Cancun, Cozumel & the Yucatan - Isla Mujeres (PDF Chapter) is the Isla Mujeres chapter from Lonely Planet's Cancun, Cozumal & the Yucatan guidebook. Read Lonely Planet Cancun, Cozumel & the Yucatan PDF Travel Guide Ebook by Lonely portal7.infohed by Lonely Planet, ePUB/PDF. This books (Lonely Planet Cancun, Cozumel the Yucatan (Travel Guide) [PDF]) Made by Lonely Planet About Books Caution! No English.
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This is the Yucatán Peninsula chapter from Lonely Planet's Mexico guide-book. Few Mexican destinations can dazzle you with ancient Maya ruins, azure. Why I Love Cancún, Cozumel & the Yucatán. By John Hecht, Author. Above all, I love the colors. Maybe I've been living in smog-choked Mexico City waaay too. Cancun, Cozumel & the Yucatan - Riviera Maya (PDF Chapter) is the Riviera Maya chapter from Lonely Planet's Cancun, Cozumal & the Yucatan guidebook.
He was appointed Governor of Coquivacoa behind the back of Christopher Columbus. This appointment gave him the right to found a colony in this area, although he was advised not to visit Paria. On this occasion he kept his distance from the Gulf of Paria and made landfall on Margarita Island where, according to some sources, he tried to obtain gold and pearls from the indigenous people using a number of different methods. The colony was called Santa Cruz and it was the first Spanish settlement on Colombian territory and therefore the first on the American mainland. However, the colony did not last for more than three months, as the new arrivals started attacking the indigenous villages in the area, causing constant conflict with them. In addition to this there were personal difficulties between Ojeda and his men. At this point Vergara and Campos took Ojeda prisoner and abandoned the settlement with the small amount of plunder that had been captured.
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See All Countries. Cart Shopping Cart. Mobile Navigation. Sign In Your Account. Chapter Details. Previous Chapter Next Chapter. As the Earth rotated, the airborne material converged at the opposite side of the planet, where it fell and set fire to the entire Indian subcontinent. Meanwhile, giant tsunamis resulting from the impact churned across the Gulf of Mexico, tearing up coastlines, sometimes peeling up hundreds of feet of rock, pushing debris inland and then sucking it back out into deep water, leaving jumbled deposits that oilmen sometimes encounter in the course of deep-sea drilling.
The damage had only begun. Scientists still debate many of the details, which are derived from the computer models, and from field studies of the debris layer, knowledge of extinction rates, fossils and microfossils, and many other clues.
But the over-all view is consistently grim. Photosynthesis all but stopped, killing most of the plant life, extinguishing the phytoplankton in the oceans, and causing the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere to plummet.
After the fires died down, Earth plunged into a period of cold, perhaps even a deep freeze. About seventy-five per cent of all species went extinct.
More than When the asteroid struck, it vaporized layers of limestone, releasing into the atmosphere a trillion tons of carbon dioxide, ten billion tons of methane, and a billion tons of carbon monoxide; all three are powerful greenhouse gases. The impact also vaporized anhydrite rock, which blasted ten trillion tons of sulfur compounds aloft. The sulfur combined with water to form sulfuric acid, which then fell as an acid rain that may have been potent enough to strip the leaves from any surviving plants and to leach the nutrients from the soil.
This is called the KT boundary, because it marks the dividing line between the Cretaceous period and the Tertiary period. Mysteries abound above and below the KT layer. In the late Cretaceous, widespread volcanoes spewed vast quantities of gas and dust into the atmosphere, and the air contained far higher levels of carbon dioxide than the air that we breathe now.
The climate was tropical, and the planet was perhaps entirely free of ice.
Yet scientists know very little about the animals and plants that were living at the time, and as a result they have been searching for fossil deposits as close to the KT boundary as possible.
Consequently, numerous paleontologists have argued that the dinosaurs were on the way to extinction long before the asteroid struck, owing perhaps to the volcanic eruptions and climate change.
Other scientists have countered that the three-metre problem merely reflects how hard it is to find fossils.
Locked in the KT boundary are the answers to our questions about one of the most significant events in the history of life on the planet. If one looks at the Earth as a kind of living organism, as many biologists do, you could say that it was shot by a bullet and almost died.
I would prefer not outlining the details via e-mail, if possible. At first, I was skeptical. DePalma was a scientific nobody, a Ph.
I thought that he was likely exaggerating, or that he might even be crazy. Paleontology has more than its share of unusual people. But I was intrigued enough to get on a plane to North Dakota to see for myself.
At the time of the impact, the Hell Creek landscape consisted of steamy, subtropical lowlands and floodplains along the shores of an inland sea. The land teemed with life and the conditions were excellent for fossilization, with seasonal floods and meandering rivers that rapidly buried dead animals and plants. Dinosaur hunters first discovered these rich fossil beds in the late nineteenth century. In , Barnum Brown, a flamboyant dinosaur hunter who worked at the American Museum of Natural History, in New York, found the first Tyrannosaurus rex here, causing a worldwide sensation.
One paleontologist estimated that in the Cretaceous period Hell Creek was so thick with T. It was also home to triceratops and duckbills. This was true not only in Hell Creek but all over the world.
For many years, scientists believed that the KT extinction was no great mystery: over millions of years, volcanism, climate change, and other events gradually killed off many forms of life. But, in the late nineteen-seventies, a young geologist named Walter Alvarez and his father, Luis Alvarez, a nuclear physicist, discovered that the KT layer was laced with unusually high amounts of the rare metal iridium, which, they hypothesized, was from the dusty remains of an asteroid impact.
In an article in Science, published in , they proposed that this impact was so large that it triggered the mass extinction, and that the KT layer was the debris from that event. Most paleontologists rejected the idea that a sudden, random encounter with space junk had drastically altered the evolution of life on Earth. The crater and the asteroid were named Chicxulub, after a small Mayan town near the epicenter. But opposition to the idea remains passionate. The site had once been a pond, and the deposit consisted of very thin layers of sediment.
Normally, one geological layer might represent thousands or millions of years. Add to Cart. Few Mexican destinations can dazzle you with ancient Maya ruins, azure Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico waters and colonial cities all in one fell swoop.
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