Wounded by Achilles. – Saved by Poseidon. – “for it is ordained for him to escape , that the race of Dardanus will not perish —and now truly will the mighty. myth according to which the Athenian king's daughter was playing on the banks of . heroes as “myths,” whereas the Greeks and Romans had no emic terms for. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, in 3 vols. .. Roman Biography and Mythology," which are already completed, and the " Dic-.
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forex fundamental news release: This is one experience I will never forget. I traded a perfect Forex: The Ultimate Gui Greek and Roman Mythology, A to Z. The want of an interesting work on Greek and Roman mythology, suitable for the requirements of both boys and girls, has long been. Early Roman Gods and Goddesses. • Some Early Roman Gods or “Numen”. – Bellona Goddess of War. – Cardea similar to Artemis, had power over doorways.
Lucina Elsewhere, Varro claims Sol Indiges , who had a sacred grove at Lavinium , as Sabine but at the same time equates him with Apollo. Saturn, for instance, can be said to have another origin here, and so too Diana. Some groups, such as the Camenae and Parcae , were thought of as a limited number of individual deities, even though the number of these might not be given consistently in all periods and all texts. The following groups, however, are numberless collectives. Varro grouped the gods broadly into three divisions of heaven, earth, and underworld: di superi, the gods above or heavenly gods, whose altars were designated as altaria.
After wedding Endeis, a princess of Megara, Aeacus fathered Telamon and Peleus, and was 13 therefore the grandfather of their famous sons, Ajax and Achilles, respectively.
Aeacus became known for his honesty and piety. According to legend, his prayers ended a severe drought, and he aided the gods Apollo and Poseidon in erecting the walls of Troy. Second, after Aeacus died, Zeus made him one of the three judges of the Underworld along with Minos and Rhadamanthys.
Aedon The daughter of Pandareos, king of Miletus on the southwestern coast of Asia Minor , and the wife of Zethus, the son of Zeus and a ruler of Thebes. Aedon was so grief-stricken that Zeus changed her into a nightingale so that she would no longer feel human pain. Aeetes A noted king of Colchis, a land on the southeastern rim of the Black Sea, and the father 14 of the famous sorceress Medea. When a Greek named Phryxus arrived in Colchis riding a fabulous talking ram with a golden fleece, Aeetes welcomed him and allowed him to marry his daughter Chalciope.
Aeetes tried but failed to prevent Jason from taking the fleece. Later still, Medea, having returned to Colchis from Greece, restored her father to the throne, and he presumably died of old age. After the Delphic Oracle foretold the coming of a great Athenian hero, Aegeus visited Pittheus, king of the neighboring state of Troezen.
Hearing of the prediction, Pittheus endeavored to ensure a link between his own family and the prophesied hero. He summoned his daughter, Aethra, got Aegeus drunk, and arranged for the girl to sleep with the intoxicated man.
Meanwhile, Aegeus returned to Athens and married the sorceress Medea, whom he had given sanctuary after she had fled from Corinth. She bore Aegeus a son named Medus. Thereafter, the sea was called the Aegean in his honor. Aegimius As king of the city of Doris north of Delphi , Aegimius enlisted the aid of the legendary strongman Heracles to expel the Lapiths, a Greek tribe from Thessaly, who had overrun his land.
As a reward, Heracles asked that Aegimius allow his descendants, the Heracleidae, to permanently settle there. Among these descendants were several kings of Doris, who later became known as the Dorians. The classical Greeks had a tradition that a Greek-speaking people from northern Greece—the Dorians—had invaded and settled in southern Greece two generations after the Trojan War.
Modern scholars now believe that the Dorians did not invade but rather migrated into the area after a series of upheavals that had destroyed the Mycenaean kingdoms that had controlled the Greek mainland for several centuries. See Dorians; Heracles; Lapiths. Aegisthus The son of Thyestes, who was the brother of the Mycenaen king Atreus.
Thyestes then raped his own daughter, Pelopia, who later gave birth to Aegisthus. Pelopia left the child outside to die, but some shepherds found him, and later Atreus heard of his existence and brought him up in Mycenae. The king tried to get Aegisthus to kill Thyestes. The two then conspired to kill Atreus, and Aegisthus carried out the deed. However, though Atreus was dead, the curse on his house was still in effect and it now proceeded to affect others, including Aegisthus.
Aeneas A legendary prince of the city of Troy, Roman tradition viewed him as the founder of the Roman race. There, he met and married the daughter of a local king, and from their union sprang the lineage that later led to Romulus, founder of the city of Rome.
One of the three sons of Hellen, founder of the Greek race. According to legend, Aeolus received the lordship of Thessaly from his father and there gave his name to the Aeolian branch of Greeks some of whom later migrated to the northern coastal region of Asia Minor.
Agamemnon A king of Mycenae, the brother of Menelaus king of Sparta , and the overall commander of the Greek expedition to Troy. Earlier, Agamemnon had sacrificed his own daughter, Iphigenia, to appease the goddess Artemis and thereby obtain favorable winds for the journey to Troy. In retaliation for this pitiless act, his wife, Clytemnestra, and her lover murdered Agamemnon when he returned from Troy. Agapenor Aeolus 1. A mortal who became a favorite of the god Zeus, who rewarded the young man with control of the winds.
Aeolus became king of the floating island of Aeolia, where he kept the winds in a cave and released them as he pleased or as the gods instructed. He is most famous for giving the Greek wanderer Odysseus a leather bag containing powerful winds intended to blow his ships home.
Aeolus was also said to have invented the sail. In that famous conflict, he led the Arcadian portion of the Greek army that besieged Troy. Agamemnon, supreme leader of the expedition, lent Agapenor sixty ships; but these were lost in a storm off the coast of Cyprus.
Agapenor remained on that large eastern Mediterranean island, where he established the city of Paphos. Ajax or Aias 1. Ajax was said to be a huge man with enormous strength and courage. The other Greek leaders voted to give the armor to Odysseus king of Ithaca , which drove Ajax to plan violent revenge on his colleagues.
The goddess Athena intervened, however, making Ajax temporarily insane, so that he slaughtered a flock of sheep instead. When he came to his senses, he was so ashamed that he committed suicide by falling on his sword. The smaller Ajax hailed from Locris in central Greece and led the troops from that region at Troy.
He was said to be the fastest runner in the Greek army. Alcestis Daughter of Pelias, king of Iolcos. Alcestis offered to die in place of her husband, Admetus, but she managed to return to the world of the living. Two ancient versions of how this came about existed, the first claiming that Persephone, queen of the Underworld, sent Alcestis back to reward her uncommon devotion to her husband.
In the second version, told by the playwright Euripides in his play Alcestis, the famous strongman Heracles went to her tomb and wrestled Thanatos the god of death for her. Victorious, Heracles returned her to Admetus. It was to Alcinous and the members of his court that the Greek hero told the tale of his recent wanderings; and Alcinous gave Odysseus a ship with which to reach his homeland of Ithaca.
See The Wanderings of Odysseus Chapter 6. Alcmaeon The leader of the expedition launched against the city of Thebes by the Epigoni, the sons of the so-called Seven Against Thebes. But the Furies or madness drove Alcmaeon to move on. He finally found purification of his sins on an island in the Achelous River in western Greece , where the river god gave Alcmaeon his daughter in marriage.
Soon afterward, however, the sons of Phegeus caught up with Alcmaeon and killed him. Alcmena or Alcmene The wife of Amphitryon, king of Tiryns in the northeastern Peloponnesus , and the mother of the legendary strongman Heracles.
Zeus wanted to sire a heroic mortal to aid the gods in the coming fight with the giants. Later that night, Amphitryon himself slept with her, too. See Amphitryon. Image not available for copyright reasons. Alcyone The wife of Ceyx, king of Trachis in eastern-central Greece. The two were said to be very happy and carefree until Ceyx accidentally drowned in the sea. Out of pity, the gods transformed the former lovers into birds—specifically, kingfishers. And so that they could nest in peace, Aeolus, lord of the winds, sent two weeks of calm weather each winter.
sites A legendary race or nation of warrior women. The location of their homeland varied from one myth to another, but most often cited were the then-wild and littleknown steppes lying west and north of the Black Sea.
The sites get their name from their supposed custom of cutting off one breast to allow for more effective use of bows, spears, and other weapons. But some who argue probably mistakenly that Greek society was originally matriarchal suggest that the site myths are distorted, oversimplified memories of a time when women were indeed in charge.
The warrior women claimed descent from the war god, Ares, whom they worshiped, along with the goddess of hunting, Artemis. Greek mythology contains numerous myths featuring fighting between these women and Greek men, a type of warfare 18 the Greeks called siteomachy.
For example, in one story the Athenian hero Theseus invaded part of the site homeland along the Black Sea coast and captured their queen, Hippolyte or, in another version, her sister. To rescue her, the sites launched a counterstrike, landing an army at Marathon, northeast of Athens, and threatening the city. The warrior women besieged the Acropolis, but Theseus and his troops defeated them. The Greek hero Achilles killed her in battle, but he subsequently fell in love with her corpse.
Such episodes of siteomachy became a common theme depicted in classical Greek literature, sculpture, and painting. Some of the sculptures carved into the Parthenon the temple of the goddess Athena erected atop the Athenian Acropolis during the s B.
The classical Greeks were convinced that the sites had been real. The fifthcentury B. He later recorded what the siteian leaders supposedly told a group of Scythian men who wanted to intermarry with them: We and the women of your nation could never live together; our ways are too much at variance.
We could not possibly agree [to live like that]. Histories 4. Greek women, like the Scythian women Herodotus wrote about, traditionally stayed home, reared children, and left the tasks of governing and fighting exclusively to their menfolk.
By utilizing a total and unflattering gender reversal—namely the savage and unfeminine sites— Greek men might show their wives and daughters how improper it was for women to act like men. In recent years, however, this explanation of the siteian tales has steadily given way to the distinct possibility that such warrior women may actually have once roamed the Russian steppes.
In the s archaeologists excavating burial mounds of the ancient nomadic inhabitants of the steppes began finding female grave sites containing armor, swords, spears, and arrowheads. An American-Russian excavation team discovered more such sites in the mids, including seven graves containing iron swords, bronze arrowheads, and whetstones for sharpening weapons. Nomadic tribes like these, in which women played decisive political and military roles undoubtedly alongside their menfolk , may well have given rise to the legends of the race the Greeks called the sites.
They had two sons— Alcmaeon and Amphilochus. Amphiaraus was able to foresee that the expedition of the Seven Against Thebes would fail, so he refused to go. But his wife coerced him, much to his regret and anger.
So later, he asked his sons to avenge him by punishing her. When she was pregnant, she traveled to Sicyon and married its king.
But her father and her uncle pursued her. Her father died, but her uncle, Lycus, killed her husband. After she gave birth to the twins, Lycus left them outside to die. However, some kindly shepherds found and reared them. Afterward, Amphion and Zethus ruled Thebes jointly and erected high walls to protect the city, along with its famous seven gates.
Later, Amphion came to a tragic end after the gods killed his wife, Niobe, and their children. As for Zethus, he, too, died tragically of grief after the death of his young son. See Niobe. In an attempt to expedite matters, Amphitryon recovered the cattle; but when he returned with them, he accidentally killed Electryon. Unfairly branded as a murderer, Amphitryon fled Mycenae, along with Alcmena, and took refuge in Thebes.
However, Alcmena would not consummate the marriage until Amphitryon agreed to avenge her brothers. With the aid of the Theban king, Creon, Amphitryon traveled to the islands where the raiders lived and killed their leader.
On returning to Thebes, Amphitryon discovered to his surprise that his wife had been seduced and impregnated by the god Zeus. The child of this union turned out to be the great hero Heracles. Amphitryon died in battle many years later. See Alcmena. Amulius stole the throne from his brother. He also ordered that when the babies were born they should be drowned in the Tiber River.
The servants entrusted with this gruesome task did not fulfill it, however, and left the infants, Romulus and Remus, on the riverbank. Some shepherds subsequently raised them, and they ended up meeting their grandfather, Numitor, and learning their true identities. They then slew Amulius and restored Numitor to the throne.
Amphitryon The son of Alcaeus, king of Tiryns, and the grandson of the renowned hero Perseus. Amphitryon wanted to marry his cousin, Alcmena, daughter of his uncle, Electryon, king of Mycenae. As a handsome young man, Anchises was herding sheep on Mt. Ida when the goddess Aphrodite came to him disguised as a mortal woman. Zeus had caused her to fall in love with the young man, and 20 she soon bore Anchises a son—Aeneas.
Anchises subsequently boasted to some friends about his relationship with the goddess, for which Zeus punished him by making him lame. When Troy fell to the Greeks, Aeneas bore Anchises on his back out of the burning city.
The old man then accompanied his son on the great voyage to find a new home far to the west. During a rest stop on the island of Sicily, Anchises died of old age.
But he reappeared to his son later in the Underworld, where he showed Aeneas the marvelous future of Rome and its great leaders. Andromache Daughter of a king of Eetion, a city in the southern Troad the region of northwestern Asia Minor. Andromache married the Trojan hero Hector. She later bore Neoptolemus three sons; when Neoptolemus died, she married the Trojan prophet Helenus, to whom Neoptolemus had granted a small kingdom in northwestern Greece.
Andromache bore Helenus one son, after which Helenus, too, died. Finally, one of her sons took her back to Asia Minor, where she established the city of Pergamum. Andromeda The daughter of Cepheus, king of Joppa often referred to as Ethiopia, but located in Palestine , and his wife, Cassiopeia. When the nymphs complained to their lord, sea god Poseidon, he sent punishment in the form of a monster that devastated the countryside around Joppa.
An oracle claimed that the only way to drive off the creature was to feed it Andromeda. But when she was chained to a rock awaiting her grisly fate, the hero Perseus happened by, carrying the head of the Gorgon Medusa, whom he had just slain.
Many years later, so the story goes, the goddess Athena transformed Andromeda, Perseus, Cepheus, Cassiopeia, and the monster into constellations in the heavens, where they remain to this day.
See Perseus and Medusa Chapter 6. For this, Menelaus and his colleague Odysseus spared Antenor and his family during the sacking of Troy. Later, according to one story, Antenor traveled to Italy and established the city of Patavium modern Padua ; in another tale, he traveled to North Africa with Menelaus and settled there in the Greek city of Cyrene. Antigone One of the daughters of Oedipus, king of Thebes. Antigone followed her disgraced father into exile after his own sons, Polynices and Eteocles, seized the throne and drove him away.
Defying this edict, Antigone buried her brother. For this, Creon condemned her to death, but he later changed his mind, only to arrive too late to save her. Antilochus The son of Nestor, king of Pylos in the southern Peloponnesus , and one of the Greek champions who fought at Troy.
Antilochus, who was a close friend of Achilles, took on the sad duty of informing Achilles of the death of another close friend, Patroclus who had been slain by the Trojan prince Hector. During the funeral games for Patroclus, Antilochus cheated in the chariot race, gaining second place over Menelaus, king of Sparta; but he soon apologized and awarded the prize to Menelaus. Later, when a Trojan ally, the Ethiopian Memnon, attacked Nestor, Antilochus intervened but died during the effort.
When Odysseus unexpectedly returned from his long wanderings following the close of the Trojan War and confronted the suitors, Antinous was the first to die. Arachne was also vain and unscrupulous and challenged the goddess Athena, patron of weaving, to a contest. Athena accepted the challenge and wove a tapestry depicting presumptuous humans like Arachne ; meanwhile, Arachne chose as her own subject the scandalous affairs of several gods.
Argonauts The collective name of the band of young men who followed Jason in his famous quest for the Golden Fleece.
The Life of Romulus : Plutarch was a Roman biographer. He's also the man responsible for one of the most detailed accounts of the stories surrounding Romulus.
This chart details the names and roles of the gods in both cultures. Norse Mythology The Norse Creation Myth : Unlike Greek and Roman creation myths, which tend to focus on Earth, the Norse creation myth addresses several different worlds and how the domain of mankind grew from them.
This helpful chart shows the relationships between the different deities and creatures of Norse mythology. Learn about some of the lesser-known gods, like Andvari the dwarf, with this compendium. However, that's not the only interesting quality of the lore. The Aesir and Vanir : In Norse mythology, there are several different groups of gods.
The Aesir were the gods of war, and the Vanir were gods of fertility. Egyptian Mythology The Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt : From Tawaret, who protected women during pregnancy, to Ptah, the god of craftsmen, there were gods and goddesses to watch over every aspect of life. After the creation of the world and the establishment of the underworld, Horus became the first king of Egypt. Egyptian Mythology, Creation, and Iconography : Many of the Egyptian gods had animal characteristics, such as the head or limbs of a certain creature.
Deities of the Afterlife : Osiris was the main god of the dead, but he wasn't the only deity to be found in the underworld. Anubis, who had the head of a jackal, was the god of embalming and burial. This page goes over some myths from tribes of the Pacific Northwest. Walks All Over the Sky : This story from the Tsimshian Tribe of the Pacific Northwest explains how the sun and moon came to be as a result of a feud between two brothers.
Greek gods are given a beautiful, perfect physical appearance while Roman gods are not given physical form and represented only in the imagination of the people. Greek gods are mainly based on human personality traits likes love, hate, honor and dignity, and myths related to them are shaped by these traits.
Roman gods are based on objects or actions rather than personality traits. The actions of gods and mortals in Greek myths are more individualistic, the deeds of an individual are more influential than that of the group.
Roman mythology is much less individualistic. In Greek mythology, the afterlife does not hold much importance. In fact, gods and mortals are regularly snatched from the afterlife and brought in to the present showing no concern for the afterlife.
The Greek perspective is much more concerned with the physical life on earth as opposed to the afterlife. Mortals are remembered and rewarded for their good J. Samonte johnsamonte gmail. In contradiction, the Romans did good deeds to secure their place in heaven.