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Shankar IAS Environment PDF Click To Download · Click Here sir, plz upload remaining Unacademy Mrunal Economy Notes PDF as soon as possible. In this artical We are Sharing With You Shankar IAS Environment PDF. This Magazine will be Helpful for UPSC Prelims GS paper 1. In this artical We are Sharing With You Summary of Shankar IAS Environment and Ecology PDF. This Magazine will be Helpful for UPSC.
All the downloads, updates, current affairs etc. Every year more than 20 questions are asked from Environment. Prelims Questions are solved with detailed explanation in notes. General Studies 1 geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features including water bodies and ice-caps and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes. Environment Based Questions asked under Geography GS I Mains Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata are the three mega cities of the country but the air pollution is much more serious problem in Delhi as compared to the other two. Why is this so?
Marine Ecosystem Nearly three — quarter of earth's surface is covered by ocean with an average depth of 3. In estuaries. They vary considerably in physical. Life in the biosphere is abundant between metres feet below the surface of the ocean and about 6.
Estuaries Coastal bays Only a few organisms live in the polar regions. Living organisms are not uniformly distributed throughout the biosphere. The nutrients necessary for living organisms come from air. Biosphere is absent at extremes of the North and South poles. The energy required for the life within the biosphere comes from the sun. It is a narrow layer around the surface of the earth.
If we visualise the earth to be the size of an apple the biosphere would be as thick as its skin. Lotic water system includes freshwater streams. Occasionally spores of fungi and bacteria do occur at great height beyond 8. Fresh Water Ecosystem Fresh water ecosystem are classified as lotic moving water or lentic still or stagnant water. The same chemicals are recycled over and over again for life to continue.
Biosphere Aquatic systems are not called biomes. Biosphere represents a highly integrated and interacting zone comprising of atmosphere air. Estuaries are highly productive as compared to the adjacent river or sea. No iJ Aquatic ecosystem Characteristics 1.
The sequence of eaten and being eaten.. Ecological Pyramids The study of Trophic level interaction in an ecosystem gives an idea about the energy flow through the ecosystem.
This energy always flows from lower producer to higher herbivore. Food Chain Energy is the basic force responsible for all metabolic activities. Trophic levels are numbered according to the steps an organism is away from the source of food or energy. There is a loss of some energy in the form of unusable heat at each trophic level so that energy level decreases from the first trophic level upwards. It never lfows in the reverse direction that is from carnivores to herbivores to producers.
Trophic level interaction Trophic level interaction deals with how the members of an ecosystem are connected based on nutritional needs. The plant converts solar energy into protoplasm by photosynthesis. These herbivores are eaten by large carnivores. A sequence of organisms that feed on one another. Food Web 3.
The trophic level interaction involves three concepts namely: It can be studied under the following three heads.
Organisms in the ecosystem are related to each. A food chain starts with producers and ends with top carnivores. The flow of energy from producer to top consumers is called energy flow which is unidirectional. Similarly a herbivore may be food source for many different carnivorous species.
For example. More typically. Terrestrial nake Aquatic Pelican "A food web illustrates. This food chain begins from green plants at the base and the primary consumer is herbivore. An ecosystem may consist of several interrelated food chains.
Thus there are interconnected networks of feeding relationships that take the form of food webs. The two food chains are linked. In Aquatic ecosystem phytoplanktons primary producers is eaten by zoo planktons which is eaten by fishes and fishes are eaten by pelicans.
Also food availability and preferences of food of the organisms may shift seasonally e. In the grazing food chain the primary source of energy is living plant biomass while in the detritus food chain the source of energy is dead organic matter or detritus. Types of Food Chains In nature. The initial energy source for detritus food chain is the waste materials and dead organic matter from the grazing food chain.
The food web provides more than one alternative for food to most of the organisms in an ecosystem and therefore increases their chance of survival.
In terestrial ecosystem. Detritus food chain The distinction between these two food chains is the source of energy for the first level consumers. A food chain represents only one part of the food or energy flow through an ecosystem and implies a simple.
HYPerParasites This deals with the relationship between the numbers of primary producers and consumers of different levels. The length of each bar represents the total number of individuals at each trophic level in an ecosystem.
The individual number of grasshopper is less than that of grass. The next higher trophic level is secondary carnivore example. The number. The pyramid consists of a number of horizontal bars depicting specific trophic levels which are arranged sequentially from primary producer level through herbivore. A pyramid of numbers does not take into account the fact that the size of organisms being counted in each trophic level can vary. The food producer forms the base of the pyramid and the top carnivore forms the tip.
The number of rats are less than grasshopper. The next energy level is primary carnivore example. Hyper parasites being at higher trophic level represents higher in number. Pyramid of numbers. The next higher trophic level is the top carnivore. Pyramid of Numbers. With each higher trophic level. It is a graphic representation of the total number of individuals of different species. SkiffeC Parasites '. Birds in the next higher trophic level and it is followed by parasites in the next trophic level.
Other consumer trophic levels are in between. Pyramid of energy or productivity 2. They feed on rats. Pyramid of biomass. The ecological pyramids are of three categories.
This overcomes the size difference problem because all kinds of organisms at a trophic level are weighed. Pyramid of Biomass In order to overcome the shortcomings of pyramid of numbers. Inverted Pyramid in an Aquatic Ecosystem This is because the producers are tiny phytoplanktons that grow and reproduce rapidly. Hence the pyramid is always upward.
Let us explain this with an example. The biomass of next trophic level i. Snakes have a small no eh In their lips that they can el their tongues through so they don't need to open'their mouths.. Pyramid of biomass is usually determined by Collecting all organisms occupying each trophic level separately and measuring their dry weight.
Most of the energy is not absorbed. In this approach individuals in each trophic level are weighed instead of being counted.
This gives us a pyramid of biomass. An energy pyramid. To compare the functional roles of the trophic levels in an ecosystem. Pyramid of Energy The biomass of producers autotrophs is at the maximum. Carnivore Herbivores Producers a Upward pyramid For most ecosystems on land. It is very difficult to count all the organisms. The top.
Suppose an ecosystem receives calories of light energy in a given day.
If a pollutant is not active biologically. Nondegradabale pollutants mean materials. Thus in biomagnification there is an increase in concentration of a pollutant from one link in a food chain to another.
A lion that eats the deer gets an even smaller amount of energy. Primary Consumer kcal Magnification of Concentratior Pollutants that dissolve in fats. Thus usable energy decreases from sunlight to producer to herbivore to carnivore. In mammals. The deer uses some of it for its own metabolism and stores only 10 cal as food energy. If the pollutant is soluble in water. We are concerned about these phenomena because.
Movement of these pollutants involves two main processes: It is traditional to measure the amount of pollutants in fatty tissues of organisms such as fish. If a pollutant is short-lived. If it is not mobile. Biotic Interaction S. Both influence the abundance of organisms. These elements or mineral nutrients are always in circulation moving from non-living to living and then back to the non-living components of the ecosystem in a more or less circular fashion.
They can be recycled again and again indefinitely. Neutralism is also sometimes described as the relationship between two species inhabiting the same space and using the same resources.
It is not clear how often this happens in nature. Amensalism - 0 The living world depends upon the energy flow and the nutrients circulation that occurs through ecosystem. In this case.
On the other hand. Competition - - 4. This circular fashion is known as biogeochemical cycling bio for living. The interaction between the organisms is fundamental for its survival and functioning of ecosystem as a whole. The small plant has no effect on the large tree. The nutrient cycle is a concept that describes how nutrients move from the physical environment to the living organisms.
A large tree shades a small plant. Predation and parasitism: Nutrient Cycling Example: Energy flows through ecosystems enabling the organisms to perform various kinds of work and this energy is ultimately lost as heat forever in terms of the usefulness of the system. Type Spices 1 Species 2 1. In any particular environment. In addition to these about 15 to 25 other elements are needed in some form for the survival and good health of plants and animals.
The beetles have no effect on the cows. One species is harmed. Perhaps in some interspecific This movement of nutrients from the environment into plants and animals and again back to the environment is essential for life and it is the vital function of the ecology of any region. There is no net benefit or harm to either species.
Most gaseous cycles are generally considered as perfect cycles. The hydrologic cycle is the continuous circulation of water in the Earth-atmosphere system which is driven by solar energy.
It is the element that anchors all organic substances from coal and oil to DNA deoxyribonudeic acid: Cycling of all other nutrients is also dependent upon water as it provides their transportation during the various steps.
Gaseous Cycles Let us first study some of the most important gaseous cycles. Both of these cycles make up an essential part of the overall soil nutrient cycle.
Among the most important nutrient cycles are the carbon nutrient cycle and the nitrogen nutrient cycle. Water moves from one reservoir to another by the processes of evaporation.
There are many other nutrient cycles that are important in ecology. It acts as a solvent medium for their uptake of nutrients by organisms. Water on our planet is stored in major reservoirs like atmosphere.
Eutrophication and Harmful. It may lead to Acid rain. When they are burned the carbon stored in them is released back into the atmosphere as carbon-dioxide. Fossil fuels such as coals.
Nitrogen fixation on earth is accomplished in three different ways: In deep oceans such carbon can remained buried for millions of years till geological movement may lift these rocks above sea level. These include free living nitrifying bacteria e. Carbon Cycle Some carbon also enters a long term cycle. These rocks may be exposed to erosion. Nitrite is then further transformed into nitrate by the bacteria Nitrobacter. AteatlitAtt de maids: Certain microorganisms are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium ions.
Carbon from the atmosphere moves to green plants by the process of photosynthesis. It accumulates as un-decomposed organic matter in the peaty layers of marshy soil or as insoluble carbonates in bottom sediments of aquatic systems which take a long time to be released.
Nitrosomonas bacteria promote transformation of ammonia into nitrite. Carbon cyde involves a continuous exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and organisms. There is an inexhaustible supply of nitrogen in the atmosphere but the elemental form cannot be used directly by most of the living organisms. Rhizobium as well as blue green algae e.
As a result Nitrogen has become a pollutant which can disrupt the balance of nitrogen. Ammonium ions can be directly taken up as a source of nitrogen by some plants.. By process of respiration and decomposition of dead organic matter it returns back to atmosphere.
It is usually a short term cycle. Algal Blooms. This is the nutrient considered to be the main cause of excessive growth of rooted and free-floating microscopic plants in lakes.
It is released by weathering of rocks. Sulphur enters the atmosphere from several sources like volcanic eruptions. The element involved in the sedimentary cycle normally does not cycle through the atmosphere but follows a basic pattern of flow through erosion. Atmospheric sulphur dioxide is carried back to the earth after being dissolved in rainwater as weak sulphuric acid.
Sedimentary Cycle Phosphorus. Certain quantity of soil nitrates. By the process of weathering and erosion phosphates enter rivers and streams that transport them to the ocean. The sulphur cycle is mostly sedimentary except two of its compounds hydrogen sulphide H2S and sulphur dioxide SO2 add a gaseous component to its normal sedimentary cycle.
On land phosphorus is usually found in the form of phosphates. After millions of years. During excretion and upon the death of all organisms nitrogen is returned to the soil in the form of ammonia. These then go through higher trophic levels of the ecosystem. VT The periodic thunderstorms convert the gaseous nitrogen in the atmosphere to ammonia and nitrates which eventually reach the earth's surface through precipitation and then into the soil to be utilized by plants.
After more time. In the ocean once the phosphorus accumulates on continental shelves in the form of insoluble deposits.
Unlike carbon and nitrogen. This nitrogen escapes into the atmosphere. Atmospheric hydrogen sulphide also gets oxidised into sulphur dioxide. In the soil as well as oceans there are special denitrifying bacteria e. Succession occurs when a series of communities replace one another due to large scale destruction either natural or manmade.
The final stage of succession is called the climax community. Primary Succession In primary succession on a terrestrial site the new site is first colonized by a few hardy pioneer species that are often microbes.
The Bio-geochemical cycles discussed here are only a few of the many cycles present in the ecosystem. The pioneer species disappear as the habitat conditions change and invasion of new species progresges. The organic matter produced by these pioneer species produce organic adds during decomposition that dissolve and etch the substratum releasing nutrients to the substratum.
Organic debris accumulates in pockets and crevices. Sulphur bound in living organism is carried back to the soil. This process continues one community replacing another community. These cycles usually do not operate dependently but interact with each other at some point or the other.
As the community of organisms continues to develop. Sulphur Cycle Whatever the source. Succession is a progressive series of changes which leads to the establishment of a relatively stable climax community.
The stage leading to the climax community are called successional stages or seres. These new conditions may be conducive to the establishment of additional organisms that may subsequently arrive at the site. The pioneers through their death any decay leave patches of organic matter in which small animals can live.
The pioneers over a few generations alter the habitat conditions by their growth and development. Succession is characterised by the following: It then passes through the grazing food chain. Succession would occur faster in area existing in the middle of the large continent. Thus an abandoned farmland over a period becomes dominated by trees and is transformed into a forest Thus secondary succession is relatively faster as compared to primary succession which may often require hundreds of years.
Autogenic and Allogenic Succession When succession is brought about by living inhabitants of that community itself. These dominate the ecosystem for some years along with mice. A mature or intermediate community may be destroyed by natural events such as floods. Secondary Succession Secondary succession occurs when plants recognize an area in which the climax community has been disturbed.
And over the years. Secondary succession is the sequential development of biotic communities after the complete or partial destruction of the existing community. These grasses may be soon joined by tall grasses and herbaceous plants. This is because. The body is covered with fur for insulation. It occupies the northern fringe of Canada. Optimum conditions such as temperature and ground moisture are responsible for the establishment of forest communities.
Forests may be evergreen or deciduous. Due to variation in the topographic features of valleys. Insects have short life cycles which are completed during favourable period of the year. These differences are reflected in both the material and biotic diversities. Arctic tundra extends as a continuous belt below the polar ice cap and above the tree line in the northern hemisphere.
They are distinguished on the basis of leaf into broad-leafed or needle leafed coniferous forests in the case of temperate areas. Coniferous forest boreal forest: On the south pole. All these forest biomes are generally arranged on a gradient from north to south latitude or from high to lower altitude. Altitudinal and latitudinal variations cause shifts and differences in the climatic patterns. European Russia. The forest ecosystems have been classified into three major categories: Typical vegetation of arctic tundra is cotton grass.
Animals of tundra are reindeer. Most of them have long life e. Alpine tundra occurs at high mountains above the tree line. Siberia and island group of Arctic Ocean. Mammals of the tundra region have large body size and small tail and ear to avoid the loss of heat from the surface. The nature of soil. Poison 4elO the 3. The most important limiting factors of the terrestrial ecosystems are moisture and temperature.
They are protected from chillness by the presence of thick cuticle and epidermal hair. Salix arctica i. There are two types of tundra. Since mountains are found at all latitudes therefore alpine tundra shows day and night temperature variations. Due to varied climate. Tropical rain forests: Temperate rain forests: Temperate deciduous forest: This process leaves no alkaline oriented cations to encounter the organic acids of the accumulating litter.
The extreme dense vegetation of the tropical rain forests remains vertically stratified with tall trees often covered with vines. It is the important source of water than rainfall itself. Temperate evergreen forest: This is due to movement of large amount of water through the soil. Tropical seasonal forests: Both because.
It is mainly hard-leaved evergreen trees with fragrant flowers. Tropical Dry evergreen forest Dry evergreens are found along Tamil Nadu. Littoral and swamp Littoral and swamp forests are found along the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the delta area of the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. Tropical Moist deciduous forests Moist deciduous forests are found throughout India except in the western and the north-western regions.
Tropical Thorn forests This type is found in areas with black soil: The trees are tall. The trees do not grow beyond 10 metres. Tropical Semi-evergreen forests Semi-evergreen forests are found in the Western Ghats. In the Eastern Himalayas.
Tropical Wet evergreen forests Wet evergreen forests are found along the Western Ghats. There is a layer of shorter trees and evergreen shrubs in the undergrowth. Tropical Dry deciduous forest Dry deciduous forests are found throughout the northern part of the country except in the North-East.
The canopy. Forests varied according to their nature and composition. The trees in this forest form a tier pattern: These forests are dominated by sal and teak. Such forests have a mixture of the wet evergreen trees and the moist deciduous trees. Andhra Pradesh. Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Epiphytes are common here. In the Silent Valley. Forest types in India are classified by Champion and Seth into sixteen types.
The more common trees that are found here are the jackfruit. There is a marked difference in the form of vegetation in the two areas. There are a large variety of orchids. Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka coast. The forest is dense and is filled with a large variety of trees of both types. The common trees are the sal. Beautiful fern of various colours and different varieties of orchids grow on the trunks of the trees.
These wet forests consist mainly of evergreen trees with a sprinkling of deciduous here and there. There are oak. Animal life of subtropical forest is very similar to that of tropical rainforests. They have roots that consist of soft tissue so that the plant can breathe in the water.
It is also found in Madhya Pradesh. Some of the taller trees shed their leaves in the dry season. It is characterized by tall. Subtropical rain forests: This type is found in Lahul. The trees found in the western section are broad-leaved oak. The trees predominantly found in these areas are the chir. Dwarf plants predominate. There are predominantly coniferous trees.
Rhododendrons and a variety of ground flora can be found here. Mosses and ferns cover the ground in patches. Dry alpine scrub Importance of Forest 3. Sub alpine forest In the North. There are a large variety of broad-leaved trees. Montane Wet temperate forests 3. This region receives heavy snowfall. Coniferous trees are also found here. In the North. Sub tropical Pine forests 3. It has a low scrub. Due to heavy rainfall and high humidity the timberline in this part is higher than that in the West.
Montane wet temperate forests are found in the region to the east of Nepal into Arunachal Pradesh. In the eastern parts. In the Western Himalayas. Dry alpines are found from about metres to about metres.
These forests are found in the Shivalik Hills and foothills of the Himalayas up to a height of metres. It generally has evergreen trees with shining leaves that have a varnished look. Rhododendron of many species covers the hills in these parts. Sub tropical Dry evergreen forests Sub alpine forests extend from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh between to metres. Western and Central Himalayas. At higher elevation. The forests in the northern region are denser than in the South. Himalayan Moist temperate Forest From air we breathe.
Moist Alpine scrub In the South. Dry evergreen forests normally have a prolonged hot and dry season and a cold winter. Due to deforestation. How it affects? Causes 1 Shifting cultivation: This exerted tremendous pressure on forest ecosystem and their unrestricted exploitation for various other raw materials is the main cause of degradation of the forest ecosystem. All that is required for this method of cultivation is a set of simple tools.
Deforestation also results from overgrazing. The human population have increased considerably. The obvious result is deforestation and erosion.
Many of these projects require immense deforestation. Forage is available only during the brief wet season. Typical grasslands are vegetation formations that are generally found in temperate climates. In the central and eastern parts of Rajasthan. Calotropis gigantia. Steppe formations occupy large areas of sandy and saline soil. The major difference between steppes and savannas is that all the forage in the steppe is provided only during the brief wet season whereas in the savannas forage is largely from grasses that not only grow during the wet season but also from the smaller amount of regrowth in the dry season.
Four major types of grasslands are discussed here. Prosopis cineraria. The topography is broken up by hill spurs and sand dunes. Cassia auriculata. Zizyphus ber and sometimes fleshy Euphorbia. The grass layer is sparse and consists mainly of annual grass species. Delhi and Punjab. The light shade cast by the sparse population of trees like khetri Prosopis cineraria favours the growth of the grasses. Salvadora oloides and zizyphus Nummularia which make the savanna rangeland look like scrub.
Soymida febrifuga and other deciduous species. The rest of India's grasslands are mainly composed of steppes and savannas.
Based on climatic conditions there are six types of grasslands found in the different regions of the Indian subcontinent. Rajasthan excluding Aravallis. The thorny bushes are Acacia catechu. Himachal Pradesh and. Role of fire 3. Under moist conditions fire favours grass over trees. West Bengal. Cypodon dactylon and Dichanthium annulatum are found in transition zones. This huge mass of livestock needs fodder for sustenance but there is not enough of it.
Jhansi and Central Arid Zone Research institute. Cynodon daotylon. Jammu and Kashmir.. Some of these are replaced by Borassus sp in the palm savannas especially near Sunderbans.
Uttar Pradesh. At high. It is a major source of fuel. Butea monosperma. Phoenic sylvestris and Zizyphus nummularia. Water arid wind erosion completely deteribrates dry grassland microclimate.
On top of it. The relative humidity of the atmosphere is always low. The cold season starts from about the middle of November to the middle of March. The annuals wherever present germinate. The climate is hostile to all vegetation.
During April to June the heat are intense. This is an adaption to desert condition. Where soils are suitable. This season is characterized by extreme variations of temperature and the temperature is frequently below freezing point at night.
The first group consists of two types: A few species of nocturnal rodents can live in the desert without drinking water. The winter rains of northern India rarely penetrate into the region.
The proper desert plants may be divided into two main groups. These arid areas are notalieded by the Indian monsoons because they lie in the rain-shadow of the Himalayan mountain systems. Woolly hare. Grazing period is less than months. Betula utilis. Juniperus recurva. Ladakh Uriyal. Major animal include yaks. The rain perennials are visible above the ground only during the rainy season. Brown Bear. The nesting ground of Flamingoes and the only known population of Asiatic wild Ass lies in the remote part of Great Rarm.
The flora and fauna is unique to the area. They appear almost immediately after rain. Tibetan Antelope chiru. Tibetan Wolf. Soil has low water retention capacity. No vegetation due to permanently frozen soil. Rhododendron with grasses. Black Necked Crane. Tibetan Gazelle. Tibetan Argali. Wild Yak. Salix spp. Characterised by extreme cold weather and denuded terrain they are not suitable.
Sandgrouse and desert fox inhabit the open plains. It is the migration flyway used by cranes and f l amingos. Cenchrus biflorus and Sueda fruticosa. Tecomella undulate. Presence of vegetation prevents the soil erosion and modifies the hostile climate.
In arid and semiarid regions. The cause of this process is not climatic changes. The National Action Programme for combating desertification was prepared in to take appropriate action in addressing the problems of desertification.
The details of drylands undergoing desertification are given below: Arid Increase in population and lack of alternative employment opportunities have left the people living in the Thar desert with no choice but to continue grazing cattle even in its inhospitable conditions.
Desertification is a main problem faced by desert adjoining areas. Punjab and Haryana. Problems for Afforestation Control measures Unless swift to conservation measures are taken and proper employment opportunities are found for the local people. The fourth report was submitted in the year The total area undergoing the process of land degradation in India is Punjab and Trans-Himalayan regions are in scarce of vegetation.
E i Fresh water ecosystems. The depth to which light penetrates a lake determines the extent of plant distribution. Factors Limiting the Productivity of Aquatic Habitats Sunlight and oxygen are most important limiting factors of the aquatic ecosystems whereas moisture and temperature are the main limiting factors of terrestrial ecosystem.
These are unattached organisms which live at the air-water interface such as floating plants. Aquatic ecosystems are classified based on their salt content. The salt content of fresh bodies is very low. Some organisms spend most of their lives on top of the air-water interface such as water striders.
These are organisms whiCh remain attached to stems and leaves of rooted plants or substances This deep. Thus in shallow lakes. Respiration occurs at all depths so the aphotic zone is a region of oxygen consumption. Other limiting factors which influence on aquatic productivity are Transparency: This condition is known as winterkill.
Fish die. Warm water also enhances decomposer activity. The classification of organ-sms and limiting factors discussed here apply in geperal to all aquatic ecosystems. Dissolved oxygen: Winterkill Snow cover of ice on water body can effectively cut off light.
They ar e oup of mammals. Aphotic zone: Hence photosynthesis stops but respiration continues. Oxygen is less soluble in warm water. Do you knoWT. Based-on the levels of salinity. Aquatic plant production 2. Aquatic plant nutrient flux Low High 4. General Characteristics of Oligotrophic Over periods spanning millennia.
Number of Many plant and animal species 4. Similar nutrient enrichment of lakes at an accelerated rate is caused by human activities discharge of wastewaters or agricultural runoff and the consequent ageing phenomenon is known as 'cultural eutrophication'.
This process is known as natural eutrophication. In the semi-arid and arid regions of western and peninsular India. Brackish or Saline lakes similar to that of classification of aquatic ecosystem. Oxygen in the Present Absent hypolimnion bottom layer Depth Tend to be Tend to be deeper shallower 5.
Mesotrophic moderate nutrients and Eutrophic highly nutrient rich. Type of lake Sl. Usually lower Fewer 4. Ganga and Brahmaputra. Vast majority of lakes in India are either eutrophic or mesotrophic because of the nutrients derived from their surroundings or organic wastes entering them. In India In India. The nutrient-enrichment of the lakes promotes the growth of algae. Total salts or conductance Sometimes higher 8. Like any organism. Eutrophication is a syndrome of ecosystem.
Process of Eutrophication Perhaps because another nutrient becomes limiting. This growth is unsustainable. Time 1. Decomposition further depletes oxygen: Nutrient load up: The growth of green algae which we see in the lake surface layer is the physical identification of an Eutrophication.
Death of the ecosysterm oxygen levels reach a pold where no fire is possble Plants flourish: Fish and othei organisms die: Eventually it leads to death of all living organism in aquatic ecosystem: New species invasion iicational and recreational val pie rn gardfmpg. Decreased biodiversity x nctezttat: This cause shifting in species composition of ecosystem Occurs over centuries Eg. Restricts the sunlight penetration Underground aquatic Algae.
P egradation of aquatic ecosystem 4. Natural Agricultural runoff. Effects Change in ecosystem: Seasonally inundated tropical flood plains Transportation to the aquatic ecosystem Nutrient accumulatiOri and enrichment Overgrowth of Algae 2. Sources 1. Bacterial Decomposition consumes the available oxygen in the aquatic ecosystem Anoxia condition Devoid of oxygen 4r All aquatic organism die due to lack of 02 2.
It causes death of plants. Affects navigation due to increased turbidity. They are major producers of oxygen and food for many of the animals that live in these waters. The toxins may also make the surrounding air difficult to breathe. These blooms are commonly referred to as red or brown tides. Algal blooms can be any color. What is the use of algae? Why Red Tide is a misnomer? It will reduce the amount of nitrogen lost to the surrounding area.
Sediments and nutrients are deposited in the buffer zones instead of deposition in water. All the downloads, updates, current affairs etc. Every year more than 20 questions are asked from Environment. Prelims Questions are solved with detailed explanation in notes. General Studies 1 geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features including water bodies and ice-caps and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
Environment Based Questions asked under Geography GS I Mains Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata are the three mega cities of the country but the air pollution is much more serious problem in Delhi as compared to the other two.
Why is this so? India is well endowed with fresh water resources. Critically examine why it still suffers from water scarcity. The states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand are reaching the limits of their ecological carrying capacity due to tourism.
Critically evaluate. How far do you agree that the behavior of the Indian monsoon has been changing due to humanizing landscapes?
What are the economic significances of discovery of oil in Arctic Sea and its possible environmental consequences? General Studies 3 Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment. How is it different from any other hydroelectricity project? What are the consequences of illegal mining? Enumerate the National Water Policy of India.
Taking river Ganges as an example, discuss the strategies which may be adopted for river water pollution control and management. What are the legal provisions for management and handling of hazardous wastes in India? Should the pursuit of carbon credit and clean development mechanism set up under UNFCCC be maintained even through there has been a massive slide in the value of carbon credit?
Drought has been recognized as a disaster in view of its party expense, temporal duration, slow onset and lasting effect on various vulnerable sections.
With a focus on the September guidelines from the National disaster management authority, discuss the mechanism for preparedness to deal with the El Nino and La Nina fallouts in India.