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Fenomenul Pitesti Humanitas ; "Fenomenul Pitesti" apartine aceluiasi registru, la care vine insa cu o trasatura specifica Virgil Ierunca povesteste una dintre cele mai cumplite experiente de Humanitas - Anticariat Librarie Cartile. Portrait of the Torturer in the 20th Century At Christmas time or at Symbolically devouring El Cid Editor. Marian Victor Buciu, Craiova, strada Dumitru Hochschulschriften: Vergleichende Literaturwissenschaften, Editor Lang, , p.
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Fenomenul Pitesti - Virgil Ierunca - cartea. The thickness of these plates depends on channel diameter but is usually 9 to 16 mm for carbon and low alloy steels and 6 to 13 mm for the more expensive alloys. Except for special high pressure heads, the partition plates are always welded to the channel barrel and also to the adjacent tubesheet or cover if either of these components is in turn welded to the channel.
If the tubesheet or cover is not welded to the channel, the tubesheet or cover is grooved and the edge of the partition plate sealed by a gasket embedded in the grooves. Shell baffles. Shell cross baffles have the dual purpose of supporting the tubes at intervals to prevent sag and vibration, and also of forcing the shell side fluid back and forth across the bundle, from one end of the exchanger to the other.
Segmentally single cut baffles are the most common, however, thermal or pressure drop may dictate baffles of more complicated shape. Split backing ring and pull through floating head exchangers have a special support type baffle adjacent to the floating head to take the weight of the floating head assembly.
TEMA specifies the minimum baffle thickness, the maximum unsupported tube length, the clearances between tubes and holes in the baffles and between shell inside diameter and baffle outside diameter. Two shell pass exchangers see Figure 2 shell types F, G or H require a longitudinal baffle, which for F type exchangers is welded to the stationary tubesheet. Leakage of the shell side fluid between the shell and the longitudinal baffle edges must be minimized.
When removable bundles are used, this leakage gap is sealed by flexible strips or packing devices. Figure 3 shows a typical flexible strip. Tie rods. Tie rods and spacers are used to hold the tube bundle together and to locate the shell baffles in the correct position. Tie rods are circular metal rods screwed into the stationary tubesheet and secured at the farthest baffle by lock nuts. The number of tie rods depends on shell diameter and is specified, by TEMA.
The following components perform a function mainly related to pressure and fluid containment.
Their design is carried out in accordance with the relevant pressure vessel code, see Pressure Vessels. Shell barrel and channel barrel. TEMA specifies minimum barrel thicknesses depending on diameter, material and class.
Most barrels larger than mm internal diameter are fabricated from rolled and welded plate. The shell barrel must be straight and true as a tightly fitting tube bundle must be inserted and particular care has to be taken in fabrication.
Dished heads and flat heads. Small diameter, low pressure dished heads are sometimes cast but most dished heads are fabricated from plate and are of semi-ellipsoidal, torispherical or hemispherical shape. The minimum thickness of dished heads is the same as for adjacent barrels.
Tube cleaning with a welded channel bonnet TEMA front end B would require the breaking and remaking of the channel nozzle flanges to enable the channel to be removed. Most nozzles are sized to match the adjacent schedule piping. The openings in the barrels require reinforcement in accordance with the relevant pressure vessel code which in turn will limit the maximum size of nozzle opening.
Figure 4 shows a typical nozzle in moderate service, with reinforcement provided by a reinforcement plate and with a weld neck nozzle flange.
Three types of flanges are found in shell and tube exchangers, namely, Girth flanges for the shell and channel barrels; internal flanges in the floating head exchanger to allow disassembly of the internals and removal of the tube bundle; and nozzle flanges where the flange and gasket standards, the size and pressure rating will be set by the line specification.
Figure 5 shows three types of flanges. The weld neck flange type, which has a tapered hub with a smooth stress transition and accessibility for full nondestructive examination, provides the highest integrity of the three types.
A flange consists of three subcomponents: the flange ring, the gasket and the bolting. The successful operation of the flange depends on the correct choice, design and assembly of these subcomponents. The Heat Exchange Design Handbook contains two chapters discussing these factors. Tubesheets less than mm thick are generally made from plate material. Thicker tubesheets, or for high integrity service, are made from forged discs.
Clad plate is commonly used where high alloy material is required for process reasons. A clad tubesheet consists of a carbon or low alloy backing plate of sufficient thickness to satisfy the pressure vessel design code, with a layer of the higher alloy material bonded onto it by welding or by explosion cladding.
It also specifies tolerances for tube hole diameter, ligament width and for drill drift. Different methods are available for the attachment of the tube end to the tubesheet.