Biuletyn Instytutu Spawalnictwa, Poland; Journal of Japan Friction Welding Association, Japan; Jour show all. show all. hide Download PDF (64KB). Biuletyn Instytutu Spawalnictwa w Gliwicach . copper welds portal7.info article/jrc-nde/pa-pers/pdf;  Joshi V., Balasubramaniam K., Prakash . Tomasz Pfeifer (PhD (DSc) Eng.) – Instytut Spawalnictwa, Welding Technologies Department No. 5/ BIULETYN INSTYTUTU SPAWALNICTWA being.
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Home; Biuletyn Instytutu Spawalnictwa 5/ +A. Increase text. -a. Decrease text Download PDF: _ 18 pdf, KB. Home; Biuletyn Instytutu Spawalnictwa 2/ +A. Increase text. -a. Decrease text Download PDF: bulletin__ 22 pdf. The magazine “Biuletyn Instytutu Spawalnictwa” is addressed to Polish readers, research achievements and events of the Instytut Spawalnictwa in Gliwice.
A welding process is also accompanied by phenomena connected with changes in the shapes of electrode tips in the production cycle. Such changes electrode wear are mainly manifested by reduced electrode length and a change of electrode tip and are mainly caused by the welding of sheets provided with protective coatings [8, 9]. The most popular protective coatings are presented in Table 1. Other types of sheets applied in automotive production have multilayer coatings provided with an organic layer on the surface known as Corrosion Protection Primers CPP. The purpose of such a solution is to enable welding. An advantage of the protective coatings is enhanced corrosion resistance, particularly important in car cavities, on flanges of bottom parts of doors and overlap joints [9, 10] Fig.
Dulczewskij stated that satisfactory arc welding had been considered impossible due to the strong oxidation of copper and the fact that during melting of copper by an electric arc and with the free access of air hydrogen and other gases mixed with copper.
In order to protect the place of welding and the arc against the effect of air oxygen the author suggested using a layer of powder based Fig. Automatic welding machine according to US patent no. Metal melting takes place in an electric arc burning under the layer of powder in the reducing deoxidising atmosphere formed around the arc during burning of coal and other loose components Fig.
Works on providing the metallurgical shielding of the welding zone were conducted also in the USA. In Boris S. Robinoff, Sumner E. Paine and Wrignol E. Quillen obtained US patent no. In , working on automatic welding with a bare wire, General Electric used flux developed by W. Powdered components were wetted with water and, in the form of a paste, were applied on a product before welding .
In s a factory of automatically arc welded pipes using dry fluxes, i. In the title to patent no. Next, the company developed a method of automatic arc welding under a flux layer - U. Patent 2,,, authors L. Jones, H. Kennedy and M.
Rothermund; the patent was filed on and published on Fig. The years which followed saw quickly developing automatic submerged arc welding. The scale of the development can be demonstrated by the fact that in over 3 thousand automatic welding machines were used in American industry . Scheme of welding under a flux layer according to US patent no. US patent no. Chrenow developed ceramic flux for arc welding . The team of EWI researchers including W.
Frumin and W. Szirin developed AN-1 melting flux for welding carbon steels with a silicon-manganese wire [15, 16]. The flux contained a significant amount of silicon and manganese oxides, which was a pre-condition for reducing the porosity of joints in then-dominant unalloyed effervescing industrial steels. Paton s supervision, so-called high-speed automatic unshielded electrode welding under a flux layer was developed. The method of highspeed submerged arc welding was first used in the production of ton rail tankers, and from , among others, for mass-scale welding of tanks Fig.
The implementation of highspeed submerged arc welding decreased the labour consumption of welding the armoured body shell and turret of a T tank eight times if compared with previously used shielded metal arc welding . Submerged arc welded joints passed firing tests including firing a cannon at a tank, and high-quality full penetration welds were called Paton seams . Welding under a flux layer was carried out using automatic welding heads, whose principle of operation was the same as in automatic open arc welding a filler metal feeding rate depended on arc voltage.
The constant length of arc was maintained continuously by changing the filler metal feeding motor rotation rate, which was tightly related to arc voltage changes. A rise in arc voltage increased the rate, whereas decreasing arc voltage reduced the rate proportionally, restoring pre-defined arc voltage. Control systems were complicated [1, 17, 18]. Their simplification was possible due to the method of automatic arc welding under a flux layer patented by W.
This method was characterised by the constant filler metal feeding rate independent of welding arc voltage Fig. The principle of this method was described by W. Presently this phenomenon is referred to as welding arc self-regulation or the self-regulation of inter-electrode space energy state in disturbance effect conditions . The method enabled a simple filler metal feeder drive solution using an asynchronous motor. In this way it was possible to simplify the control system in relation to filler metal feeding control systems depending on arc voltage.
Lubawskij and N. The method was mainly used to make short curvilinear welds and welds in locations inaccessible for automatic welding due to the size of an automatic welding machine. However, the manual method did not become widespread and for many years has not been used due to difficulty with observing a welding process and low efficiency of semiautomatic welding machines caused by the significant weight of a welding torch with a flux container and a relatively small amount of flux in this container Fig.
USSR patent no for welding under a flux layer using the principle of welding process self-regulation page 1 of the description  In G. In this way electroslag welding was developed . The first special flux for electroslag welding, i.
AN-8 was developed by G. Frumin in In the following years, the electroslag welding method almost entirely eliminated submerged arc welding of thickwalled joints in a vertical position.
The next year saw the development of so-called semiautomatic submerged arc welding intended Fig. Semiautomatic submerged arc welding EWI archive photograph The next years brought significant transformations of submerged arc welding machines welding automatic machines, welding heads, power sources.
Also the range of welding No. Submerged arc welding was applied not only for making joints in steel but also in copper, aluminium, titanium and in their alloys. Beginnings of submerged arc welding in Poland The Polish industry started using submerged arc welding in early s, among others, in shipbuilding and fabrication of welded structures for civil engineering [20 22].
In automatic submerged arc welding machines , i. The first Polish semiautomatic welding machines, i. Next machines were used in the production of railway rolling stock, steel structure fabrication and boiler production .
Several dozen AS machines were produced, yet most of them were used sporadically due to the significant dimensions of the tractor and control cabinet, low stability, troublesome setting of the transverse arm and low mechanical resistance of the whole structure [17, 22]. Further works on automatic submerged arc welding machines were carried out by Instytut Spawalnictwa which designed a prototypical automatic submerged arc welding machine AS7d powered by an ETb transformer and featuring remote current control within the A range.
Accessory equipment included a CUa flux scraper and a CUb machine for rewinding electrode wire from coils onto reels . The research involved the development of wires for welding boiler sheets made of effervescing steels, formulas and technologies of producing melting fluxes for welding unalloyed structural steels, low-alloyed steels and acid-resistant steels, fluxes for high-current welding, pumice fluxes for higher speed submerged arc welding approx.
Initially, the major purchaser of the flux was Huta Ferrum Ferrum Steelworks. Workers dealing with flux production Fig. The works were concerned with automatic and semiautomatic welding by means of foreign and Polish machines using Polish electrode wires and Instytut s own fluxes. Materials Science Forum, Structural characterization of Nd: The use of vibratory stabilisation provides technical and economic advantages where high dimensional stability of welded structures is required.
Reduction of residual stress by ultrasonic vibration during welding. Welding in Vibration Conditions — Critical Approach. International Journal of Engineering Biuketyn and Technology, vol. Advanced Engineering Materials, vol. Improving welded valve quality by vibratory weld conditioning. Vibratory stabilisation spawalnictwx been used in production practice for a relatively long time now.
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Vibratory stabilization of welded constructions — experiments and conclusions. Microstructure improvement in weld metal using biulteyn vibrations. Welded structures, Sept. Characterization and mechanism of stainless steel vibration welding. However, varying views presented in the abovenamed publications do not unequivocally confirm the efficiency of welding on vibration conditions.
Influence of vibration frequency on solidification of weldments. The publications cited in the article inform about the effect of vibration on the distribution of welding stresses, strength-related properties and on the manner of weld formation.
The research revealed the lack of the effect of vibration on the distribution of welding stresses, hardness and toughness of welds.
Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 55 1, Modelling of laser beam heat source based on experimental research of Yb: Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance 23 9, Vibratory stress solidification and microstructure of weldments under vibratory welding condition — a review.