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for readers. Plant Layout and Materials Handling. James MacGregor Apple. · Rating details ياريت لو حد عنده الكتاب pdf يرفعهولي عشان أنا دايخ عليه. Register Free To Download Files | File Name: Plant Layout And Material Handling James Macgregor Apple PDF. PLANT LAYOUT AND MATERIAL HANDLING. Plant Layout and Materials Handling James M. Apple. This widely used text provides thorough coverage of modern layout and material handling principles and.
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No hybrid power train is currently being offered.
The Dynamic model incorporates more aggressive bodywork including a different front fascia and lowered suspension. Engines[ edit ] Three engine options were originally available for the Evoque: two 2.
This new automatic transmission is developed by ZF Friedrichshafen. In addition, the 9-speed automatic transmission's first gear is specially designed for off-road conditions, towing, and adverse on road conditions.
Further, first gear of a 9-speed automatic transmission is much lower than the first gear of a six-speed automatic. Land Rover did not reveal any further technical details about the new automatic transmission. The manufacturer's fuel-economy estimates for the 2.
The Evoque also comes standard with Land Rover's latest version of Terrain Response , which maximises traction in a variety of conditions by altering throttle response, power distribution, and suspension settings. The Terrain Response system also includes electronic stability control , roll stability control, traction control , and an optional hill-descent control that automatically applies braking to control speed when moving down an incline.
Options include a panoramic fixed sunroof ; heated seating, steering wheel, and windscreen wipers; and an 8—inch touch screen entertainment system that can display separate images to both the driver and front passenger. In its simplest form, a material handing plan defines the material what and the moves when and where ; together, they define the method how and who. Five key aspects must be considered in developing a plan: 1. The plan should be developed in consultation between the planner s and all who will use and benefit from the equipment to be employed.
Success in planning large-scale material handling projects generally requires a team approach involving suppliers, consultants when appro- priate, and end-user specialists from management, engineering, computer and information systems, finance, and operations. The material handling plan should reflect the strategic objectives of the organization, as well as the more immediate needs. The plan should document existing methods and problems, physical and economic constraints, and future requirements and goals.
The plan should promote concurrent engineering of product, process design, process layout, and material handling methods, as opposed to independent and sequential design practices. Standardization means less variety and customization in the methods and equipment employed. There are three key aspects of achieving standardization: 1.
The planner should select methods and equipment that can perform a variety of tasks under a variety of operating conditions and in anticipation of changing future requirements.
Standardization applies to sizes of containers and other load-forming com- ponents, as well as operating procedures and equipment. Standardization, flexibility, and modularity must not be incompatible. Material handling work should be minimized without sacrificing productivity or the level of service required of the operation.
Five key points are important in optimizing the work: 1. Simplifying processes by reducing, combining, shortening, or eliminating unnecessary moves will reduce work. Consider each pickup and set-down— that is, placing material in and out of storage—as distinct moves and components of the distance moved. Where possible, gravity should be used to move materials or to assist in their movement while respecting consideration of safety and the potential for product damage see Figure 1. The shortest distance between two points is a straight line.
Human capabilities and limitations must be recog- nized and respected in the design of material handling tasks and equipment to ensure safe and effective operations. There are two key points in the ergonomic principles: 1. Equipment should be selected that eliminates repetitive and strenuous manual labor and that effectively interacts with human operators and users.
The ergonomic principle embraces both physical and mental tasks. The material handling workplace and the equipment employed to assist in that work must be designed so they are safe for people. Unit loads shall be appropriately sized and configured in a way that achieves the material flow and inventory objectives at each stage in the supply chain.
When unit load is used in material flow, six key aspects deserve attention: 1. Less effort and work are required to collect and move many individual items as a single load than to move many items one at a time. Load size and composition may change as material and products move through stages of manufacturing and the resulting distribution channels.
Large unit loads are common both pre- and postmanufacturing in the form of raw materials and finished goods. During manufacturing, smaller unit loads, including as few as one item, yield less in-process inventory and shorter item throughput times. Smaller unit loads are consistent with manufacturing strategies that embrace operating objectives such as flexibility, continuous flow, and just-in-time delivery.
Effective and efficient use must be made of all available space. This is a three-step process: 1. Eliminate cluttered and unorganized spaces and blocked aisles in work areas see Figure 1. In storage areas, balance the objective of maximizing storage density against accessibility and selectivity. If items are going to be in the ware- house for a long time, storage density is an important consideration.
Avoid honeycombing loss Figure 1. If items enter and leave the warehouse frequently, their accessibility and selectivity are important. If the storage density is too high to access or select the stored product, high storage density may not be beneficial.
Consider the use of overhead space when transporting loads within a facility. Cube per order index COI storage policy is often used in a warehouse.
Items are listed in a nondecreasing order of their COI ratios. Figure 1. Material movement and storage activities should be fully inte- grated to form a coordinated operational system that spans receiving, inspection, storage, production, assembly, packaging, unitizing, order selection, shipping, transportation, and the handling of returns.
Here are five key aspects of the system principle: 1. Systems integration should encompass the entire supply chain, including reverse logistics. It should include suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, and customers.
Inventory levels should be minimized at all stages of production and distribution, while respecting considerations of process variability and customer service. Information flow and physical material flow should be integrated and treated as concurrent activities.
Methods should be provided for easily identifying materials and products, for determining their location and status within facilities and within the supply chain, and for controlling their movement.
For instance, bar coding is the traditional method used for product identification. The big difference between the two automatic data capture technologies is that bar coding is a line-of-sight technology. RFID tags can be read as long as they are within the range of a reader, even if there is no line of sight. Bar codes have other shortcomings, as well. If a label is ripped, soiled, or falls off, there is no way to scan the item. Also, standard bar codes identify only the manufacturer and product, not the unique item.
The bar code on one gallon of 2 percent milk is the same as on every other gallon of the same brand, making it impossible to identify which one might pass its expiration date first. RFID can identify items individually. Customer requirements and expectations regarding quantity, quality, and on-time delivery should be met without exception.
It suggests the linking of multiple mechanical operations to create a system that can be controlled by programmed instructions. There are four key points in automation: 1. Computerized material handling systems should be considered where appropriate for effective integration of material flow and information management.
All items expected to be handled automatically must have features that accommodate mechanized and automated handling. All interface issues should be treated as critical to successful automa- tion, including equipment to equipment, equipment to load, equipment to operator, and control communications.
Environmental impact and energy consumption should be considered as criteria when designing or selecting alternative equipment and material handling systems. Here are the three key points: 1. Systems design should accommodate the handling of spent dunnage, empty containers, and other byproducts of material handling. Materials specified as hazardous have special needs with regard to spill protection, combustibility, and other risks.
A thorough economic analysis should account for the entire life cycle of all material handling equipment and resulting systems. There are four key aspects: 3 Types of Material Handling Equipment 9 1. Life-cycle costs include capital investment, installation, setup and equip- ment programming, training, system testing and acceptance, operating labor, utilities, etc.
A plan for preventive and predictive maintenance should be prepared for the equipment, and the estimated cost of maintenance and spare parts should be included in the economic analysis.
A long-range plan for replacement of the equipment when it becomes obsolete should be prepared. Although measurable cost is a primary factor, it is certainly not the only factor in selecting among alternatives.
Other factors of a strategic nature to the organization that form the basis for competition in the marketplace should be considered and quantified whenever possible. These ten principles are vital to material handling system design and operation.
Most are qualitative in nature and require the industrial engineer to employ these principles when designing, analyzing, and operating material handling systems. There are a number of different types of material handling devices MHDs , most of which move materials via mate- rial handling paths on the shop floor.
However, there are some MHDs—such as cranes, hoists, and overhead conveyors— that utilize the space above the machines. The choice of a specific MHD depends on a number of factors, includ- ing cost, weight, size, and volume of the loads; space availability; and types of workstations. So, in some cases the MHS interacts with the other subsystems.
If we isolate MHS from other subsystems, we might get an optimal solution relative to the MHDs but one that is suboptimal for the entire system. There are seven basic types of MHDs Heragu : conveyors, palletizers, trucks, robots, automated guided vehicles, hoists cranes and jibs, and warehouse material handling devices. In this section, we will introduce the seven basic types of MHDs.
In other words, conveyors should be consid- ered only when the volume of parts or material to be transported is large and when the transported material is relatively uniform in size and shape. Depending on the application, there are many types of conveyors— accumulation conveyor, belt conveyor, bucket conveyor, can conveyor, chain conveyor, chute conveyor, gravity conveyor, power and free conveyor, pneumatic or vacuum conveyor, 10 Materials Handling System Design roller conveyor, screw conveyor, slat conveyor, tow line conveyor, trolley con- veyor, and wheel conveyor.
Some are pictured in Figure 1. Our list is not meant to be complete, and other variations are possible. For example, belt con- veyors may be classified as troughed belt conveyors used for transporting bulky material such as coal and magnetic belt conveyors used for moving ferrous material against gravitational force.
For the latest product information on con- veyors and other types of material handling equipment, we strongly encourage the reader to refer to recent issues of Material Handling Engineering and Modern a Figure 1. These publications not only have articles illustrating use of the material handling equipment but also numerous product advertisements.
With operator-friendly touch-screen con- trols, they palletize at the rate of a hundred cases per minute see Figure 1. There are several trucks in the market with different weight, cost, functionality, and other features. Hand truck, fork lift truck, pallet truck, platform truck, counter- balanced truck, tractor-trailer truck, and automated guided vehicles AGVs are some examples of trucks see Figure 1.
They are also capable of moving like the human arm and can perform functions such as weld, pick and place, load and unload see Figure 1. Some advantages of using a robot are that they can perform complex repetitive tasks automatically and they can work in hazardous and uncomfortable environments that a human operator cannot work.
The disadvantage is that robots are relatively expensive. The first system was installed in , and the technology continues to expand. AGVs can be regarded as a type of specially designed robots. Their paths can be controlled in a number of different ways. They can be fully automated or semiautomated. AGVs are becoming more flexible with a wider range of applications using more diverse vehicle types, load transfer techniques, guide path arrangements, controls, and control interfaces.
They can also be embedded into other MHDs. A sample of AGVs and their applications are illustrated in Figure 1.