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Clinical Microbiology Made Ridiculously Simple aims at providing general principles of microbiology and is not intended of Infectious Diseases; 6th edition. Clinical Microbiology Made Ridiculously Simple 6th Edition () - dokument [*. pdf] CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY Mark Gladwin, MD William. simple 6th edition pdf book details book name clinical microbiology made ridiculously simple edition 6th edition category medical clinical microbiology made.
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Published on Jul 19, A brief, clear, thorough, and highly enjoyable approach to clinical microbiology, brimming with mnemonics, humor, summary charts and illustrations, from Ebola to AIDS to flesh-eating bacteria to mad cow disease, hantavirus, anthrax, smallpox, botulism, etc.
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An annual anal Embed Size px. John Beigel, MD Hans Henrik Larsen, M.
Earnest Alexander, Pharm. This chapter focuses on the Gram stain, bacterial morphology, and metabolic characteristics, all of which enable the clinician to rapidly determine the organism causing a patient's infection. The most useful is the Gram stain, which separates organisms into 2 groups: This stain also allows the clinician to determine whether the organism is round or rod-shaped. For any stain you must first smear the substance to be stained sputum, pus, etc. There are 4 steps to the Gram stain: Wait 60 seconds.
Wait 30 seconds and wash off with water.
When the slide is studied microscopically, cells that absorb the crystal violet and hold onto it will appear blue. These are called gram-positive organisms. These are called gram-negative organisms.
The different stains are the result ofdifferences in the cell walls of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The layer just outside the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane is the peptidoglycan layer or cell wall.
It is present in both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. The peptidoglycan layer or cell wall is composed ofrepeating disaccharides with 4 amino acids in a side chain extending from each disaccharide. The amino-acid chains of the peptidoglycan covalently bind to other amino acids from neighboring chains.
This results in a stable cross-linked structure.
The enzyme that catalyzes the formation of this linkage is called transpeptidase and is located in the inner cytoplasmic membrane. The antibiotic penicillin binds to and inhibits this enzyme.
For this reason the enzyme is also called penicillin binding protein see page The gram-positive cell wall is very thick and has extensive cross-linking of the amino-acid side chains. In contrast, the gram-negative cell wall is very thin with a fairly simple cross-linking pattern. The gram-positive cell envelope has an outer cell wall composed of complex cross-linked peptidoglycan, teichoic acid, polysaccharides, and other proteins. The inner surface of the cell wall touches the cytoplasmic membrane.
The bacterial cytoplasmic membrane unlike that of animals has no cholesterol or other sterols. The gram-negative cell envelope has 3 layers, not including the periplasmic space.
Like gram-positive bacteria, it has 1 a cytoplasmic membrane surrounded by 2 a peptidoglycan layer. Gram-negative bacteria have a periplasmic space between the cytoplasmic membrane and an extremely thin peptidoglycan layer.