ra/papers/ImunoMod_SSIpdf Roitt, I.M.: Imunologia 5edn. Tradução Moysés A. Fuks. Atheneu Editora, São Paulo () Tierney Jr., L.M. Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pober JS. Imunologia Celular e. Molecular. 4th ed. Rio de Janeiro: Revinter; Roitt I, Brostoff J, Male D. Imunologia. 4th ed. A nova edição de Roitt - Fundamentos de Imunologia inclui diversas figuras novas, além das originais, de qualidade indiscutível, o que enfatiza sua abordagem.
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PDF | O ensino e a investigação no campo da Imunologia se inscrevem, prevalentemente, num paradigma marcial - ou Roitt I, Brostoff J, Male D. Imunologia. de Microbiologia e Imunologia do Centro de Citologia Experimental de que é responsável . vários manuais de Imunologia (Roitt, ; Abbas et ai., ). Veja grátis o arquivo Really Essential Medical Immunology 2nd ed A. Rabson, I. Roitt, P. Delves (Blackwell, ) WW enviado para a disciplina de Imunologia.
Silverstein AM. A History of Immunology. Immune System. Accessed March 6; Kuby Immunology. Inmunodeficiencias primarias.
Complement components opsonize the bacteria for phagocytosis 3. In addition to the responses shown here, activation of the complement system increases blood flow and vascular permeability at the site of activation. Activated components can also induce the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells. Cytokines signal between lymphocytes, phagocytes, and other cells of the body Cytokine is the general term for a large group of molecules involved in signaling between cells during immune responses.
All cytokines are proteins or glycoproteins. The different cytokines fall into a number of categories, and the principal subgroups of cytokines are outlined below. IFNs induce a state of antiviral resistance in uninfected cells Fig. They are produced very early in infection and are important in delaying the spread of a virus until such time as the adaptive immune response has developed.
They have a variety of functions. Many interleukins cause other cells to divide and differentiate. The balance of different CSFs is partially responsible for the proportions of different immune cell types produced. Some CSFs also promote further differentiation of cells outside the bone marrow. For example: TH1 cells release one set of cytokines, which promote TH1 cell interactions with mononuclear phagocytes; TH2 cells release a different set of cytokines, which allow TH2 cells to activate B cells.
Some cytokines may be produced by all T cells, and some just by a specific subset.
Equally important is the expression of cytokine receptors. Only a cell that has the appropriate receptors can respond to a particular cytokine. For example: the receptors for interferons see above are present on all nucleated cells in the body; other receptors are much more restricted in their distribution.
In general, cytokine receptors are specific for their own individual cytokine, but this is not always so. In particular, many chemokine receptors respond to several different chemokines. Some chemokines also activate cells to carry out particular functions. The primary function of the immune system is to eliminate infectious agents and minimize the damage they cause. It ensures that most infections in normal individuals are short-lived and leave little permanent damage.
Infectious agents that cause damage are referred to as pathogens. However, even normally harmless organisms can pose a lethal threat to an individual who has a defect in a critical component of their immune system see Chapters 16 and The immune system can fail to act or act inappropriately in a variety of ways, leading to immunopathological reactions.
The paramount importance of immune defenses is underscored by the fact that individuals with genetic defects in various components of the immune system succumb to infections early in life see Chapter Interferons IFN IFN virus infected cell T antigen virus-resistant cell Immune system responses vary and depend on the pathogen Pathogens use many modes of transmission and reproduction, so the immune system has evolved many ways of responding to them.
The exterior defenses of the body Fig. Very few infectious agents can penetrate intact skin. In contrast: many infectious agents gain access to the body across the epithelia of the gastrointestinal or urogenital tracts; Fig. TH1 cells secrete interferon- IFN after activation by antigen. IFNs act on other host cells to induce resistance to viral infection.
IFN has many other effects as well. Because these components are present in the tissue fluids of the body the humors of ancient medicine , they have been classically referred to as humoral immunity. Some pathogens evade humoral immunity Many organisms e. To clear these infections, the immune system has developed ways to specically recognize and destroy infected cells.
This is largely the job of cell-mediated immunity. Intracellular pathogens cannot, however, wholly evade the extracellular defenses see Fig. As a result they are susceptible to humoral immunity during this portion of their life cycle. Any immune response involves: rst, recognition of the pathogen or other foreign material; and second, a reaction to eliminate it. Canine CD Characterization of monoclonal antibodies that recognize canine CD Flow cytometric detection of activated platelets in the dog.
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Imunologia Roitt, Peter J. Really Essential Medical Immunology 2nd ed A. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act , without the prior permission of the publisher.