8 on your keyboard. Change from the pencil tool to the little arrow by clicking it or by just hitting 1 on your keyboard. Notes are displayed as horizontal bars and the dynamics as vertical bars at the bottom of your window.
Some VSTi have only 1 output which is always enabled by default. Now, you can insert Effects and Processors on every single track! By what do I mean by correct? Programs like EZDrummer and Nexus can produce more than 1 sounds. The way of setting up the tracks that I showed you above allows you to use every single program no matter how many outputs it needs.
No matter if you need 1 output or multiple outputs you are able to use everything. On the contrary, the Instrument Track needs less clicks and less time to setup your software but it works only for software that needs only 1 output.
It really depends on the program that you want to use. Choose a VSTi that needs only 1 output.