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Environmental science: toward a sustainable future / Richard T. Wright, Dorothy F. Boorse Wright, Richard Twelfth edition, Pearson new international edition. Environmental science: toward a sustainable future by Richard T Wright 2nd custom ed. for De Anza College Twelfth edition; New international edition. Previous editions. book cover. TestGen Test Bank (Download Only) for Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future, 12th Edition. Wright & Boorse.
B inadequately enforced environmental protection policies. C the lack of concern from the general public. D difficulties connecting environmental pollution to disease. Answer: B Diff: 2 LO: 1: Economics and the environment 2 Which of the following most accurately indicates the recent changes that have occurred in China? As the Chinese economy has grown, A industrial pollution and poverty have increased while literacy and public health have declined.
It is generally taught as a single subject science until sixth form, then splits into subject-specific A levels physics , chemistry and biology.
However, the government has since expressed its desire that those pupils who achieve well at the age of 14 should be offered the opportunity to study the three separate sciences from September In September a new science program of study known as 21st Century Science was introduced as a GCSE option in UK schools, designed to "give all 14 to 16 year old's a worthwhile and inspiring experience of science".
Other students who choose not to follow the compulsory additional science course, which results in them taking 4 papers resulting in 2 GCSEs, opposed to the 3 GCSEs given by taking separate science. This often leads teachers to rush to "cover" the material, without truly "teaching" it. In addition, the process of science, including such elements as the scientific method and critical thinking , is often overlooked.
This emphasis can produce students who pass standardized tests without having developed complex problem solving skills. Although at the college level American science education tends to be less regulated, it is actually more rigorous, with teachers and professors fitting more content into the same time period.
National Academy of Sciences of the U. National Academies produced the National Science Education Standards , which is available online for free in multiple forms. Its focus on inquiry-based science , based on the theory of constructivism rather than on direct instruction of facts and methods, remains controversial. Inquiry is central to science learning. When engaging in inquiry, students describe objects and events, ask questions, construct explanations, test those explanations against current scientific knowledge, and communicate their ideas to others.
They identify their assumptions, use critical and logical thinking, and consider alternative explanations. In this way, students actively develop their understanding of science by combining scientific knowledge with reasoning and thinking skills. In recent years, business leaders such as Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates have called for more emphasis on science education, saying the United States risks losing its economic edge.
In the National Academy of Sciences Committee on a Conceptual Framework for New K Science Education Standards developed a guiding framework to standardize K science education with the goal of organizing science education systematically across the K years. It emphasizes science educators to focus on a "limited number of disciplinary core ideas and crosscutting concepts, be designed so that students continually build on and revise their knowledge and abilities over multiple years, and support the integration of such knowledge and abilities with the practices needed to engage in scientific inquiry and engineering design.
The committee that designed this new framework sees this imperative as a matter of educational equity to the diverse set of schoolchildren. Getting more diverse students into STEM education is a matter of social justice as seen by the committee.
Developed by 26 state governments and national organizations of scientists and science teachers, the guidelines, called the Next Generation Science Standards , are intended to "combat widespread scientific ignorance, to standardize teaching among states, and to raise the number of high school graduates who choose scientific and technical majors in college An emphasis is teaching the scientific process so that students have a better understanding of the methods of science and can critically evaluate scientific evidence.
B renewable natural capital. C intangible capital. D produced capital. A stocks and bonds B laws and policies C organically grown mangoes D fisheries Answer: A Diff: 2 LO: 2: Resources in a sustainable economy 33 Teaching people to use forests in a sustainable way to produce lawn furniture represents A human capital affecting renewable resources, generating produced capital.
B social capital affecting nonrenewable resources, used in the creation of recycled capital. C recycling of nonrenewable resources to generate social capital.
D knowledge assets impacting nonrenewable resources in the generation of social capital. Answer: A Diff: 2 LO: 2: Resources in a sustainable economy 34 Unlike high-income countries, low-income countries rely most on their A human resources. B produced capital.
C natural capital. D intangible capital. Answer: C Diff: 1 LO: 2: Resources in a sustainable economy 35 The World Bank initially and measures of GDP did not include the economic value of A ecosystem services such as the breakdown of wastes, climate regulation, and oxygen production. B the regeneration of many natural resources by sustainable processes in which natural resources are renewed. C the migration of many animal species from one region to another, replenishing the harvest of these natural resources.
D increases in the prices paid for natural products such as fish, wood, and fossil fuels. Answer: A Diff: 3 LO: 2: Resources in a sustainable economy 36 According to World Bank studies, which of the following is an example of the dominant form of wealth for most countries?
A minerals and fossil fuels B fisheries, forests, and large supplies of water C machinery, vehicles, highways, and stock investments D the intangible wealth of education and educational systems Answer: D Diff: 2 LO: 2: Resources in a sustainable economy 37 What do the GDP and the World Bank both fail to include in their measures of wealth? A the importance of law and order in a society B the gradual deterioration of machinery used in industrial manufacturing C the income from the sales of goods abroad D natural services provided by ecosystems Answer: D Diff: 3 LO: 2: Resources in a sustainable economy 38 Which of the following is not included in the calculation of the GNP of a coal mine?
A the cost of fuel to run the mining equipment B the cost of health benefits for the workers C the gradual breakdown and need for replacement of the equipment D the depletion of coal from the mine Answer: D Diff: 2 LO: 2: Resources in a sustainable economy 39 Which one of the following reduces net GDP?
A a coal-fired power plant that pollutes the air B manufacture of products to clean polluted water C clear-cutting logging of acres of pine trees D degradation of farm equipment Answer: D Diff: 2 LO: 2: Resources in a sustainable economy 40 What would comprehensive environmental accounting add to the calculation of GDP? A the depreciation of natural capital and reductions in ecosystem services B the depreciation of human capital and the degeneration of social systems C the renewal of natural resources through natural processes D income generated from the sale of non-renewable natural resources Answer: A Diff: 2 LO: 2: Resources in a sustainable economy 41 The GDP and the GPI both include calculations of the A labor that goes into housework, parenting, and volunteer work.
B cost of pollution.
C cost of crime. D income from the sale of natural products. The GPI has remained fairly level because of A the failure to include the depreciation of natural capital and ecosystem services. B the decreasing environmental and social costs of economic activity. C the rising environmental and social costs of economic activity. D increasing education, better social programs, and overall reductions in crime.
Answer: C Diff: 1 LO: 2: Resources in a sustainable economy 44 Equity in the distribution of resources is promoted by growth in A sustainable harvesting of renewable natural resources.
B human resources and produced capital. C the harvesting of non-renewable and non-renewable natural capital. D transportation and navigation systems to move produced capital. Answer: B Diff: 1 LO: 2: Resources in a sustainable economy 45 The "rule of law index" is a measure of A the capacity of the prisons and jails in a country. B the penalties imposed for the violation of certain standard laws.
C justice and the structure of social systems in a society. D the number of financial institutions and industries, which experience crime.
Answer: C Diff: 2 LO: 2: Resources in a sustainable economy 46 Which of the following best illustrates an intergenerational consideration? A increasing health-care insurance for every citizen in a country B rationing gasoline in a time of short supply C reducing the harvest of blue fin tuna to sustainable levels D depleting a forest to produce firewood for use in heating and cooking Answer: C Diff: 3 LO: 2: Resources in a sustainable economy 47 Discount rates calculate the A future value of an asset.
B aesthetic value of natural assets.
C current value of a future benefit or cost. D intrinsic value of renewable resources. Answer: C Diff: 1 LO: 2: Resources in a sustainable economy 48 Environmental public policy is intended to A promote the harvesting of natural resources. B improve human welfare and protect the natural world. C ensure access to natural resources for industry.
D measure the impact of industrial wastes on the environment. Answer: B Diff: 1 LO: 3: Environmental public policy 49 Millions of human lives could be saved if we developed environmental policies that A control outbreaks of autoimmune diseases. B prevent the degradation of the environment and encouraged sustainable use. C provide food and shelter for the developing nations of the world. D promote the construction of dams and power plants in the least developed parts of the world.
Answer: B Diff: 2 LO: 3: Environmental public policy 50 Sustainable development and the protection of public health require A the generation of electricity from fossil fuels. B governments to recognize personal liberties as the highest priority. C the independence of private landowners to develop individual policies. D public policies that protect the environment. Answer: D Diff: 2 LO: 3: Environmental public policy 51 Which part of the government is responsible for passing public-policy laws?
A The EPA passes laws that control environmental regulations. D The EPA funds ecological studies that inform the executive branch about what environmental laws are needed.
Answer: B Diff: 2 LO: 3: Environmental public policy 53 Environmental government policies and regulations are applied at the A federal level only.
B state and federal levels. C local, state, and federal levels. D local level only. Answer: C Diff: 1 LO: 3: Environmental public policy 54 Which of the following represents a market approach to environmental policy? A passing laws that limit the amount of mercury that can be released by a coal-fired power plant B regulations that require storm water and sewage to be separated in municipal water treatment plants C using a cap-and-trade system to control the levels of carbon dioxide released into the air D limiting the amount of national forests available for timber harvesting Answer: C Diff: 2 LO: 3: Environmental public policy 55 Command and control approaches to environmental public policy A increase the likelihood of continued low levels of pollution, not the elimination of pollution.
B are not as good market-based policies for most environmental problems.
C are simpler than market based policies. D use GPI economic principles to determine the nature of the response. In the years that followed, new laws and regulations were adopted that banned the use of DDT in in the United States. At this point, the issue has reached the A control stage because of a command and control strategy. B control stage because of a market based strategy. C implementation stage because of a command and control strategy.
D implementation stage because of a market based strategy. Answer: A Diff: 3 LO: 3: Environmental public policy 59 In many countries, the policy life cycle will be in A a different stage for different problems, which is unrelated to the stage of economic development of a country. B the same stage for different problems, which is unrelated to the stage of economic development of a country.
C a different stage for different problems, which is related to the stage of economic development of a country. D the same stage for different problems, which is related to the stage of economic development of a country. Answer: C Diff: 2 LO: 3: Environmental public policy 60 In general, careful and detailed economic studies indicate that environmental protection helps the environment A but hurts the economy and is bad for jobs.
B and produces more jobs but hurts the economy. C and helps the economy but costs the loss of jobs. D and does not hurt the economy or cost a net loss of jobs. B are always expensive, costing consumers and industry more money.
C rarely have a monetary cost associated with them. D are paid for by tax dollars, only indirectly costing citizens for their implementation. B more than the cost of national defense in the United States. C about the same cost as the combined amounts spent on health care and defense in the United States. D less than either the cost of defense or health care in the United States.
B transfers wealth from polluters to pollution controllers and to less polluting companies. D difficulties connecting environmental pollution to disease. Answer: B Diff: 2 LO: 1: Economics and the environment 2 Which of the following most accurately indicates the recent changes that have occurred in China? As the Chinese economy has grown, A industrial pollution and poverty have increased while literacy and public health have declined.
B the use of coal and electricity have increased while social mobility and literacy have declined.
C literacy and public health have improved while industrial pollution and poverty have declined. D industrial pollution and literacy have increased while poverty and public health have declined. Answer: D Diff: 2 LO: 1: Economics and the environment 3 In response to environmental problems, the Chinese government has A increasingly relied upon local, non-governmental groups to monitor and respond.
B simply agreed that these are the costs associated with economic prosperity. C insisted on centralized government control and removed power from local governments. D refused to recognize any long-term problems associated with air and water pollution. A A miner pans for gold in the mountains of California. B An artist sells her paintings in an art gallery. C Studying the sky, a child looks for faces in the clouds.
D A waitress carefully wipes down tables before heading home from a long day. Answer: C Diff: 3 LO: 1: Economics and the environment 5 We would expect that in a community with mounting air and water pollution problems, the A economy of the region would decline. B unemployment rates would drop. C health care would become less important. D population would increase. B cleaner air and safer water.
C increased risks of respiratory disease. D increased frequency of water-borne diseases. Answer: B Diff: 2 LO: 1: Economics and the environment 7 In general, problems caused by economic activities are A characteristic of small populations.
B usually temporary. C addressed by laws and public policies. D not environmental problems. Answer: C Diff: 1 LO: 1: Economics and the environment 8 In the classical view of economic activity, households A are paid for goods and services. B pay for most of the labor. C consume goods and services. D provide most of the products. Answer: C Diff: 1 LO: 1: Economics and the environment 9 In the classical view of economic activity in this figure, if the number of households in a region increases, A total household consumption will decrease.
B the demands for labor will increase. C goods and services will decline.
D the total cost of labor will decline. Answer: B Diff: 2 LO: 1: Economics and the environment 10 In the classical view of economic activity in this figure, we expect businesses to prosper when A labor costs are low and household incomes rise. B demand for goods and services decline. C labor is in short supply and consumption is declining. D the value of land and resources increase. Answer: A Diff: 2 LO: 1: Economics and the environment 11 The recent rise of the Chinese economy is associated with A the adoption of rigid centralized planning.
B the elimination of economic systems. C the adoption of economic policies widespread in the former Soviet Union.
D a switch to free-market policies. Answer: D Diff: 1 LO: 1: Economics and the environment 12 In general, centrally planned economies are run to promote the A interests of society, while free-market economies depend on the self-interests of individuals.
B prosperity of all countries, while free-market economies promote the particular interests of a society. C self-interests of individuals, while free-market economies promote the interests of governments. D health of the environment, while free-market economies sacrifice sustainability. Answer: A Diff: 2 LO: 1: Economics and the environment 13 Centrally planned and free-market economies both A function best without government regulations.
B rely upon the self-interests of individuals. C represent ideals not found in pure form in any country. D depend upon free access to the market. Answer: C Diff: 1 LO: 1: Economics and the environment 14 In a free-market society, A the needs of the poor are best met by the interests of business.
B the interests of the poor, labor and business are the same. C governments ensure the free flow of goods and services in international trade.
D the needs of the poor are often not met by business interests but by government programs. B guards human rights and the environmental resources of the world. C is widely recognized as the leader of global trade regulation. D has steadily lost the power to regulate international trade. Answer: D Diff: 2 LO: 1: Economics and the environment 16 The best hope for the future global economy and environmental policy depends upon A sustainability.
B economic growth. C consumption. D productivity. Answer: A Diff: 2 LO: 1: Economics and the environment 17 Sustainable economic and environmental policies will shift the focus from A sustainability to productivity.
B growth to the well-being of humans. C productivity to growth. D productivity to profits. Answer: B Diff: 1 LO: 1: Economics and the environment 18 If current energy consumption trends continue and the per capita income of the world increased dramatically, we would expect that A global climate change will be a greater problem. B literacy levels to decease.
C respiratory diseases in cities will increase. D land and labor will no longer be economic factors. Answer: A Diff: 2 LO: 1: Economics and the environment 19 In comparing green to brown economies, A green economies will embrace technologies that reduce pollutants and increase efficiency. B brown economies will favor sustainable systems and reverse damage to ecosystem services. C both will continue with the race to develop more and more fossil fuel resources. D green economies will stress rapid growth, while brown economies will stress human wellbeing.
B converting the economies of developed nation from green to brown. C farm subsidies and trade barriers. D how to control public protests at future WTO meetings. Answer: C Diff: 2 LO: 1: Economics and the environment 21 The classical economic paradigm and the new ecological economic paradigm differ in the way that A each views the land, either as a resource within the human economy classical or as something that encompasses the economy ecological.
B the value of capital is assessed, either in dollars classical or as resources that can be mined from the Earth ecological.
C labor is determined, either as the number of people who are unemployed not counting farmers classical or the number of people who are unemployed counting farmers ecological. D labor and capital are assessed, either counting the total labor and capital resources available classical or that which is in use in operations ecological.
Answer: A Diff: 3 LO: 2: Resources in a sustainable economy 22 The ecological economic paradigm argues that the environment encompasses the economy because the environment is essential to provide A the energy necessary to run our homes and factories.
B solar energy needed for plants and to light our environment during the day. C transportation along highways, railways, rivers, and oceans. D vital raw materials and ecosystem services and absorb wastes. Answer: D Diff: 2 LO: 2: Resources in a sustainable economy 23 The ecological economic paradigm places the greatest emphasis on the A amount and quality of capital available to industry.
B abundance of well-trained, well-educated labor that is available.